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69 MODEMS TESTED: 9600 bps AND FASTER 




JULY iy93 



PageMaker 5.0 vs. 
QuarkXPress 3.1 



In-depth: Lotus Notes 3.0 

Cheap and Reliable Data 
Acquisition Page 69 



THE WORLDWIDE COMPUTING AUTHORITY 

PENTIUM PCs 

It might say Pentium on the outside, but what else 
is on the inside of the first systems? 




■ =i.'v>jiii--m^ 

MS-DOS 6 Developers Explain DoubleSpace and MemMaker 



ADVANCED NETWORKING 



How PC Clusters Supercharge Workgroups 



07 



440235 

$3.50 U.S.A./$4.50 IN CANADA 
A McGraw-Hill Publication/0360-5280 



II II II 



i I If 1 i 




Joth The Gateway Herd For 486 1 



Need a reason to celebrate? We're making 
this tlie best summer ever to buy a Gateway 
PC! During our 486 Fest, you'll find better- 
than-ever buys on all the fabulous systems in 
our product line. You'll think you died and 
went to hog heaven! Buy some fiesta goodies, 
invite a few party animals over and 
call us. We'll give you lots of 
reasons to party! 




Party Reason — Gateway 's Pentium Technolog}' Guarantee! 

If you've been worried about keeping up with technology now that 
Intel's® Pentium™processor has been announced, relax! Ask about our 
Pentium Technology Guarantee. It's a Gateway-exclusive 
offer that allows you to keep up with technology and save big 
bucks — guaranteed! 

Party Reason — Choosing a 486 shows you 're a smart buyer! 

A less astute buyer might go for a 386 or Pentium system, but you 
know where the real value is. Gateway 2000's desktop and Nomad 
PCs are now all 486 systems for good reason. With our great 
prices on 486 technology, 386 systems are no longer a smart buy. 
And first-generation Pentium systems are not a good value. 
Even if you were willing to pay the steep premium other 
manufacturers are charging for Pentium systems, you'd 
have trouble getting one because availability is 
extremely limited. Our engineers say the 
Pentium systems in our lab run so hot, you could 
use one to heat a hog house. Besides, Pentium 
systems on the market today will be outperformed 
quickly by improvements in Pentium technology. 
That's why we're not selling Pentium systems yet. At 
Gateway, we won't sell anything unless it's a good value for you. 

In today's market a 486 machine is the way to go, especially 
now that all our desktop ISA systems are guaranteed to be 
upgradeable to Pentium technology. 

Party Reason — You get more free choices of software with a 
system from Gateway than from any other PC maimer. 

All software is pre-installed and ready to run the moment your 
system arrives. Hooray! No installation hassles! 




The whole herd at Gateway, now over 2,000 people, gathered for this 486Fest kick-off 
photo. We wanted you to see all the friends you have in the business! 




With Nomad, mini desktop and our 4DX2-66 Best Buy systems, 
you get Microsoft Worics for Windows.™ With deslctop and tower 
systems that include "choice of application software," you can select 
one of the following software packages. All applications are the latest 
versions. 

u Microsoft Excel for Windows.™ 
m Microsoft Word for Windows.™ 

■ Microsoft Word and Bookshelf 92® 
CD-ROM Edition. 

■ Microsoft PowerPoint for Windows™ 

■ Microsoft Project for Windows™ 
m The MS Entrepreneur Pack (Works,™ 

Publisher,'" Money,™ and games). 

■ Borland Paradox® and Qmttro®Pro for Windows. 

■ The Windows Programmer Pack (MS Quick C" Visual Basic™ 
and more). 

Party Reason — You 'II save money on peripherals! 

We offer many system options and upgrades, including fax/ 
modems, network cards, CD-ROM kits, sound accessories, larger 
monitors, tape backup units, bigger hard drives, other software and 
morel Call today! 

Party Reason — You get excellent after-the-sale 
support! 

Every Gateway 2000 system comes with a 30-day 
money-back guarantee. If you don't like your system, 
send it back within 30 days for a refiind. All systems 
come with a one-year limited warranty and telephone 
technical support for the life of the system from our 
award-winning tech department. You also get an 
automated fax service to supply you with detailed 
documentation on over 150 technical subjects, and a lifetime BBS 
membership for additional technical support and online forums. 



We offer on-site service to most locations in the country (factory 
service only for notebooks). Replacement parts leave our factory as 
quickly as possible; we pay overnight shipping. Plus we now have 
interactive documentation on desktop systems with pictures and text 
right on your hard drive (in addition to comprehensive hardware and 
software manuals). 

Party Reason — // so easy! 

We make it easy for you to buy a Gateway PC, with convenient 
payment options including major credit cards and C.O.D. 
terms. Net 30-day terms and leasing options are also 



available to qualified commercial customers. 




For a truly celebrated value, the choice 
is black-and-white: Gateway's 4DX-3S. 



^ Gateway 2000's Party List 



4SX-25 



25MHz 486SX IntePProcessor 

4MB RAM 

3.5" Diskette Drive 

170MB 13ms IDE Hard Drive 

Local Bus IDE Interface 

Intel Pentium™ Technology Ready 

Windows Accelerated Video w/lMB DRAM 

14" Color CrystalScan®1024NI 
I Mini Desktop Case 
I 5 16-Bit ISA Slots 
I 124-Key AnyKey® Keyboard 
I MS-D0S'*6,Diags, Windows™ & Mouse 
I MS Works for Windows™ 2.0 



4SX-33 



33MHz 486SX Intel Processor 
4MB RAM 

5.25" & 3.5" Diskette Drives 

212MB 13ms IDE Hard Drive 

Local Bus IDE Interface 

Intel Pentium Technology Ready 
I Windows Accelerated Video w/ 1MB DRAM 
I 14" Color CrystalScanl024NI 
! Mini Desktop Case 
I 5 16-Bit ISA Slots 
I 124-Key AnyKey Keyboard 
I MS-DOS 6, Diags, Windows & Mouse 
I MS Works for Windows 2.0 



4DX-33 



■ 33MHz 486DX Intel Processor 

■ 8MB RAM, 64K Cache 

■ 5.25" & 3.5" Diskette Drives 

■ 212MB 13ms IDE Hard Drive 

■ Local Bus IDE Interface 

■ Intel Pentium Technology Ready 

■ Windows Accelerated Video w/ 1MB DRAM 

■ 14" Color CrystalScanl024NI 

■ Mini Desktop Case 

■ 5 16-Bit ISA Slots ^ 

■ 124-Key AnyKey Keyboard 

■ MS-DOS 6, Diags, Windows & Mouse 

■ MS Works for Windows 2.0 



$1295 



$1495 



$1895 



4DX2-50V 



■ 50MHz 486DX2 Intel Processor 

■ 8MB RAM, 64K Cache 

■ 5.25" & 3.5" Diskette Drives 

■ 340MB 13ms IDE Hard Drive 

■ Local Bus IDE Interface 

I Intel Pentium Technology Ready 

■ ATI™ Ultra Pro Video w/lMB VRAM 
on VL-Bus™ 

■ 15" Color CrystalScanl572FS 

■ Desktop Case (Tower Upgrade) 

■ 7 16-Bit ISA Slots, 2 on VL-Bus 

■ 124-Key AnyKey Keyboard 

■ MS-DOS 6, Diags, Windows & Mouse 
I Choice of Application Software 



4DX2-66 BEST BUY 



$2395 



4DX2-66E 



66MHz 486DX2 Intel Processor 

8MB RAM, 256K Cache 

5.25" & 3.5" Diskette Drives 

500MB Urns SCSI Hard Drive 

32-Bit EISA SCSI Controller 

Windows Accelerated Video w/ 1MB DRAM 

14" Color CrystalScan 1024NI 
I Tower Case 
I 8 32-Bit EISA Slots 
I 124-Key AnyKey Keyboard 
I MS-DOS 6, Diags, Windows & Mouse 
I Choice of Application Software 



$3495 




a®5AL 

"EiLEAF" 



■ 66MHz 486DX2 Intel Processor 

■ 8MB RAM, 64K Cache 

■ 3.5" Diskette Drive 

■ CD-ROM Drive 

■ 340MB 13ms IDE Hard Drive 

■ Local Bus IDE Interface 

■ Intel Pentium Technology Ready 

■ Wmdows Accelerator w/1 MB DRAM 
on VL-Bus 

■ 14" Color CrystalScan 1024NI 

■ Desktop Case (Tower Upgrade) 

■ 7 16-Bit ISA Slots, 2 on VL-Bus 

■ 124-Key AnyKey Keyboard 

I MS-DOS 6, Diags, Wmdows & Mouse 

■ MS Multimedia Works, CD-ROM Edition 



$2495 



NOMAD 425SXL 



25MHz 486SX Intel Processor 

4MB RAM 

3.5" Diskette Drive 

120MB IDE Hard Drive 

Backlit 10" VGA Screen, 64 Gray Scale 

Simultaneous Video with 1MB 
I Size 8.5" X 11" X 1.8," 5.6 Lbs. 

6-Hr. NiCad Battery & AC Pack 

1 Parallel /I Serial Port 

79-Key Keyboard & FieldMouse™ 

MS-DOS and Windows 
I MS Works for Windows 



$1995 



4DX2-66V 



66MHz 486DX2 Intel Processor 
16MB RAM, 256K Cache 
3.5" Diskette Drive 
CD-ROM Drive 
340MB 13ms IDE Hard Drive 
Local Bus IDE Interface 
Intel Pentium Technology Ready 
ATI Ultra Pro Video w/1 MB VRAM 
on VL-Bus 

15" Color CrystalScan 1572FS 
Desktop Case (Tower Upgrade) 
7 16-Bit ISA Slots, 2 on VL-Bus 
124-Key AnyKey Keyboard 
MS-DOS 6, Diags, Windows & Mouse 
Choice of Application Software 




mmm 

"You've got a friend in the business. "® 

8 0 0 - 8 4 6 - 2 0 5 8 




EVTE 



$2995 



NOMAD 450DXL 



50MHz 486DX2 Intel Processor 
3.5" Diskette Drive 

Backlit 10" VGA Screen, 64 Gray Scale 

Simultaneous Video with 1MB 

Size 8.5" xll"x 1.8," 5.6 Lbs. 

6-Hr. NiCad Battery & AC Pack 

1 Parallel / 1 Serial Port 
I 79-Key Keyboard & MS Ballpoint 
I MS-DOS, Windows & Works for Windows 



♦ 



$2495 



(With 4MB RAM and 120MB Hard Drive) 



$2795 



(With 8MB RAM and 200MB Hard Drive) 



All hard drive sizes are manufacturer's specified 
capacities. Microsoft MS-DOS 6 can increase hard 
drive capacity through software compression. 



610 Gateway Drive • P.O.Box 2000 • North Sioux City, SD 57049-2000 • 605-232-2000 • Fax 605-232-2023 
Sales Hours: 7am- 10pm Weekdays, 9am-4pm Saturdays (CI) 



€S993 Gateway 2000. Inc. AnyKey. CryslalScan. black-and-white spot design, "G" logo and "You've got a friend in the business" slogan are registered irademarks, and Gateway 2000 and TelePalh are trademarks of Gateway 2000. Inc. 
The Intel Inside Logo. Intel. Pentium and OverDrive are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. All other brands and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. 

Prices and configurations are subject to change without notice. Prices do not include shipping. 




Presenting Interactive Unix 4.0 

'VC^ hen the INTERACTIVE™ UNIX® System for personal computers was introduced in 1987, it quickly became 
a classic. Suddenly operations from video stores to Bridgestone/Firestone® production lines had a reliable, sta- 
ble operating system ready for mission-critical applications. It's still among the most cost- 
effective multiuser operating systems available and a dream to install and administer In 
fact Open Systems Today called it "...a masterpiece of good design". Today over 500,000 
users enjoy its benefits. But time marches on, and even an industry-tested classic 

FOR A LIMITED TIME* ALL MULTIUSER INTERACTIVE UNIX 4.0 ORDERS WILL INCLUDE A FREE COPY OF FASTBACK PLUS™ (A I 

© / 993 Sun Microsystems. Inc. SunSoft the SunSoft and Sunburst /ogos ore trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems. Inc. INTERACTIVE is a trademark of INTERACTIVE Systems Corporation. UNIX is a registered 1 



X 




2 








CTIVE 




< 








INT 









Cover Story 



DVIE 



JULY 1993 



VOL. 18, NO. S 



News & Views 



WordPerfect Office 4.0 22 

BY BARRY NANCE The latest version 
of WordPerfect's groupware product 
supports multiple operating systems. 

QMS Strikes with Color 

Laser Printer 24 

BY TOM THOMPSON 
ColorScript Laser 1 000 brings color 
laser printing into a more affordable 
price range. 

RAID Down to the Desktop 28 

BY DAVE ANDREWS This storage 
technology is moving from mainframes 
and minicomputers to the desktop. 

Ruling Won't Mean Lower Prices 
for 486 Chips 28 

BY TOM R. HALFHILL Despite AMD's 
winning the latest round in its legal 
battle with Intel, don't expect a big price 
drop in 486 systems. 

HP's Superior Subnotebook 32 

BY PATRICK WAURZYNIAK Hewlett- 
Packard packs 
a lot, including 
Windows and 
applications in 
ROM, into its 3- 
pound OmniBook. 

Toshiba Gets Aggressive 

with Passive Color 32 

BY GENE SMARTE Toshiba's 

T1900C could change the way you look 

at passive-matrix color displays. 

Encryption Chip Draws Fire 36 

BY PETER WAYNER A new encryption 
chip promises to protect your electronic 
messages, but there's a catch: A trap- 
door lets the government eavesdrop. 

A Quicker Quicken 40 

BY CHRIS KOFER A new Mac 
version of Intuit's personal-finance 
software. 

Report from Jordan 48 

BY KHALDOON TABAZA 
Localizing software in Arabia. 

What's New 226 

The latest Tektronix dye-sublimation 
printer, Smartcom for Windows from 
Hayes, Alps Electric's wireless LAN 
adapter, and more. 





Reviews 



80 



NEW SYSTEMS 

Pentium Changes the PC 

BY ANDY REINHARDT The Intel Pentium CPU demands 
subsystems and I/O that can keep pace and that call for 
a fundamental rethinking of how to build everything from 
the expansion bus to memory architecture. 

New Memory Architectures to Boost Performance — 86 
Revisiting the Lowly I/O Ports — 90 

Pentium PCs: Power to Bum 94 

BY RAYMOND GA COTE AND BARRY NANCE Fast and ready 
to roll, the first Pentium systems are now available. 



DOS, Unix, and Windows Benchmarks- 
NetWare Benchmarks — 100 



-98 



Features 



NETWORKING 

Cluster PCs for Power 

BY MICHAEL J. GUTMANN A look at network high-end PCs 
able to run applications that were once too big for your server. 

REAL WORLD 



57 



69 



Data from the Depths 

BY BEN SMITH Engineers at the Woods Hole Oceanographic 
Institution deploy inexpensive, autonomous data loggers on small 
underwater vessels. BYTE Lab editors study the Woods Hole solution 
and the latest trend in data acquisition. 




State of the Art 



ENHANCING KNOWLEDGE 

OVERVIEW 

New Knowledge Tools 106 

BY SARA HEDBERG Combining knowledge systems with other 
technologies can improve your cost/performance figures. 

Help Is on the Way— 110 





Roll Your Own Hybrids 

BY JAY LIEBOWITZ 
Emerging technologies — such as 
neural networks and genetic 
algorithms — can add 
robustness to knowledge-based 
systems. Stand-alone expert 
systems could go the same route 
as the dinosaurs. 



113 



■* BYTE JULY 1993 



COVER IMAGE: ROBERT TINNEY©1993 



A GREAT IDEA. YOU EVOLVE 




deserves a superior upgrade. Hence, INTERACTIVE UNIX 4.0 — with new power features that improve sys- 
tem functionality and peripheral support, making it perform better than even It still runs over 2,000 applications 
including RealWorld Accounting Software®, Informix® and WordPerfect.® And now it runs more SCO applica- 
tions because it's iBCS2 compliant. What's more, INTERACTIVE UNIX 4.0 is backed by SunSoft, the leading 
supplier of 32-bit UNIX operating systems. Fact is, INTERACTIVE UNIX 4.0 is even better at doing what the 
industry classic has always done so well: improving the performance of your com- 
puting system at a lower cost per seat. Nothing revolutionary Simply evolutionary 

$399 VALUE). IT'S THE INDUSTRY'S FASTEST UNIX BACKUP SOFTWARE. FOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL I -800-227-9227. 

trademark of UNIX System Laboratories. Inc. All other trademarks and registered trademarks are the property of their respective holders. Open Systems Today quote April 1 3. 1 992. 'Must purchase by December 31.1 993. 




Circle 165 on Inquiry Card. 



Opinions 



PEN SOFT-WARE 

Applying the Power of the Pen 132 

BY HOWARD EGLOWSTEIN The promise of pen 
computers has been dulled by a lack of innovative, 
pen-centric, general-purpose applications. Here 
are nine software packages for Go's PenPoint and 
Microsoft's Windows for Pen Computing that 
challenge the notion that pen systems are only good 
for vertical markets. 



NetWare Goes Global 



141 



BY JON UDELL NetWare 4.0 has arrived, claiming 
support for serious enterprise networking. NetWare 
Directory Service brings NetWare beyond the LAN, 
and 4.0 adds other features like file compression, 
CD-ROM sharing, and data migration. 

ELECTRONIC PUBLISHING 

Dynamic Documents 145 

BY ROBERT SCHMIDT Folio Views 3.0 comes to 
Windows and brings with it some exciting new 
features, including an open client/server architecture, 
concurrent multiuser editing, embedded graphics, 
and multimedia support. 



INTEGRATED SOFTWARE 

ClarisWorks 2.0 for Macintosh 151 

BY TOM R. HALFHILL ClarisWorks is already 
established as the leading integrated package for the 
Macintosh, but it's not resting on its existing 
modules. Version 2.0 adds new features and 
applications to this seamlessly integrated software. 



DESKTOP PUBLISHING 

PageMaker 5.0 vs. Quark 3.1 157 

BY G. ARMOUR VAN HORN Recent releases of 
these two popular page-layout packages duke it out 
both on the Mac and under Windows. Van Horn 
determines which of these aggressive competitors 
currently has the upper hand. 

GROUPWARE 

One Thumb Up, One Thumb Down 161 

BY JON UDELL Release 3 of Lotus Notes delivers 
long-awaited features, including Macintosh support 
and full-text indexing, but it lacks development tools 
needed to build effective groupware. Our reviewer 
finds some significant improvements and some 
significant disappointments. 



HANDS-ON TESTING 

BYTE Lab Report 

V.32 or Better: 69 Modems 



172 



BY JIM HURD 

We run line-impairment and data-throughput 
tests to measure the efficiency of 9600-bps and 
faster modems. Results reveal the best for high- 
speed communications, portability, data-only 
applications, and all-around communications. 

How We Tested— 176 

Speed Limits— 180 

10 Tips for Buying Modems — 184 










1 


Hands On 



119 



See, Hear, Learn 

BY SARA HEDBERG 
With smart multimedia and virtual 
reality, you can create virtual 
Cheshire cats to answer your 
questions. Projects at Northwestern 
University and Andersen 
Consulting are putting this 
technology to use. 




TECHNOLOGY 

Under the Hood: 

Inside MS-DOS 6 197 

BY BENJAMIN W. SLIVKA, 
ERIC STRAUB, AND RICHARD 
FREEDMAN 

MS-DOS 6"s designers examine 
the inner workings of MemMaker 
and DoubleSpace. 

OPERATING SYSTEMS 

Beyond DOS: Confessions of 
a DDK Developer 203 

BY STEVE MASTRIANNI 

IBM's OS/2 DDK is a good start. 

PROGRAMMING 

Some Assembly Required: 
The Mac Extended 205 

BY ERIC SHAPIRO AND TOM 
THOMPSON Savvy programmers 
can write their own Mac 
Extensions. 



Poumelle: 

The DOS 6 Question 209 

BY JERRY POURNELLE Our 
columnist finds DOS 6 is the least 
expensive route to disk 
compression and memory 
optimization. 

Reviews: Books & CD-ROMs 
Quest for the Silicon Grail .... 49 

BY HUGH KENNER, STANFORD 
DIEHL, RAYMOND GA COTE, 
MICHAEL NADEAU, AND 
RICK GREHAN Tales of AI, 
hackers, the green PC, art on CD, 
and other subjects. 

Commentary: 

A Conspiracy of Silence 27S 

BY PAUL SAFFO The dangers 
of electromagnetic-field 
radiation are evident. So why isn't 
the industry doing anything? 



.10 



Editorial: 

The Real Multimedia . 

BY DENNIS ALLEN 



Letters 19 

Fighting fatware, MS-DOS 6, the 
Commodore Amiga, and other 
topics. 

READER SERVICE 

Editorial Index by Company 276 
Alphabetical Index to Advertisers 272 
Index to Advertisers 
by Product Category 274 
Inquiry Reply Cards 272A 

BUYER'S GUIDE 239 

Mail Order 

Hardware/Software Showcase 
Buyer's Mart 

PROGRAM LISTINGS 

From BIX: Join "listings/frombyte93" 
and select the appropriate subarea (i.e., 
•■jul93"). 

From the UUNET: ftp to ftp.uu.net, log 

on as "anonymous," and enter your user 
ID as your password. Type 
"cd/publishedA>yte" and type "DIR." 
Files appear in subdirectories arranged 
by month. 

From the BYTE BBS at 1200-9600 bps: 
Dial (603) 924-9820 and follow the 
instructions at the prompt. 



BYTE (ISSN 0360-5280) is publtetied monthly with an- 
ditlonal issues in April and October by McGraw-Hill, 
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JUl-Y 1993 BYTE S 



Contents by Platform 



This page presents the articles in 
this issue according to computing 
platform. 



DOS and Windows 



WordPerfect Office 4.0 22 

With ihe latest version, this mature 
groupware product now works on multi- 
ple platforms. 

Low-Power RISC from 

Mips 28 

Mips Technologies is readying a version 
of its R4(K)0 RISC chip that could show 
up in laptops running Windows NT. 

HP's Superior Subnotebook ..32 

The new OmniBook 300 weighs about 3 
pounds; comes with Windows, Word, 
and Excel in ROM; and has a keyboard 
suitable for typing. 

Pentium Changes the PC 80 

Intel's new chip will mean machines 
that run your applications much, much 
faster— but not with this first batch of 
Pentium PCs. 

Applying the Power of the 

Pen 132 

This roundup reviews pen software for 
Windows and PenPoint. 

NetWare Goes Global 141 

Version 4.0's file compression consis- 
tently oulcompresses MSrDOS 6's Dou- 
bleSpace. DOS clients also get NetBIOS 
and named-pipe drivers. 

Dynamic Documents 145 

The newest Folio Views brings its elec- 
tronic-publishing tools to Windows. 

PageMaker 5.0 vs. 

Quark 3.1 157 

Compare the latest Windows editions of 
these desktop publishing programs. 

Under the Hood: Inside 
MS-DOS 6 197 

Members of the Microsoft development 
team explain DoubleSpace and Mem- 
Maker. 

Pournelle: The DOS 6 
Question ...209 

Our columnist tries out the new operat- 
ing system and offers some good alter- 
natives to its compression and memory 
management features. 



OS/2 Without Microsoft 
Windows? 44 

The agreement that gives IBM access to 
Microsoft Windows source code expires 



soon. "Source code is a real nice thing to 
have," an IBM representative says, "but 
remaining compatible is not rocket sci- 
ence." 

Pentium Changes the PC ..... 8 0 

OS/2 users are among the people who 
stand to gain the most benefit from Pen- 
tium systems. 

NetWare Goes Global 141 

Version 4.0 brings several bonuses, in- 
cluding a new OS/2 requester. 

One Thumb Up, One Thumb 
Down 161 

The newest version of Lotus Notes is 
greatly improved, but the groupware 
product still lacks a 32-bit OS/2 server. 

Beyond DOS: Confessions 

of a DDK Developer 203 

The Device Driver Development Kit has 
many of the things OS/2 developers 
have been yearning for, including more 
video drivers. 



Macintosh 



WordPerfect Office 4.0 22 

Mac clients can now be part of the Of- 
fice. 



QMS Strikes with Color Laser 
Printer 24 

The new ColorScript Laser 1000 brings 
the technology into a lower price range. 

Apple's ColorSync: WYSIWYG 
Color 25 

The Macintosh now offers a color- 
matching solution for users. 

A Quicker Quicken 40 

A first look at Intuit's newest version 
finds it faster and more convenient. 

ClarisWorks 2.0 for 
Macintosh 151 

Claris improves its integrated software 
with three new modules. 

PageMaker 5.0 vs. 

Quark 3.1 157 

Here's a comparative review of the lead- 
ers in Macintosh desktop publishing. 

The Mac Extended 205 

Thanks to the Mac OS's design, sharp 
programmers can patch in new features. 



WordPerfect Office 4.0 22 

If you've got DOS, Windows, and Mac 
cHents mixed in with your Unix envi- 
ronment, this workgroup program might 
be right for you. 



Low-Power RISC from 
Mips 



.28 



Mips Technologies is readying a 3-V 
version of its R4000 RISC processor 
aimed at laptops. 

Unix Does Windows 44 

Insignia Solutions is working with Mi- 
crosoft to develop high-performance 
Windows emulation for Unix; mean- 
while, SunSelect continues work on its 
WABI technology for running Windows 
applications on Unix machines. 

Pentium PCs: Power to 

Burn 94 

How fast are the first systems when run- 
ning Unix? 



Networks 



WonlPerfect Office 4.0 22 

The program provides E-mail, a group 
scheduler, a notepad, and other applica- 
tions that work across a LAN. 

Cluster PCs for Power 57 

If your LAN just isn't up to the task, 
consider the relatively inexpensive net- 
work design approach known as a PC 
cluster. 

Pentium Changes the PC ..... 8 0 

Pentium systems will find homes as 
servers, but in some cases, they could be 
overkill. 

Pentium PCs: Power to 

Burn 94 

Most of the first Pentium machines are 
being billed as servers. Our initial tests 
will give you an idea of what to expect, 
but the real performance gains are yet to 
come. 

NetWare Goes Global 141 

With version 4.0, Novell adds X.500- 
style directory service, providing a cred- 
ible framework for serious enterprise. 



Client/Server 



Pentium Changes the PC 80 

"The Pentium is going to mean a lot 
more to my customers running SQL 
Server and Notes and Oracle on OS/2 
than to my customers running Net- 
Ware," says one vice president. 

One Thumb Up, One Thumb 
Down 161 

No other product offers Lotus Notes' 
blend of E-mail, conferencing, and 
client/server database technology. The 
newest version shows some nice en- 
hancements, but our reviewer finds 
some significant things lacking. 



Al 

Books . 



49 

49 

.80, 90 
205 



Case-based reasoning 106, 

1 13. 119 

CD-ROM 49, 50, 209. 230 

Client/server 80. 161 

Color displays 3 2 

Color printing 24. 25. 

226. 227 

Compression 50. 141. 197, 

209 

Data acquisition 69. 76. 78 

Desktop publishing 15 7 

DOS 22, 197. 209 

□ectromagnetic fields 27 8 

Electronic publishing 145 

E-Mail 22, 161 

Encryption 36, 161 

Groupware 22. 23, 161 

Knowledge-based 

systems 106, 113. 119 

Laser printers 24 

Macintosh 22, 24, 25, 40. 

15 1. 157. 205 

Memoiy architectures 86 

Memory management ..197, 209 

Mobile computing 23 

Modems 172, 226 

Multimedia 10, 119 

Multiprocessing 80, 94 

Networking 57. 80, 94. 

141. 161, 209 

Neural networks 106, 113 

Notebooks 32, 228, 230 

OS/2 44, 80, 141, 

161, 203 

PC clusters 5 7 

PCMCIA 32. 226 

Pen applications 132 

PostScript 24 

Printers 24. 25. 226 

Programming 52. 69. 197. 

203, 205 

Systems 80, 94, 228 

Unix 22, 44, 94 

Videoconferencing 10 

Virtual reality 119 

Windows 22, 28, 44, 48, 

94, 132, 141, 145, 

157, 161, 209, 232 



6 BYTE JULY 1993 



THE PAPERLESS OFFICE FOR OMLV $<S9>9>5. 




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TO DESIGN OUR 
NEW MOUSE, WE 

STARTED RY 
READING PALMS. 



In relentless detail, we studied 
hands of all dimensions. 

We consulted professors of kine- 
siology, engineers, ergonomists 
and computer users. We used digi- 
tal fiber optics to analyze the hu- 
man hand. We followed it in motion. 

The result is a new Microsoft" 
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rect. Uncommonly comfortable. 

The palm is perfectly supported. 
Left or right handed, the grip is 
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into place. A click feels just right. 

This mouse even looks good. 
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Did we mention that it also has 
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ize the mouse, so it works the 
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If you're not comfortable, we'll 
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Details are on the box, which 
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IVBcmsolt 

Making it easier 



© 199J Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Printed in the USA. Microsoft is a registeted trademark of Microsoft Corpora 




Editorial 



Dennis Allen 



The Real Multimedia 




Videoconferencing 
will exploit video, 
sound, and network 
technologies in a 
way that makes 
sense 



I'm tired of all the multimedia dazzle and hype. Sure, 
the graphics can be spectacular, but I don't want to turn 
my desktop computer into a Sega game machine. It's 
neat to be able to play stereo CDs in my CD-ROM drive, 
but I have a whole stereo system for that. And while it's 
clever to have a TV picture next to my spreadsheet, I'd 
rather not be distracted by reruns of The Brady Bunch. 

Unfortunately, multimedia has become synonymous 
with computer trash. Almost anything with graphics or 
sound placed on a CD-ROM qualifies — to some folks, at 
least — as multimedia. 

Let's face it: What useful business application have 
you seen for multimedia? OK, there is video production 
for the Hollywood types, which is an impressive appli- 
cation, but it's also a very narrow and vertical field. Be- 
yond that, searching for a useful multimedia application 
today leaves you with nothing more than a pile of games, 
a little educational software, and a dash of technomarvel 
products that don't really do anything. 

What a crying shame that all this video and sound 
technology is being largely wasted, because we all know 
instinctively that those technologies can be put to real 
use. It's just been difficult to figure out what that use 
should be. 

Maybe that's all going to change, because the first 
real multimedia application is materializing, although it 
won't be called multimedia. Instead, this new application 
will be called desktop videoconferencing, and it will ex- 
ploit video, sound, and even network technologies in a 
way that makes sense. 

That's right, desktop videoconferencing makes sense, 
and before you say that this all sounds like another 
World's Fair videophone, please hear me out. Think 
about this: Would you rather write a memo to explain a 
questionable number in your spreadsheet or just attach 
voice mail to it? I'd prefer the latter. What's more, com- 
pared to a 30-word written memo, voice mail using the 
same word-for-word message conveys more informa- 
tion. Vocal emphasis on key words and phrases imparts 
more meaning. Or look at it this way: In lieu of a 30- 
word voice-mail message, you might have to write a 



150-word memo to get your point across. 

Similarly, adding video that captures gestures and fa- 
cial expressions conveys even more information. Imag- 
ine the great loss if Groucho Marx had been only in radio 
and not in film — would his lines have been as good if 
you couldn't see his eyebrows go up and down? I don't 
think so. 

Computer E-mail and conferencing have forced us 
into becoming extensions of machines instead of the oth- 
er way around. It's time to change that. When I send a 
spreadsheet to someone across a network, let me send a 
message with it that's really from me — one that cap- 
tures all my intonations and my eyebrows dancing up 
and down so that the recipient really gets the message. 
The technology is mostly here. Small cameras are not 
expensive. Sound boards are downright cheap. And with 
the right compression algorithms, existing LANs can 
carry all that information. 

Some relatively small companies are already offering 
kludged attempts at solving the problem. Unfortunately, 
they don't work well, they cost too much, or both. Video- 
conferencing is really waiting for one or several systems 
manufacturers to build complete personal computers with 
videoconferencing built in, and that, my friends, is going 
to happen sooner rather than later. 

Frankly, I can hardly wait, because I have a lot more 
than explaining spreadsheets in mind for videoconfer- 
encing. I'd like to cut down on the time spent drafting 
E-mail and conferencing messages. I'd also like to see 
communications go back to a more traditional — and suc- 
cessful — human standard without losing the high-tech 
convenience of delayed conferencing, all of which can be 
done right away. 

But don't stop me now, because I want it all, including 
practical WAN (wide-area network) support. I want 
phone calls with BYTE's bureau offices to include real- 
time desktop videoconferencing, and that just isn't ready 
yet. The problem has more to do with deciding who can 
carry that information. Yes, we're talking information 
highway, and for that to become reality, it's going to 
take either an act of Congress to get something done or a 
decision by Congress to get out of the way. 

Ah, but that's a story for another issue. 




Dennis Allen, Editor in Chief 



lO BYXE JULY 1993 



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Because not merely are 
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EDITOff IN CHIEF 

Dennis Allen 

EXECUTIVE EDITORS 

New York: Rich Malloy 
Peterborough: Rich Friedman 

MANAGING EDITOR 

D. Barker 

ASSISTANT MANAGING EDITOR 

Lauren Stickler Thompson 

NEWS 

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Eglowstein, Ben Smith, Stanley Wszola 
Lab Assistant: Selinda Chiquoine 

STATE OF THE ART/FEATURES 

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How to Contact the Editors 



We welcome your questions, comments, 
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EXCHANGE EDITORS 

Amiga Exchange: Joanne Dow 
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BIX, owned and operated by General Videotex Corporation, is a woridwide, low-cost, on- 
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Sen/ices: Norbert Schumacher; Vice President/Group Publisher, Computer Magazines: Fritz Landmann. 



BYTE JULY 1993 




Worldwide Developer 
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IBM, OS/2 and PS/2 are registered trademarks of International Business Mactiines Corporation. CompuServe is a regis- 
tered trademark of CompuServe, Inc. All ottier products are trademarks or registered trademarks of ttieir respective 
companies. © 1993 IBM Corp. 



Circle 94 on Inquiry Card. 



Introducing WordPerfecf Office 4.0. 



Large or small, local or global, companies operate on 
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E-mail isn't enougli anymore. 

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DOS 



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WordPerfect Office was developed for LANs of as 
few as five users and WANs of as many as 100,000. 
And as you'd expect from WordPerfect, it's a highly- 
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nications on Windows, DOS, Macintosh, UNIX, 
OS/2 and WAX/VMS. 

WordPerfect Office offers a long Ust of gateways. 
Diagnostic and management services to 




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See what the first corporate operating 
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WORDPERFECT IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK AND WORDPERFECT OFFICE IS A TRADEMARK OF WORDPERFECT CORPORATION WITH- 
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Letters 



Rghting Fatware 

Your attack on fatware ("Fighting Fat- 
ware," April) should have been more 
scathing. Some of today's applications are 
100 times bigger than their 1985 counter- 
parts. Are they 100 times better? Not on 
your life! 

They are not just bigger, 
they are badly engineered. 
Bloated applications resemble 
the gas-guzzling cars of the 
1960s — they're wasteful and 
unreliable. We trade them in 
every few years in the hope 
that the next version will fi- 
nally run right. Major bugs in 
commercial word processors, 
for example, are now a way of 
life. 

Amid all these Edsels, we need a Volks- 
wagen. Developers should throw away 
past years' accumulation of unreliable 
code, write programs small enough that 
the authors can understand them, and dis- 
cover the power that comes from combin- 
ing just a few features in the right ways. If 
they really want to take the market by 
storm, they should offer a warranty rather 
than an "as-is" disclaimer. 

Michael A. Covington 
Athens, GA 

"Work expands so as to fill the time avail- 
able for its completion." 

— Parkinson's Law, 1957 

SET WORK = PROGRAM 
SET TIME = MEMORY 
SET 1957 = 1993 

David G. Williams 

Chevy Chase. MD 

It was appropriate that you put "Fighting 
Fatware" just before "Putting Fuzzy Log- 
ic into Focus." The first article was an ex- 
ample of the second, I think. 

The two figures found on page 100 tell 
the story. The size of Lotus 1-2-3 has mul- 
tiplied by a factor of about seven; the typ- 
ical PC has expanded by a factor of al- 
most 300, both in disk space and RAM. 
This much bigger machine is also much 
faster and cheaper, and the bigger Lotus 
1-2-3 does much more than release 1.0 
ever did. 

The typical system can handle many ap- 
plications that are the size of Lotus 1-2-3, 
whereas in 1983 we could run only from 
floppy disks — one slow and limited ap- 
plication at a time. So just where is the 



fatware problem? I see no sign of it what- 
soever. 

Bobby R. Treat 
Alexandria, VA 



I recently read "Fighting Fatware" and was 
very disappointed. Figure 3 sug- 
gests that [operating-system-spe- 
cific versions of] WordPerfect 
are being run on each operating 
system. But the article's text 
suggests that you ran either a 
DOS or Windows version on 
OS/2. If this is true, the percent- 
age of usage for OS/2 also in- 
cludes DOS and Windows over- 
head that is not required if you 
run a pure OS/2 application. 



WiLu 's HOT, What's Not 



! 



The authors incorrectly referred to the 
Windows shell as an operating 
system and suggested that the 
shell helped reduce the size of 
PowerPoint by including True- 
Type fonts. They neglected to 
mention that OS/2 2.x provides 
the same savings in code using 

Adobe Type Manager. The au- i. 

thors went on to rave about i 
OLE, but not once did they men- 
tion the major innovation that 
OS/2's SOM (System Object 
Model) represents in the eventual reduction 
of code. 

The new Lotus 1-2-3 and Freelance 
packages for OS/2 2.0 use disk space effi- 
ciently by sharing common resources (e.g., 
graphing and checking the spelling). They 
make effective use of OS/2's SOM and 
actually share system resources, further 
decreasing the amount of redundant code. 
Your First Impression of these products 
(March, page 46) even states ". . .you save 
more than 4 MB on your hard disk thanks 
to code shared between the two applica- 
tions; you also save RAM...." 

A. P. Kennedy Sr. 
Greensboro, NC 

If you look closely at figure 3, you 'II find 
that WordPerfect was not part of the 
OS/2 configuration. The reason ? An 
OS/2 version of WordPerfect was not 
shipping when this story was written. 
Thanks for your comments. — Eds. 



MS-DOS 6 Beyond Compare 

I was disappointed with the article "Easy 
Does It with MS-DOS 6.0" (April). The 



question on the cover (Do you need MS- 
DOS 6.0?) was not addressed, nor did the 
author provide the information that would 
enable me to answer it on my own. 

I also missed how MS-DOS 6 compares 
with products already available. It appears 
to me that Microsoft is only catching up. 

Martin Rommel 
Cambridge, MA 



An Amiga First 

In the April User's Column, Jerry Pour- 
nelle says that the Amiga is becoming 
competitive with the Mac and PC and is 
nearly ideal as a second computer. I be- 
lieve the Amiga makes a good first com- 
puter for professional video, audio, mu- 
sic, graphics, 3-D modeling, animation, 
interactive presentations, view 
graphs, or writing of any kind. 

As a home computer, the 
Amiga can perform almost any 
task one would desire with an 
easy-to-use, intuitive graphical 
interface. In terms of worksta- 
tion capabilities, the Amiga is 
68060-compatible. It has high- 
speed 2000- by 20G0-pixel 
graphics boards running at up 
to 160 MFLOPS, runs Unix, 
and has a RISC processor in its future. In 
a world of pickup trucks (clones) and 
Cadillacs (Macs), maybe there's room for 
an elegant Mustang as a first computer. 

Charles Kirchner 
Huntsville, AL 



BBC Correction 

Some information in "Correspondence 
That Looks Good Globally" (February) is 
incorrect. The BBC World Service is not 
using the Multi-Lingual Scholar word pro- 
cessing package. Together with a number 
of other alternatives that can run under the 
Windows and Macintosh GUIs, it is be- 
ing considered as a word processor for 
some foreign-language work. ■ 

Gordon Harold 
Chief Engineer, World Service 
London. U.K. 

We want to hear from you. Address corre- 
spondence to Letters Editor, BYTE, One 
Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 03458: 
send BIX mail c/o "editors ": or send Internet 
Mail to letters@bytepb.byte.com. Letters may 
be edited. 



JULY 1993 BYXE X» 



Wake up and smell 




the future 




WHAT "ppij^^: 
PEOPl£ j^l^Mp 

\fm. , 




The new HP DeskJet 1200C. 



1,699: 



Welcome to the dawning of a new era 
in office printing. Hewlett-Packard 
presents the HP DeskJet I200C. The 
world's first affordable, networkable, 
plain-paper, 300 -dpi black and color 
printer. 

The HP DeskJet 1200C printer has 
everything your users could want. HP's 
next generation of inlqet technology, 
for sharp 600 x 300-dpi black and stun- 
ning 300 -dpi color on plain paper. 
LaserJet PCL 5 compatibility, so it runs 
any existing LaserJet printer file or 
font. And network upgradability, giv- 
ing everyone equal access to high- 
quality color. 

Besides offering compatibility and 
great prmt quality, the DeskJet 1200C 
is fast. Six pages per nunute for black 
& white. And only one to two minutes 
per page for color graphics. It comes 
with 45 scalable fonts, .same as the new 
HP LaserJet 4, and lets you easily add 
PostScript.™ 

The future of office printing is here. 
To see for yourself, caJl 1-800-552-8500, 
Ext. 7398 for the name of the HP dealer 
nearest you. t 



DeskJet Printers 
Make it happen. 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 



News&Views 



WORKGROUP COMPUTING 



WordPerfect Office 
4.0 



The group-scheduling soft- 
ware, for example, works 
across a LAN to help make 
light work of setting up meet- 
ings and allocating resources, 
such as audiovisual equipment. 
WP Office 4.0 scans each per- 
son's appointment book to find 
acceptable meeting times. 
Members of the group receive 
automatically generated E-mail 
requests to attend; each person 
can accept or decline with the 
click of a mouse. 

If you're familiar with the 
usual WordPerfect function- 
key layout (e.g., F3 for help. 



WordPerfect Office 4.0 lets users 
work together regardless of 
location, lAH, or type of system 



BARRY NANCE 



WotdPerfect 
Office 4.0's File 
Manager offers 
a hierarcliical 
view of tile 
directory 
structure. 





I 



[ibo] 
[wpca] 
[wpcsin] 
[wpoffice] 

ad . exe 
Ic. exa 

atandard.irs 
wp_ad_ua . hip 



[ofdoa40 
[ofviewa] 
ofneg . Ac 
ofuaer . do 



agenda . vow 
calendar . vew 
combined . vew 
day . vew 
initial .vew 
sail .vew 
peraonal.vw 
%i«ek .vew 



File List - f:\wpclotiiain\wpoffice\ofviewsWos\i 



(■•] 

agenda . vew 
calendar . vew 
c<»bined.vew 
day . vew 
initial. v«w 
mail .vew 
personal .vew 



n a market beset with new- 
comers, WordPerfect Office rep- 
resents a maturing workgroup 
product. WP Office's all-in-one 
approach to E-mail and group 
scheduling has been popular for 
several years. In fact, version 
3.01 won a BYTE Readers' 
Choice Award in 1991. Version 4.0 adds support for mul- 
tiple platforms, mouse support in DOS text mode, and a 
variety of improvements that make it easier to use. 

If you have only a few Intel-based computers on your 
network, you probably don't need the power and fea- 
tures of WP Office 4.0. However, if your network in- 
cludes a mixture of DOS, Windows, and Mac clients 
(WordPerfect plans to release a Unix client running Mo- 
tif this fall) — and perhaps a Data General, Unix, or 
VAX/ VMS host system — your company is a prime can- 
didate for WP Office 4.0. If you have more than 25 
workstations, even if they all run the same operating 
system, you should at least look at the product for its 
efficient scheduling and E-mail services. If you have 
more than 1 00 workstations, WP Office 4.0 deserves 
serious consideration. 
WP Office 4.0 works on a variety of networks, in- 



(DIR) 
28S 
289 
292 
313 
292 
235 
292 



3/26/93 12: 

3/2S/93 12: 

3/26/93 12: 

3/26/93 12: 

3/2S/93 12: 

3/26/93 12: 

3/26/93 12: 



Hie E-mail component of 

WordPerfect Office 4.0 
(Windows version shown here) 
lets you send messages to 
individuals or groups. 




. Depending on 
how you like to 
organize your 
work, you can 
emphasize 
agenda, calendar, 
and other views 
of WordPerfect 
Office 4.0. 



Program Manager 



file (Options Window Help 



OFFICE 4.0 



WPV:ewEdilor WPNotiiy 



WPNotify - IBM:brn 



File Options Help 



iFrom 



I Subject 



eluding Novell NetWare, 
Banyan Vines, and IBM LAN 
Server. 1 used LAN Server and 
NetWare to put a prerelease ver- 
sion of WP Office 4.0 through its 
paces. 

Connecting Your Operation 

WP Office 4.0 provides E-mail, 
a calendar, a calculator, an ap- 
pointment book, a task list, a 
shared notepad, a shell menu, a 
notebook with an auto-dial fea- 
ture, a file manager, a macro 
editor, and a text editor. WP 
Office 4.0 integrates these 
functions across a LAN in a 
way that lets coworkers coor- 
dinate work and activities 
smoothly even if they're using 
different kinds of computers. 



F5 to list, and F7 to exit), you'll 
feel at home in WP Office 4.0. 
If you don't use WordPerfect's 
word processor, you'll find the 
menus easy to use. The Win- 
dows and Mac modules, of 
course, let you point and click 
when you want to send notes 
or update your task list. Now 
you can use a mouse the same 
way under DOS. 

For the most part, entering 
personal appointments and ar- 
ranging group meetings is a 
simple fill-in-the-form process. 
WP Office 4.0 automates the 
job of searching for common 
free times when you want to 
hold a meeting. Personal ap- 
pointments can be meetings, 
task-list items you want to set 



22 15 V I i; JULY 1993 



aside time for, or other allocat- 
ed blocks of time. 

Installation: An 
Investment In Time 

While using WP Office 4.0 is a 
breeze, installing and config- 
uring the software is not. Net- 
work administrators will spend 
a significant amount of time 
getting it ready for users. I 
spent 8 hours installing the 
software for a workgroup of 
about 50 people. Much of that 
time was spent reading the 
manual and analyzing the way 
WP Office 4.0 tailors a LAN 
to accommodate how the users 
get their work done. It's time 
well spent, however. The ca- 
pability of sharing E-mail and 
appointment books among dif- 
ferent types of computers cre- 
ates a level playing field out of 
what is usually a mess. 

The WP Office 4.0 shell is 
a DOS menuing system that 
you can configure to manage 
all your applications, not just 
the suite of WP Office 4.0 
modules. If you find you spend 
more time in one part of WP 
Office than in others, you can 
select a different view to give 
on-screen emphasis to that 
part — E-mail, the calendar, or 
perhaps the task list. 

The E-mail gateway soft- 
ware that comes with WP Of- 
fice 4.0 supports wide-area 
connections between WP Of- 
fice LANs, MHS (Message 
Handling Service), SMTP 
(Simple Mail Transfer Proto- 
col), and X.400; you also get 
remote modem-based access to 
WP Office 4.0 when you're 
away from the office. If you 
write E-mail notes on a plane 
or in a hotel room, WP Office 
4.0 will send the notes for you 
automatically when you return 
to the office and connect to the 
LAN. 

In a bid to strengthen WP 
Office 4.0's ties to other mail 
packages, WordPerfect will 
provide a gateway between 
WordPerfect Office 4.0 and 
Lotus Notes' groupware data- 
base. In addition, WordPerfect 
InForms software, which al- 
lows the electronic design and 
distribution of forms, will also 
have direct database format 
support for Notes. 



Both Office and InForms 
support the VIM (Vendor In- 
dependent Messaging) stan- 
dard, which allows users to ex- 
change mail across multiple 
applications. Although Word- 
Perfect has not finalized pricing 
of the gateway to Notes, David 
Clare, WP's senior director, 
workgroup applications, noted 
that the company is essentially 
"giving the technology away" 
to E-mail customers with the 
pricing of $30 to $40 per seat 
in large quantities. 

A Mixed-Systems Blessing 

WP Office 4.0 adds useful fea- 
tures — and support for more 
platforms — to an already- 
proven product. If groupware 
is in your plans but you have 
to contend with DOS, Win- 
dows, Mac, and Unix systems, 
put WP Office 4.0 near the top 
of your list of possibilities. 

WordPerfect Corp. 

1555 North Technology Way 

Orem, UT 84057 

(800) 321-4566. (801)225- 

5000. fax: (801)222-4477 

Sen'er Pack: $295; Client 
Pack: $495 for five users 



GROUPWARE'S BIG THREE 



Over the last five years, groupware has grown up. The early 
DOS-only pioneers didn't always have intuitive interfaces and 
typically worked with only a limited number of network operat- 
ing systems. While the situation has improved drastically, no 
clear overall best choice has emerged. However, three prod- 
ucts — each of which excels in different areas — are leading the 
groupware charge. 

THE BEST INTERFACE 

H you've seen Windows for Workgroups in action, you know that 
Microsoft's Mail and Schedule-i- modules are easy to use and 
highly visual. The Workgroup Connection companion product to 
Windows for Workgroups (for DOS users) includes E-mail but no 
scheduling module. If you want to use Schedule-*-, you need 
Windows. Mail and Schedule-t- are also LAN-traffic-intensive; if 
you have more than 20 workstations running the E-mail soft- 
ware at the same time, the network can bog down. 

THE MOST NETWORKS AND COMPUTERS 

With its comprehensive coverage of popular networks and di- 
verse computers, WordPerfect Office 4.0 is a universal transla- 
tor for large, mixed-environment LANs. The programs may load 
slowly, and you'll need to adjust to the function-key layout, but 
WP Office 4.0 is a groupware workhorse. 

THE BIGGEST 

Lotus Notes, literally speaking, covers more ground than other 
groupware products. Notes is particularly effective for geograph- 
ically dispersed users. Also, it lets a group share more than E- 
mail and scheduling information. If you have a database of sales 
information and prices, for instance. Notes will automatically 
make sure that eveiyone has the latest version of the data. 



COMMUNICATIONS 



Beep Beep: Your E-Mail Is In 



w„, 



'ordPerfect Office, Lotus Notes, and oth- 
er programs that offer remote-access capabilities 
solve many problems for mobile workers who 
need to stay in touch with the home office. How- 
ever, what if you're usually in the building but 
often away from your desk and can't afford to 
miss an urgent E-mail message or fax? 

To help mobile, on-site workers. Motorola's 
Customer Owned Paging Group (Boynton 
Beach, FL) has introduced a family of products 
that can notify you within seconds via alphanu- 
meric pagers of an important phone call. E-mail 
message, or critical situation in a manufacturing 
environment. One of the initial modules of the 
family, called Site Message, will transmit ur- 
gent information that arrives in your computer as 
an E-mail message, a LAN management mes- 
sage, or a groupware calendar update. 

Site Message, expected to ship in 1993, will 
use paging engine software created for Motorola 
by several independent developers, including 
New York City-based Ex Machina. Site Mes- 



sage-enabled programs will automatically for- 
ward time-critical messages to a Motorola al- 
phanumeric Site Pager without the sender know- 
ing the receiver's pager phone number. To filter 
out unimportant messages from critical ones, 
end users will be able to use their program's 
rules engines to forward only those messages 
with key words like Urgent. Motorola expects 
hundreds of programs to become Site Mes- 
sage-enabled in the next 12 months. 

Site Message is just one example of new tech- 
nologies that aspire to overcome the obstacles of 
reaching mobile workers. Motorola's Paging 
and Wireless Data Group plans to start beta test- 
ing later this year of its MONET (for Mobile 
Networks Integration) software that will link 
wireless networks from RAM Mobile Data, 
MTel, General Magic, and Ardis. Novell and 
Microsoft have announced plans with AT&T 
and Intel, respectively, to strengthen their op- 
erating systems' links to the telephone. 

— Dave Andrews 



JULY 1993 BYTE 23 



HP SA»S MO (foil MOW) 



News & Views 



PRINTER TECHNOLOGY 

QMS Strikes with Color Laser Printer 



olor laser printers aren't 
new, but until now you could 
expect to pay up to $50,000 for 
a splash of laser color. QMS's 
ColorScript Laser 1000 brings 
the technology into a much 
lower price range. Pricing was 
not firm at press time, but the 
company says it will fall be- 
tween $10,000 and $15,000. 

The ColorScript Laser 1000 
uses electrophotographic re- 
cording to produce 300-dot- 
per-inch color output. What 
makes this printer even more 
attractive is a unique print-en- 
gine design that lets it serve as 
both a black-and-white and a 



color printer. The print engine 
accomplishes this feat using 
dry toner and a special OPC 
(organic photoconductor) belt. 

The belt revolves at a con- 
tinuous rate of eight times per 
minute. When you print a col- 
or image, four belt rotations — 
one for each toner color — and 
numerous swipes of the laser 
beam assemble a complete col- 
or image on the belt. A charged 
transfer drum and transfer 
roller extract this image off the 
belt and onto the medium, 
which can be plain paper, la- 
bels, or transparencies. Because 
the belt travels at a fixed speed. 



the ColorScript Laser 1000 is 
capable of printing 2 color 
pages per minute. If you print a 
black-and-white document, 
only one belt rotation and the 
black toner are required to pro- 
duce a page, and the printer 
output approaches 8 ppm. 

On the inside, the printer 
uses a 25-MHz 80960CF RISC 
controller. Standard memory is 
12 MB of RAM, expandable 
to 32 MB using 4- and 8-MB 
SIMMs. The ColorScript Laser 
1000 provides emulation of 
PostScript Level 2, Hewlett- 
Packard PCL (Printer Control 
Language) 5, and HPGL 
(Hewlett-Packard Graphics 
Language) PDLs (page-de- 
scription languages). A 40-MB 
internal hard drive stores vari- 
ous programs, PDL emulations, 
and fonts. Upgrading the print- 
er software or adding another 
PDL emulation becomes a mat- 
ter of copying new files to the 
hard drive. The hard drive also 
functions as virtual memory for 
large print jobs. 

A SCSI connection lets you 
add external hard drives to ex- 
pand the printer's capacity for 
fonts or virtual memory. Stan- 
dard interfaces include Lo- 
calTalk, serial, and parallel 
printer ports. An optional Eth- 
ernet interface supports Apple 
EtherTalk, TCP/IP, DECnet, 
and NetWare protocols. Spe- 
cial ESP (Emulation Sensing 
Processor) logic scans all the 
interfaces and detects incom- 
ing data. This ESP logic then 
analyzes the data stream and 
selects the PDL that will pro- 
cess the job. QMS's Crown 
multitasking operating system 
manages the printer's func- 
tions, and it can handle two dif- 
ferent print jobs — each com- 
ing in on a different port and 
using a different PDL — simul- 
taneously. 

Unlike a thermal-wax print- 



While Hewlett-Packard holds a command- 
ing lead in the laser-printer market, the 
company has not yet announced plans to 
follow QMS into the color laser-printer 
market. Regarding speculation ahout Its 
plans, HP spokesman Bill Homung would 
say only that the company is studying col- 
or laser printers and would enter the s^- 
ment only when it is feasible from a cost 
and quality standpoint 

HP's cautious approach stems from 
concern over the reliahillty of color laser 
printing and cost factors. "There are two 
Issues: One is the reliability, and another, 
the pricing. And in our mind, we have to 
have both," said Homung. "Over history, 
we're pretty methodical about It We've 
had to make sure that we could sell a lot 
of [printers] but also that they were of 
high quality and reliable. Without that we 
would shoot ourselves in the foot" 

Since HP's color Ink-jet printers have 
done well, Hornung noted, there is not a 
great demand for color laser printers. 
"Customers are really satisfied with color 
Ink-jets, and many don't see the need at 
this time for color laser." 

— Patrick Waurzyniak 



er that consumes a fixed 
amount of all four dye materi- 
als whether you use one color 
or black and white, the Col- 
orScript Laser lOOO's engine 
consumes only those toners re- 
quired to make the page. This 
smart use of consumables low- 
ers the cost per color page from 
about 50 to about 45 cents, so 
the printer can inexpensively 
mass-produce documents that, 
for example, use a company 
logo or highlight important in- 
formation with spot colors. 

Using the black toner alone, 
the cost is 3 to 3.5 cents per 
page. That's low enough that 
the ColorScript Laser 1000 can 
serve as both a black-and-white 
and a color printer. This makes 
it ideal for businesses that oc- 
casionally need to produce 
large volumes of color output. 

— Tom Thompson 

QMS, Inc., P.O. Box 81250, 
Mobile, AL 36689, (205) 633- 
4300; fax (205) 633-0013 



INSIDE THE QMS COLORSCRIPT LASER 1000 



Toner/developers 




O A prechai^er unit inside tlie OPC l)eK lays a citarge evenly across the beH. 

@ The printer controller steps through one color plane of image data. This 
data controls the intensity of a laser beam as it sweeps a line across the 
OPC belt. When the beam is on, a corresponding spot on the belt is dis- 
charged. As the belt moves, a latent image composed of discharged areas 
is built line by line. 

@ The portion of the belt storing the latent image passes under four toner/de- 
veloper units. The toner unit that corresponds to the color plane just ap- 
plied to the belt opens. Toner sticlts to the discharged areas and is re- 
pelled from the charged areas. In the figure, magenta toner is being added 
to the image on the belt. For color images, this operation occurs several 
times as the belt rotates and all four process colors are applied. A com- 
plete color image exists on the belt after four belt rotations. 

O The transfer drum is charged and peels the image off the belt. 

@ A bias voltage between the transfer drum and transfer roller pulls the color 
image off the transfer drum and onto the medium. 

® The fuser unit uses heat and pressure to adhere the image to the medium. 



24- BYTE JUI^Y 1993 



QoIq/. 



INK-JET PRINTERS 



Testing the Colorful 

DeskJet 1200C 




lewlett-Packard's Desk- 
Jet 1200C (see "HP Takes Col- 
or Mainstream," June News & 
Views) takes a different ap- 
proach to color printing than 
does QMS's ColorScript Laser 
1000. The 120GC is also aimed 
at businesses looking for col- 
or output, but its speed and cost 
per page make it more suited 
for generating presentations 
and small quantities of high- 



quality color documents. 

While the DeskJet 1200C 
isn't designed for high-volume 
jobs, it also doesn't cost much: 
$ 1 699. It uses the PCL (Printer 
Control Language) 5 PDL 
(page-description language) and 
a Centronics parallel port. The 
DeskJet 1200C/PS costs $2399; 
it adds Adobe PostScript Level 
2 support and a LocalTalk in- 
terface. 



These 300-dpi col- 
or ink-jet printers 
are equipped with 
HP's Resolution Enhancement 
Technology. The controller can 
switch between interfaces and 
PDLs automatically. An MIO 
(modular I/O) slot lets you add 
an Ethernet or Token Ring in- 
terface to either printer. The 
printers can turn out 6 pages 
per minute for text; it takes 2 



COLOR MATCHING 



Apple's ColorSync: WYSIWYG Color 



olor desktop publishing has a problem — 
color fidelity, or color matching. Simply put, 
color WYSIWYG is difficult at best. Printing 
costs can skyrocket because of the numerous 
attempts to obtain a reasonable color match be- 
tween the scanned images or artwork that went 
into the document and the printed pages. 

Some calibrators and color-matching soft- 
ware address this problem, but they usually tie 
you to a specific printer or set of applications. 
Apple's ColorSync is a color-matching solution 
implemented in the Mac OS. As part of the Mac 
OS, color-matching algorithms can be applied 
automatically to all color devices (i.e., the scan- 
ner, printer, and monitor) connected to the Mac. 

ColorSync consists of a Control Panel and 
device profile files. Each profile contains a de- 
scription of the device's color characteristics, 
and ColorSync uses this information to apply 
the color corrections. ColorSync features an 
open architecture, so vendors such as Kodak 
and EFI can supply their own color-matching 
software modules, which transparently replace 
ColorSync's default color-matching algorithms. 

I used a Mac Centris 650, an Apple Color 
OneScanner, and two color printers to explore 
ColorSync's capabilities. The first printer was 
Apple's Color Printer, an ink-jet printer, and 
the second was the Tektronix Phaser II SD, a 



dye-sublimation printer. The Color Printer came 
with a profile, while none was available for the 
Phaser II SD. 

I used Light Source's Ofoto 2.0 software to 
scan in a variety of color images. Output on the 
Apple printer was good, although I've seen bet- 
ter color dithering patterns from a Canon print- 
er. However, the color fidelity between input 
and output was excellent, and I had just picked 
the printer name from a pop-up menu in Ofoto. 

For the Phaser II SD, Ofoto has a clever 
mechanism for producing calibrated output: You 
print a color test pattern on the target printer, 
place this output on the scanner, and scan in the 
image. Ofoto generates color-correction data 
that is available from the pop-up menu the next 
time you print. The colors on Phaser II SD out- 
put, while not perfect, were close to the original. 

In its current form, ColorSync is not a panacea. 
It will take time for vendors to create profiles. 
Applications that make heavy use of color will 
have to be modified to use some of ColorSync's 
services. Finally, how does ColorSync deal with 
color matching for an image that was made with 
one color-matching method, while the host com- 
puter uses a different one? Still, based on the Ap- 
ple Color Printer output, ColorSync is a big step 
toward making color WYSIWYG a reality. 

— ^Tom Thompson 



The DeskJet 1200C produces impressive 
color, especially when you use HP's 
glossy paper. 

minutes per page for color. 

The DeskJet 1200C comes 
with drivers for Windows 3.1, 
Mac System 6.0.x, and System 
7. I used Adobe's PSPrint, a 
PostScript Level 2 print driver, 
and a Mac Centris 650 to con- 
duct my tests in the BYTE Lab. 
I printed a small scanned im- 
age out of Adobe Photoshop 
2.5 successfully, but images 
larger than 2 MB generated a 
PostScript error. I added 8 MB 
of RAM, which brought the to- 
tal to 12 MB. With the extra 
RAM, I printed images as large 
as 1 1 MB with no problems. 

I also unplugged the Local- 
Talk card from the MIO slot 
and replaced it with an HP Jet- 
Direct card that provides 
lOBase-T and lOBase-2 Eth- 
ernet support. The interface 
change took 3 minutes. It took 
another minute to connect a 
thin-wire Ethernet cable to the 
JetDirect's BNC connector. 

With the ample memory and 
a high-speed network interface 
(cost of the unit as tested: 
$3456), the DeskJet handled 
everything I threw at it. The 
output looks fine on plain paper 
and great on HP's special 
glossy paper. The cost pier page 
can range from 8 cents to 
$ 1 .6 1 , depending on the medi- 
um and the amount of ink used. 

— ^Tom Thompson 

Hewlett-Packard Co.. Santa 
Clara, CA 95051, (708) 752- 
0900 



JULY 1993 15 V I I 



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News & Views 



STORAGE 



RAID Down to the Desktop 



RAID (redundant array of inexpensive disks) 
technology has been the province of main- 
frame computers and networks that require 
uninterrupted access to important data, even 
in the case of a drive failure. Although the 
word inexpensive is used, a RAID system 
for NetWare LANs that provided 1.3 GB of 
storage cost as much as $24,000 ($18.46 per 
megabyte) in 1992. 

Now, thanks to the combination of de- 
clining hard drive prices and new products 
from companies like Corel Systems (Ottawa, 
Ontario, Canada) and Micropolis (Chatsworth, 
CA), low-cost RAID solutions are available 
to LAN managers and stand-alone worksta- 
tion users. Daniel Levesque, president of 
Proengineering (Ottawa. On- 
tario, Canada) and developer 
of CorelRAID, said the bene- 
fit of the $995 program is that 
you can implement RAID lev- 
el 5 using a standard SCSI 
controller and three SCSI hard 
drives for as little as $3500. 

Micropolis, which sells a 
low-cost RAID system for 
NetWare, just reduced the 
price of its new modular Raid- 
ion LT array system for OS/2 
and LAN Server. Prices for 
the system start at $6225. 
Taroon Kamdar, executive 
vice president and general 
manager of Micropolis 's stor- 



RAID ON THE SERVER 



Predicted worldwide RAID 
market value of shipments 
for PC servers 



Value of shipments 



(in millions of dollars) 




1993 1994 1995 1996 



Source: Intcfnationat Data Corp. 
{Framingham, MA) 



age systems division, said Raidion LT will be 
used by engineers, programmers, and any- 
one else whose work is time sensitive. 

"Users are being led on that RAID is a 
very complex technology, and it's not," said 
Maury Loomis, director of sales and mar- 
keting at Pacific Micro Data (Tustin, CA). 
Loomis said that too often RAID is sold as a 
proprietary solution, where a user buys a 
subsystem, software, and storage medium 
from the same company at a premium price. 
Loomis said that the support for RAID in 
operating systems like NetWare and Win- 
dows NT will increase awareness of the tech- 
nology among desktop users. The result, he 
said, is that solutions where customers can 
pick and choose components 
will become the norm. 

Bob Katzive, vice president 
of the consulting and mar- 
ket-research firm Disctrend 
(Mountain View, CA), agrees 
that the price of RAID is drop- 
ping but notes that while pro- 
prietary RAID solutions are 
generally more expensive than 
nonproprietary solutions, they 
can also be easier to install 
and maintain. Katzive warns 
that "there's always room for 
a surprise" when you're in- 
stalling a so-called open 
RAID solution. 

— Dave Andrews 



LOW-POWER RISC FROM MIPS 



Promising "Pentium performance in a notebook," 
Mips Technologies (Mountain View, CA) has an- 
nounced the first power-saving chip in its R4000 
microprocessor family, an important step toward 
moving RISC chips from workstations to main- 
stream PCs. The R4200 is intended primarily for 
laptops that can run Windows NT. 

Sample silicon wasn't available at press time, so 
all performance specificatians are preliminary. Ac- 
cording to Mips, the 3-V chip will use only 1.5 W at 
its top internal clock speed of 80 MHz (the exter- 
nal bus runs at 40 MHz). A reduced-power mode 
requires only 0.4 W, and a power-down mode turns 
off the chip altogether. Mips says the R4200 can be 
powered down and reactivated so quickly that a 
system could force the chip Into power-down mode 
between keystrokes when you're typing. 

Mips estimates the R4200 will deliver 55 SPEC- 
marks for integer operations (SPECint92) and 30 
SPECmarks for floating-point operations 
($PECfp92). By contrast, Intel's Pentium delivers 
64.5 SPECInt92 and 56 SPECfp92, respectively. The 
R4200 lacks the parallel pipelines found in the Pen- 
tium, but it does have separate hardware units for 
integer and floating-point instnictions. 

Based on 0.6-micron process technology, the 
R4200 squeezes 1.3 million transistors onto a small 
die of 9.2 by 8.8 millimeters. It has a 16-KB instnic- 
tion cache and an 8-KB data cache. The caches, 
MMU (memory management unit), and system in- 
terface can be removed from the chip, so the logic 
core can be used in embedded applications. 

Mips says the R4200 will be available in quantity 
late this year. Versions will be manufactured by 
Mips, NEC Electronics, and possibly other partners. 
No pricing was announced, but Mips says the goal 
is to sell the chip for $55, or $1 per SPECinL 

— TomR.HaKhill 



MICROPROCESSORS 

Ruling Won't Mean Lower Prices for 486 Chips 



^^^on't expect the prices of 
486 microprocessors to plunge 
just because Advanced Micro 
Devices (Sunnyvale, CA) won 
the latest round in federal court 
and is finally competing against 
Intel for the lucrative 486 mar- 
ket. Although the surprise rul- 
ing cleared the way for it to be- 
gin selling 486 chips, even 
AMD admits it won't be able 
to make enough chips this year 
to dent Intel's market share or 
spark a price war. 



AMD expects to sell a few 
hundred thousand 486 chips 
this year. AMD and industry 
analysts estimate the world- 
wide 486 market at 25 million 
chips this year. TTiey also esti- 
mate that Intel sold 5.5 million 
chips in the first quarter alone. 
In 1994, demand is expected 
to grow to 35 million chips, 
and AMD predicts it will win a 
10 percent to 20 percent share. 

Still, AMD's 486 micro- 
processors give system vendors 



an alternative source of supply 
and allow AMD to tap Intel's 
single largest revenue stream. 
Until now, the only other com- 
mercial source for 486 chips 
was Cyrix (Austin, TX). 

On April 15, a judge ruled 
that Intel did not submit docu- 
ments that could have affected 
the jury's decision. He grant- 
ed AMD's motion for a new 
trial, opening the door for 
AMD to sell 486 chips based 
on Intel microcode. 



AMD is completing work on 
clean-room versions of the 486 
that don't use Intel microcode. 
Those chips, which are sched- 
uled to be announced on July 4, 
will eventually supersede the 
Intel-microcoded chips that 
AMD began shipping in late 
April. Although the clean-room 
versions are almost finished, 
AMD says it wants to begin 
selling 486 chips as soon as 
possible. 

—Tom R. Halfhill 



28 BYTE JULY 1993 



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*Prices valid in US, only. Some products and promotions notavaiiabk in Canada. ^Source: Dataquest, Inc.. 1992. 'Retum'to-faccory service. "Leasing arranged by Leasing Group, Inc. The Intel Inside logo is a 
re^stered trademark and i386 is a trademark of Intel Corporatim^. FORTUNE 500 is a registered trademark of The Time inc. Magazine Company. MS-DOS and Microso/t are registered vrademarks of Microsoft 
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News & Views 



MOBILE COMPUTING 



HP's Superior Subnotebook 



I ewlett-Packard has tak- 
en its mobile-computing am- 
bitions a notch higher with the 
introduction of the HP Omni- 
Book 300, a 386-based sub- 
notebook. It weighs less than 
3 pounds and runs ROM-based 
Windows as well as ROM ver- 




Hie OmniBook's "pop-up" 
mouse literally pops out of 
the subnotebook's case at 
the push of a button. The 
mouse remains attached 
to the system by a type of 
slide-bar tether. 



sions of Word for Windows 
and Excel 4.0. 

The OmniBook boasts sev- 
eral cutting-edge features. In 
addition to running its appli- 
cations, Windows 3.1, and 
DOS 5.0 in ROM, it uses Ad- 
vanced Micro Devices' 3.3-V, 
20-MHz 386SXLV chip set 
and a rechargeable nickel- 
metal-hydride battery pack for 
long battery life. It also of- 
fers mass storage through ei- 
ther a PCMCIA-based 42-MB 
hard drive or 



10-MB flash- 
memory disks 
in PCMCIA 
slots. 

After testing 
a preproduction 
OmniBook, I 
found its full- 
key-spacing 
keyboard suit- 
able for touch- 
typing, a sharp 



contrast to the tiny keyboard 
offered on the 95LX and 
lOOLX. It lacks the color 
graphics found on many high- 
end notebooks, but its screen — 
a 9-inch, VGA-compatible 
FTN-reflective (Film Super- 
twist Nematic) LCD with 16 
levels of gray — is 
acceptable. 

One of the most 
unusual features of 
the OmniBook is 
its pop-up mouse, 
which pops up to fit 
your hand in an er- 
gonomically correct 
way. It takes some 
getting used to, but 
I find it preferable to 
most trackballs. 

Although it has 
no floppy drive, you 
can pass data or ap- 
plications between 
the OmniBook and 
other machines by 
way of PCMCIA 
cards, the OmniBook's stan- 
dard infrared port, or serial-port 
connections using Traveling 
Software's LapLink Remote, 
which is provided with the 
OmniBook. The subnotebook 
is available with either two 
PCMCIA Type II slots for use 
with flash-memory disks or one 
slot for the PCMCIA-based 
hard drive option. 

With sophisticated memory 
management and the exe- 
cute-in-place, ROM-based 
Microsoft ap- 



OMNIBOOK'S KEY FEATURES 



• weighs less than 3 pounds 

• ROM-based Windows 

• Word for Windows and Excel 4.0 in ROM 

• pop-up mouse 

• superior keyboard 
•PCMCIA 42-MB hard drive 

• 10-MB flash-memory disks 

• infrared port 



plications, HP 
claims that an 
OmniBook 
equipped with 
flash-memory 
cards can run 
for up to 10 
hours while us- 
ing only four 
AA batteries. 
Battery life with 
the recharge- 



able nickel-metal-hydride bat- 
teries figures to be about 5 
hours. 

The OmniBook base system 
without flash-memory cards or 
a hard drive is priced at $1515. 
With an optional 42-MB hard 
drive, the system lists for 
$1995, and models with Sun- 
Disk's 10-MB flash disk, 
which uses built-in Stacker data 
compression, will cost $2375. 

— Patrick Waurzyniak 

Hewlett-Packard Co., Santa 
Clara, CA 95051, (708) 752- 
0900 



SHARP COLOR DISPLAY 



It seems too good to be true: a 
passive-matrix display that rivals 
the quality of active-matrix but re- 
quires less battery power and costs 
less — partly because it avoids the 
active-matrix display tariff. 

Sharp Electronics (Camas, WA) 
recently Introduced such a display 
housed in an overhead projection 
panel, and Its Microelectronics 
Components Division says it will of- 
fer this dual-scan display for use In 
notebooks. Dual-scan displays 
scan two horizontal halves of the 
screen simultaneously, resulting in 
a quicker refresh, better contrast 
with little or no ghosting, and more 
uniformity of color. 

Sharp, according to Dataquest's 
Jack Roberts, already claims a ma- 
jority of the market share for note- 
book displays. 

— Ed Perratore 



Qlor 

















NOTEBOOK DISPLAYS 

Toshiba Gets Aggressive 



486SX passive-matrix 
color notebook that sells for 
about $2500 may not sound like 
big news. But it might look like 
it, if you've been disappointed 
with the quality of passive-ma- 
trix color displays but don't want 

to spring for the price of an ac- , . .ti.-i.ij-. 
f b f A companson of Toshiba s display 

tive-matnx color notebook. technologies: traditional passive color 
The Toshiba T 1 900C uses an deft) versus Toshiba's new Dynamic 

impressive display technology '"^^J"'* 

, , photographed under the same lighting 

called Dynamic STN-Color conditions. The differences are 

LCD. The colors are unusually apparent. The Dynamic<olor display is 

saturated and intense for a pas- ' ^p™**™*"* pve^ » pass^e- 

, ... rri ■ , color display, but It still offers about the 

sive-color display. The improved battery life. 

display is primarily the result of 

new high-density bonding techniques used for the 9;^-inch display. 
The screen is split horizontally. The top half of each vertical pix- 
el column is driven from above, and the bottom half is driven 
from below, essentially creating two screens in one package. 
Thus, each pixel is updated twice as often as formerly. With a cus- 
tom video-controller chip and brighter side lighting, the result 
is a noticeable improvement over typical passive color. 

Although prices were not set at press time, you can expect the 
T1900C to sell for about $2500, according to Toshiba (Irvine, 
CA). A monochrome version will be available for less than $2000. 
Those prices include 4 MB of RAM and an 80-MB hard drive. 

— Gene Smarte 



32 BYTE JULY 199.1 



Read 



First came the best-selling 32-bit operating 
system IBM OS/2,® with over 2,000,000 copies 
sold since March 1992. 

Now comes the best- selling "How lb" book for 
OS/2, Client/Server Programming with OS/22.0. 

With over 45,000 copies sold, programmers 
are obviously recognizing the advantages of 
developing client/server applications on OS/2. 

Authors Bob Orfali and Dan Harky provide 
a comprehensive description of how to create 
and utilize OS/2 client/server applications, 
LAN communications, the DataBase Manager, 
presentation services, transaction servers and the new 32-bit 
C Set/2 compiler. 

You'll also be able to read about other client/server products, 
such as DDCS/2™, TCP/IP, CPI-C, NetWare® and Systems Object 
Model (SOM). 

Will Zachman writes that this 
book is "crammed full of excellent 
information on OS/2 . . . [it's] a 
veritable encyclopedia of stuff one 



4 



this 




see 



needs to know these days. 



For an authorized IBM dealer near you, or to 
order OS/2 2.0, call 
1 800 3-IBM-OS2. 

Client/Server 
Programming with 
OS/2 2.0 is available 
in bookstores. You 
can also order it from 



what 

either Van Nostrand Reinhold at 1 800 842-3636 (ISBN Order #0442- 
01219-5), or from IBM at 1 800 879-2755 (Order #G325-0650). 

It's just one more example of how reading can help make you a 
better writer. 

Operate at a higher level!' 




Jo'ert Orfali 
O'" Harkey 



Client/Server 

Programming with 

OS/2,2.0 



Reinhold at 1800 842-3636 (ISBN Order #0442- 2*ed^^^^^ ■ 

BM at 1 800 879-2755 (Order #G325-0650). ^-r^f^A^^^^^T ^=rrB 

re example of how reading can help make you a ^^iQiJ°'"ei''yj^? fir^Tl g 

at a higher leveir _ ^ ^^^^^""^^^^^f 

devel(^sr 

iJ ==~_ 

listered trademarks. DDCS/2 is a trademark, and "Operate at a higher level" is a ser\/ice mark of — ■ — — 

5 Hnmnrpitinn Nf^tWarp it; a rpnitjtprpH trartpmark of Mnvpll Inr (5)1 QQfl IRM (^.nrn ^^^^v — 



VAN NOSTRAND 
REINHOLD 

IBM, NetWare and OS/2 are registered trademarks. DDGS/2 is a trademark, and "Operate at a higher level" is a ser\/ice mark of 
International Business Machines Coiporation. NetWare is a registered trademark of Novell Inc. ©1 993 IBM Corp. 



Circle 95 on Inquiry Card. 




Mtel's video 
brings the same easy 



inde^ 



INTEL VIDEO TtCHNOlOCY 



Introducing Indeo™ 
technology and the Smart 
Video Recorder from Intel. 

When it comes to putting 
video technology on your PC, 
hitel knows exactly which 
buttons to push. 

Intel's new Lideo™ /g 
technology is the first 

video compression technology that lets you capture 
and compress video in one single step. (Now that's 
easy.) And the Smart Video Recorder is the first 

©1993 Intel Corporation. The Indeo logo is a trademark of Intel Corporation. *Third party trademarks are the property of their respective holders. 




video capture board that takes advantage of hideo 
technology. Which means adding the impact of 
motion video to your business presentations is 
faster and simpler than you ever imagined. 

Recording with the Smart 
Video Recorder is as simple as 
pushing a button. And it's fast. It 
only takes one minute to capture 
and compress a one-minute video 
clip. (Other products take up to 15 minutes.) One- 
step recording also cuts the Smart Video Recorder's 
disk space requirements — other systems can require 



I 



technology 



concept fo your PC 




up to five times the disk space. 

A key component of Indeo tech- 
nology, scalable performance adjusts 
playback quality based on your 
system's processing power. And you 
Video for Windows* j^ccd spcclal hardwaTC for 

lets you capture, r 

edit and incorporate playback. ScalaWc performance gives 

vtdeo into Windows ^ ^ 

applications. you thc bcst playback possible from 
the computer you have now, and whatever computer 
you may use in the future. 

You can get started right away, too, because 
Microsoft Video for Windows* and Asymetrix 



Compel* and MediaBlitz* software programs are 
included in the Intel Smart Video Recorder box. 

To learn more about hideo technology and 
the Smart Video Recorder, call 1-800-538-3373, 
ext. 1150. Or to receive information immediately, 
call Intel's automated FaxBACK® service at 
1-800-525-3019 and ask for document 9871. 
Because with Intel, PC video is all fast forward. 



Intel 



Circle 98 on Inquiry Card. 



News & Views 



DATA SECURITY 



Clipped Wings? 

Encryption Chip Draws Fire 



■ art of the Clinton admin- 
istration's vision for a digital 
America is a fast encryption 
chip to help companies and in- 
dividuals protect their secrets 
from prying eyes as voice and 
data messages are sent over 
communications wires. The 
catch is that this encryption 
chip includes a trapdoor that 
will let law-enforcement agen- 
cies listen in. The White House 
believes that the hardware will 
protect all Americans' right to 
privacy while also protecting 
them from those who break the 
law. 

The chip is named Clipper 
(because Intergraph in Hunts- 
ville, Alabama, manufactures 
a processor with the same 
name, the Clipper moniker will 
likely be changed). It is a 12- 
Mbps encryption coprocessor 
designed by Mykotronx (Tor- 
rance, CA) and manufactured 
by VLSI (San Jose. CA). The 
chip is built in a tamper-resis- 
tant package to prevent reverse- 
engineering efforts to reveal 
the classified algorithm used 
inside. 

Along with privacy concerns 
that the government could 
abuse its ability to tap digital 
wires, another impediment to 
widespread acceptance of Clip- 
per will be its cost. Ben Stoltz, 
a member of the technical staff 
at Sun Microsystems (Moun- 
tain View, CA), says, "Our rule 
of thumb is that a part that costs 
n dollars adds 3/? to 4n dollars 
to the final price [of a comput- 
er]." Raymond Kammer. act- 
ing head of the National In- 
stitute of Standards and Tech- 
nology (Gaithersburg, MD), re- 
cently told a U.S. congression- 
al committee that he hopes the 
Mykotronx chips will eventu- 



ally cost $26 each if purchased 
in large quantities. That means 
a potential $75 to $100 addi- 
tion to the price of each com- 
puter that uses the chip. 

Critics of the Clipper chip 
note that less expensive chips 
that provide DBS encryption 
have not received widespread 
acceptance because software 
encryption, although usually 
slower than hardware, is less 
expensive. Jim Bidzos, presi- 
dent of RSA Data Securities 
(Redwood City, CA), says, 
"This is just another arrow 
aimed at preventing people 
from using RSA." RSA's cryp- 
tographic routines will be in- 
cluded in new releases of sys- 
tem software written by Apple 
and Novell and are already 
used in Lotus Notes. 

The government will un- 
doubtedly provide a large mar- 
ket for the Clipper chip initial- 




Under the Clipper scenario, the police get legal permission to eavesdrop and use 
their special key to unlock the "lockbox" containing the serial number of the chip 
that produced the message. The government theoretically obtains legal authorization 
(e.g., a court order) and presents documentation to the two agencies safeguarding 
the keys. Then the government decodes the message using the two keys. 



ly. President Clinton has al- 
ready directed the U.S. Attor- 
ney General Janet Reno to pur- 
chase several thousand units 
for use in computers and se- 



cure phones. The impact of the 
chip on the rest of the world, 
though, will be governed by 
economics. 

— Peter Wayner 



LONDON — 



IS09000: A Quality Opportunity 



^^ompanies wishing to do business in the 
European Community are finding it increasing- 
ly necessary to register for ISO9000 quality cer- 
tification. This evolving standard ensures that 
an organization has the necessary procedures in 
place to deliver consistent products. Certification 
requires controlled documentation and man- 
agement of all processes leading to a product's 
delivery — a task that is ideally suited for soft- 
ware automation if only the right tools were 
available. 

The size of the potential market for such com- 
puter-aided quality management tools is large. In 
the U.K. alone, more than 20,000 companies 
are registered for ISO9000, and the remaining 
200,000 will have to do so by the 1996 dead- 
line. One company that offers software for 



ISO9000 record keeping is Rede Products 
(Swindon, U.K.). Its Quality Records Manage- 
ment System is a modular package for the PC 
that covers most aspects of the standard. Also, 
according to Micrografx (Richardson, TX), con- 
ventional flowcharting software is finding re- 
newed interest among U.S. companies seeking 
to document and disseminate their internal pro- 
cedures. Gordon Sellers, product manager for 
Micrografx's ABC Flowcharter, said the pro- 
gram is the leading revenue generator for the 
company. Companies wishing to do business in 
Europe should be learning about ISO9000 com- 
pliance. Sellers said. "American companies and 
Japanese companies that aren't headed in that di- 
rection are going to be sorry they aren't." 

— Osman Kent 



36 15 V I 1 ; JULY 1993 



COREL P^l/(// 

The Best in Graphics 





Get animated with CorelDRAW 



CorelDRAW is renowned for 
its powerful grapiiics 
capabilities. CorelDRAW 4 
now leaps even furtlier aliead 
by adding page layouts, 
animation and OCR, as well as 
hundreds of other feature 
enhancements. It's the best 
value in software today-and 
it 's still the easiest to use! 

CorelDRAW 4 is the ideal desktop 
publishing tool! It includes 
illustration, charting, photo-editing, 
tracing/OCR and presentation 
capabilities. ..and so much more! 
There are advanced word processing 
features, multi-page layouts and 
dozens of artistic and special 
effects. It's packed with more fonts, 
more clipart images and symbols, 
more graphic tools and business 
applications. And now CorelDRAW 4 
also includes CorelMOVE, a brand 
new animation module. 



ALSO INCLUDES TWO 
BONUS CD-ROMs 

-featuring a complete CD 
version of CorelDRAW 4 plus 
libraries of clipart images and 
symbols, fonts, animation and 
sound, and a Video for Windows 
enhanced QuickTour. 



PAGE LAYOUT 
CHARTING 
ILLUSTRATION 
PHOTO-PAINT 
TRACING/OCR 
PRESENTATIONS 
FILE MANAGEMENT 
ANIMATION 




Comprehensive DTP Features 
Flexible IVIuiti-Page Layouts 
Enhanced Word Processing 
Advanced Direct Scanning 
Powerful OCR 

(Optical Character Recognition) 
Single-Step Business Forms Tracing 
Thousands of Fractal Textures and Fills 
Dazzling Artistic Tools and Special Effects 
Convenient Spreadsheet and 
over 80 Chart Styles 
Object Data IVIanagement 
Over 5,000 "Drag and Drop" Symbols 
and Shapes for faster, easier selection 
and placement 

Over 18,000 Clipart Images and Symbols 
Over 750 Fonts 
(650 Bitstream and ITC) 
Complete Color Separations 
On-line Help 

20 Photo-Paint Filters and 
14 image Correction Filters 
37 Import/Export Filters 

21 Transition Effects 
125 CorelMOVE Animations 
and 420 Cartoons 



18,000 
CLIPART 

Images and symbols 

750 
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Circle 76 on Inquiry Card. 




MlCRDS(»T. 

WINDOWS,. 
CYlMROTBIJ; 




Two PCMCIA 2.0 Slots, 
Type n (5mm) and 
Type "IV" (16mm): 

Twice the expandability. 
Easily accepts multiple 
cards including hard disk 
drives, modems and net- 
work adaptors. 




i 



LCD Status Bar: Delivers an instant read of the 
battery life remaining, power-saving mode, and 
a host of other key notebook settings. 



Blazing 33MHzi486"SL: 

With built-in coprocessor 
support, delivers the 
ultimate in notebook 
processing power. 




Some say the T4600 is 
Because inlife. there 



T4600C 

• 9.5° color active matrix 
TFT-LCD screen 

•120/200/340MBHDD 
•6.9 lbs. 

• NiNAH battery 

T4600 

• 9.5° high-contrast, black and 
white ICD screen 

• 120/200MBHDD 

• 6.4 lbs. 

• NiCd battery 

BOTH MODELS 

• Intel 486SL/33MHZ, 3.3 volt 
processor with 8K cache 

• 4MB RAM expandable to 20MB 

• Type n (Smm) and Type "IV" 
(16inm) PCMCIA slots 

• BaDPoint™ mouse w/QuickPort" 

• Toshiba MaxTime'" Power 
Management system, and 
extensive 3.3v components pro- 
vide industry-leading battery life. 

• Pre-installed 
software: 
DOS 6.0, 
Windows' 
3.1, and 
UltraFont™ 



Large 9.5" Color Active Matrix TFT-LCD Screen: This 
exceptional technology delivers spectacular color for vivid 
graphics and dazzling presentations. 




BallPoint " Mouse with 
QuickPort": Attaches 
easily, without messy 
cords, for ergonomi- 
tally ideal input— 
perfect for 

Windows® **■ 
applications. 



3; 




Replace Your Desktop: 

Just snap your notebook 
into the Desk Station IV, 
and you're instandy con- 
nected to your printer, VGA 
monitor, mouse, and full- 
size keyboard. Now you 
only need one computer 




better thanlife itself, 
is compromise. 



Introducing the T4600 Series. 
Make no compromise. ^ 

Get the awesome power of a 
33MHz i48^"SL processor, and don't 
sacrifice battery life. Add a 9.5" color 
active matrix TFT-LCD screen, and 
access all 185,193 eye-popping 
VGA colors. Pack a massive 
340MB hard drive and 
never have to leave a file at 

Get your hands on the BallPoint " mouse, snap it into its 
QuickPort'", and never waste a moment or a motion. 




:home 



Cany two slots for industry-standard PCMCIA 
cards — including one large enough for the new 
generation of removable 
hard drives— and take the 
next big step in peripherals. 
Glance at the QuickRead 
LCD status icon bar 
for an instant read of 
tterylife, power 
management, keyboard settings, and more. 
This is no time for compromise. This is the 
time to get your hands on the T4600 Series. 
For a dealer near you, call 1 (800) 457-7777. 



In Touch with Tomorrow 

TOSHIBA 



1993 Toshiba America Information Systems, Inc. The Intel Inside logo is a trademark of Intel Corporation. All product indicated by trademark symbols are trademarked and/or registered by their respective companies. 

Circle 1 50 on Inquiry Card. 



News & Views 



FINANCES 



The Bottom Line: 

A Quicker Quicken 



old favorite has just 
gotten better. Intuit's Quicken 
4 for the Mac has reached new 
levels of speed and conve- 
nience by enhancing the data- 
entry aspects of its reliable 
checkbook-based bookkeeping 
program. Its price is $69.95. 

Primarily a personal-finance 
program, Quicken 4 for the 
Mac can also serve as a cash- 
based bookkeeping system for 
a small business. Its advantages 
are that it is organized as a tra- 
ditional checkbook, and it lets 
you build a bookkeeping sys- 
tem one account at a time. 
However, Quicken 4 has to be 
"fooled" to accommodate 
bookkeeping issues such as 
early-payment discounts for ac- 
counts payable and accounts 
receivable. 



PERSONAL FINANCETAKES OFF 



Consumer-oriented finance software 
experienced exceptional growth in 
1992, according to the Software Pub- 
lishers Association (Washington, 
DC). Sales in this category, largely 
personal-finance and tax programs, 
were up 34 percent from 199L 




btimated North American home-finance software sates 
(measured at retail in millions of dollars) 



Intuit offers a more complete 
bookkeeping program called 
QuickBooks for small busi- 
nesses with DOS-based PCs, 
but this program is not avail- 
able for Windows or the Mac. 
Sources say the company will 
likely release the Windows 
version this year and the Mac 
version in 1994. 

Intuit has added a rich hand- 
ful of features to Quicken 4. 
One is QuickFill, which works 
as a "clairvoyant." As you 
make entries into the register. 
Quicken 4 rapidly searches for 
previous transactions that start 
with the same letters. With this 
new feature, the entry of reg- 
ular transactions takes about 
half as much time as it did in 
Quicken 3. You can also pro- 
gram repeated transactions 
(e.g., a mortgage payment) to 
enter themselves automatically. 

Intuit has added more sub- 
tle improvements to nearly all 



its Quicken 4 
windows for the 
sake of saving 
keystrokes and 
mouse-clicks. Creating reports 
(e.g., profit and loss and net 
worth) is simplified through a 
report-creation dialog box that 
is much clearer than that found 
in the previous version. You 
can access report transaction 
detail with the new Quick- 
Zoom feature. Once a report is 
displayed, you can move the 
mouse pointer to any transac- 
tion and double-click for more 
information. 

Quicken 4 tracks loans, of- 
fers its own credit card (credit- 
card statements are available 
on-line, on disk, or in printed 
form), and manages invest- 
ments such as mutual funds or 
foreign currency. You can pay 
bills electronically with Check- 
Free, with computer-printed 
checks, or with handwritten 




A welcome addition to Quicken 4 for tlie 
Mac's menu bar is grapliing, whicli 
offers a handy way to view budgets, net 
worth, and investments. 

checks. New financial planning 
calculators help you refinance 
a mortgage, budget for college, 
and plan for retirement. 

Quicken 4 is a welcome up- 
grade to an already excellent 
program. The program has not 
moved toward becoming a 
more complete business ac- 
counting system, but it should 
serve the needs of many small 
businesses. Useful additions for 
businesses would be integrat- 
ed invoicing, more sophisticat- 
ed accounts payable manage- 
ment, and payroll calculation. 

— Chris Kofer 

Intuit, Menlo Park, CA, (415) 
322-0573; fax (415) 329-3689 



HOME OFFICE 



Computer Associates Heads for Home 



^^omputer Associates' PC 
group has decided to enter the 
small/home office market. It 
is taking on mighty Intuit, 
whose flagship finance prod- 
uct Quicken even Microsoft 
has failed to topple. 

The product, Kiplinger's 
CA-Simply Money, relies on 
CA's association with finan- 
cial publisher Kiplinger to provide advice on 
short- and long-term topics like home equity 
loans. CA-SM ($69.99 retail) relies on drag- 
and-drop features to simplify many of its oper- 
ations and uses larger-than-normal program 
icons (see the screen) that are clearly labeled. 






r- 




-4 



You can access CA-SM's re- 
financing, interest, and loan 
financial calculators from any- 
where in the program. 

CA has established a link 
with BillPay USA, a service 
accessible to Prodigy users 
that lets you pay bills elec- 
tronically. CA-SM also in- 
cludes communications func- 
tions that let you download up-to-the-minute 
stock updates from CompuServe and from CA's 
own 900 number. — Ed Perratore 

Computer Associates, Inc., Islandia. NY, 
(516) 342-5224: fax (516) 342-5734 



40 BYTE JULY 1993 




Introducing the HP LaserJet 4M. 



Now everyone can tap the 
power and performance of an 
HP LaserJet printer The HP 
LaserJet 4M. A printer made 
with everything your PC and 
Mac users expect: built-in 
genuine PostScript™ Level 2 
from Adobe7 6 MB of standard 
memory, standard Locallklk, 
optional EtherTalk, built-in 
Windows TrueType fonts, and 




the best 600-dpi print quality 
available. 

Greater flexibility for 
mixed environments. 

Because it's designed to be 
shared simultaneously, the 
LaserJet 4M gives you greater 
flexibility for mixed environ- 
ments without compromise to 
either Automatic language 
switching between 
PCL 5 and PostScript, 
3 hot I/O ports, and 
new RISC processor 
make sure no one will 
have to wait around 
for this printer. 

The finest print 
quality in its class. 

With HP's microfine 
toner, Resolution 
Enhancement tech- 
nology, and 600 X 
600-dpi engine, the 
new LaserJet 4M 



printer also 
delivers the 
finest 600-dpi 
print quality 
available. 




Four times ihe dots fo 
better resolution. 



Its wide range of typefaces, two 
integrated paper trays, and the 
options of a 500-sheet tray 
and a power envelope feeder 
set a new standard in 
versatility. 

HP quality and reliability. 

Of course, with the LaserJet 
4M printer, you'll enjoy HP's 
renowned quality and relia- 
bility All for only $2,399.* 
So call 1-800-LASERJET 
(1-800-527-3753), Ext. 7341** 
for a free print sample.^ Or 
visit your nearest authorized 
HP dealer 

If it isn't a LaserJet, 
it's only a laser printer. 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 



© 1993 Hewlett-Packard Company PE 1235S 'Snggested U.S. list price. "In Canada call 1-800-387-3867, Ext. 7341. Adobe and PostScript are 
trademarks of Adobe Systems Inc. which may be registered In certain jorisdict ions, tlb have a LaserJet 4M printer data sheet sent Immediately 
via fax machine, call 1-B0O-964-I667 from your toach-tone phone. 



"So there I was, playing with 
my Nintendo® and Dad was all 
spazzed out No one at his office 
thought they could handle one of 
those storage things. You know, 
the disks and tape deals. Well, 
Dad said these guys at Conner 
told him it's so simple a Md could 
do it. So I did Dad got a raise, 
I got a suit, and TU be home late. 

QK Mom?" 



85 MB. 120 MB. 170 MB. 250 MB 
Internal Disk Drives 

Available in 3.5" x 1" form factors to fit the latest, 
most advanced PCs. All are up and running with a 
simple DOS command. 



250 MB minicartridge 
Internal T^pe System 

Uses the PC's existing 
floppy controller and 
features easy-to-use, 
Simply Safe backup 
software. 



250 MB minicaitridge 
Parallel Port/Portable 
'lap*' System 
Includes a parallel 
interface for fast 
system connection 
and daisy chain 
pnnting. 





9 



J) ' 



2 GB or 4 GB DAT 
Internal Tape System 
Include Conner Backup Exec 
software for DOS, Windows 
and NetWare. 



250 MB, 525 MB or 1.3 GB 
cartridge 

Internal l^pe System 

Provide greater capacity and 
speed and include Conner 
Backup Ebtec™ Software. 



Conner Backup Software 

Backup software for 
Conner and other tape 
systems running under 
DOS/Wmdovre and 
NetWare. 



The Storage Answer 



Call 1-800-755-0535 for the Conner dealer nearest you. 

All trademarks or registered trademarks are of their respective owners. © 1993 Conner Peripherals, Inc. 

Circle 1 1 3 on Inquiry Cord (RESELLERS: 114). 



News & Views 



ENERGY STAR 



Big Blue's Green PC 



^^ong before President Clinton's decree in 
April that the federal government should buy 
only computer equipment that's compliant with 
the specifications of the EPA's Energy Star pro- 
gram, IBM, AST Research, and other vendors 
had been preparing energy-efficient models. 

In developing its family of energy-conserving 
PS/2s. IBM borrowed power management and 
other features from its high-end notebook, the 
ThinkPad 700C. The most obvious appropriation 
is the 10.4-inch, color, TFT (thin-film transistor) 
flat-panel monitor developed with Toshiba. This 
display, which is expected to sell for less than 
$2000, draws just 2 1 W when active and a mere 
3 W in sleep mode. A power-managed CRT will 
also be available as an option for about $750. 

The system itself, expected to sell for about 
$3000 ($2000 for diskless systems), redefmes the 
term small footprint with its 12- by 12- by 2'A- 
inch size, or about the size of a large 3-ring 
binder. A 3.6- V, 25-/50-MHz 486SLC2 proces- 
sor powers the system, which comes with a me- 



dia-sensing 1 .44-MB floppy drive, an ISA 
passive backplane with integrated serial 
and parallel ports, support for XGA-2 
(Extended Graphics Array) graphics 
(1024 by 768 pixels with 256 colors), and 
PS/2 mouse and keyboard ports. The sys- 
tem ships standard with 8 MB of RAM, 
which you can upgrade to 16 MB. 

Three of the five systems in IBM's new PS/2 
family will come with a PCMCIA interface card 
that installs atop the system's passive backplane. 
The card has two controllers, each of which can 
run either two PCMCIA Type I or 2 cards or 
one of the thicker Type 3 cards. Thanks in part 
to their use of PCMCIA, the systems typically 
draw just 24 W in normal use and only 16 W 
in sleep mode. By the time you read this, IBM 
expects to have PCMCIA Ethernet, Token Ring, 
and 3270 cards available. Plans call for PCMCIA 
fax modems, solid-state memory cards, and even 
a 105-MB hard drive in 1993. 

— Ed Perratore 



OPERATING SYSTEMS 



OS/2 Without Microsoft Windows? 



chief marketing and 
technical strength of OS/2 2.x 
has been its capability to run 
16-bit Windows and DOS ap- 
plications concurrently with na- 
tive OS/2 applications. In re- 
leases following OS/2 2.1, 
however, the version of Win- 
dows that IBM includes in 
OS/2 probably won't be iden- 
tical to the Windows from Mi- 
crosoft. 

This dichotomy is due to the 
expiration in September of 
IBM and Microsoft's JDA 
(Joint Development Agree- 
ment), which permitted IBM 
to use Microsoft's Windows 
source code. It also gave Mi- 
crosoft free use of OS/2 code. 
But unless the two companies 
renew the JDA — and sources 
at IBM say the company will 



indeed let the JDA expire — the 
version of Windows in OS/2 
won't contain any new Mi- 
crosoft Windows code at all. 

"Source code is a real nice 
thing to have, but remaining 
compatible is not rocket sci- 
ence," said IBM media 
spokesman Rob Crawley. He 
said that although the source 
code tap will be shut off this 
September, IBM retains the 
rights to the API "forever." 
In theory, this would permit 
IBM to create its own version 
of Windows, although Craw- 
ley would not comment on this 
option. Neither would he con- 
firm the rumored possibility of 
a version of OS/2 without Win- 
dows that might coexist with a 
system already equipped with 
DOS and Windows. Sources 



also said IBM is considering 
adding support for Microsoft's 
Win32s API. 

Another avenue for IBM to 
add Windows compatibility to 
OS/2 could come from Insignia 
Solutions (Mountain View, 
CA), developer of the SoftPC 
line of products. Insignia offi- 
cials said that the company's 
agreement with Microsoft does 
not preclude it from develop- 
ing a SoftPC for OS/2. 

Meanwhile, sources say that 
units of IBM at Boca Raton, 
Yorktown Heights, and else- 
where are quietly developing 
software products for Windows 
NT in addition to OS/2, AIX, 
and lower-end platforms. News 
of an NT version of DB2 has 
already leaked out. 

— Ed Perratore 



UNIX DOES WINDOWS 



Microsoft recently announced that it 
will provide Insignia Solutions with 
eariy access to Windows source code 
and API directions. Insignia will be 
able to improve the performance of 
native Windows applications as they 
nin on top of Unix. Insignia already 
provides the technology to Microsoft 
that gives the non-Intel versions of 
Windows NT their backward compati- 
bility with Windows applications. 

"The Windows APIs are moving 
on," said Nick Samuel, CEO of In- 
signia. He said that the Microsoft-In- 
signia agreement will let his company 
be better prepared to provide high- 
performance Windows-emulation so- 
lutions for Unix as Microsoft adds 
video, object-oriented technology, 
mail, and sound to Windows. "We 
need to stay current It is extremely 
difficult. . .to stay current if you're 
having to do it after the [operating 
system] is released." 

Meanwhile, SunSelect (Chelms- 
ford, MA) continues to work on its 
WA6I (Windows Application Binary 
Interface) technology for running 
popular Windows applications on 
Unix "at full performance" and with- 
out the need for DOS or Windows it- 
self. (For more information on WABI, 
see "SunSelect Intrigues with WABI 
for Unix," February BYTE, page 36). 
SunSelect plans to release the initial 
version of WABI sometime this sum- 
mer. Unix System Laboratories says 
it will integrate versions of its oper- 
ating system with WABI so that Win- 
dows and Unix applications will run 
on System V release 4.2 desktops. 

— Dave Andrews 



"•4 BYTE .lULY 1993 



Not just a new Sound Blaster: 
A new 16-bit audio standard 




Introducing the Sound Blastef" 16 
Digital Audio Platform. A new concept 
in sound cards. And a new standard 
for 16-bit PC audio. 

You Won't Believe Your Ears. 

PC audio never sounded so good- 
genuine CD-quality audio with fully 
12% more dynamic 
response and 15% 
Hands-free W better signal-to- 
voke control. noise ratio than 

any competing 16-bit sound board. Plus 
software data compression that delivers 
16-bit fidelity while maximizing disk storage capacity 
But there's more. Included in the Sound Blaster 16 
package is the biggest advancement in PC control since 
the invention of the mouse: our exclusive VoiceAssist " 
software. It's a sophisticated speech recognition interface 
that uses a 32,000-command library to control Windows 
applications hands-free! 

The Only Sound Card that Grows With You. 

Unlike other 16-bit cards, Sound Blaster 16 comes with 
built-in interfaces for CD-ROM, MPU-401 MIDI and 

joystick control. And the unique 
modular, scalable architecture 
lets you add more advanced 
features and technolo- 
gies as you need them. 

Like our Advanced 
Signal Processing 
chip that delivers 4:1 
real-time hardware 
data compression 
while reducing CPU time up to 
65%. Or professional-quality 
sampled wave synthesis with our 




Tlw new Ib-bil PC midio standnrd: liii:ludci piogmminabic mixer, iiiiLrophunc, 
VoiceAssist speech recognition software, plus more than $1000 in software applications. 



plug-in Wave Blaster'" daughter board. 

And- unlike other cards-the 
Sound Blaster 16 is 100% compatible with 
every game and application ever written 
for the Sound Blaster. . .which is to say 
virhaally every game and application available for sound. 




i pgrdding is as 
■wnple as plugging 
in a daughter board. 



FEATURES 



State^f-the-Ait PC Sound with 
16-bit Codec digital audio chip. 

164it Data Compression 

saves disk space without loss 
of signal cpiality. 

Upgradable, Modular Platform 

makes it easy to add new tech- 
nologies like Advanced Signal 
Processing and Wave Blaster. 

100% CompatlbllHy with all 
Sound Blaster applications, 
plus aoss platform support for 
Windows 3.1, DOS or OS/1. 




I pgnule lo 
Adranred Sig- 
nal Processing 
with one chip. 



Nobody Packs in More Value Than 
the industry leader. 

And as if that weren't enough, we've completed the package 
with more than $1000 wortfi of leading software- not too 
shabby considering the entire package retails for just $249.* 

So let's face it. When it comes to audio quality fea- 
hires, and bottom-line value, we've got it all right here. With 
the Sound Blaster 16-the new 16-bit PC audio standard. 

For more information about Creative Labs products 
and the name of your nearest Sound Blaster Dealer, 
call 1-800-998-5227. 



CREATIVE 



BLASTER 



CREATIVE LABS, INC 



\T^T\ *BaseSRP. 

•[j^l I © Copyright 1993 Creative Technology Ltd. Sound Blaster, VoiceAssist, Wave Blaster and the Sound Blaster and Creative Labs logos are trademarks of Creative Technology Ltd. 
vvtntoJvI™ other trademarks are owned by their respective companies. Creative Labs 1-408428-6600. 
C(*ffl\TmE International inquiries: Creative Technology Ltd., Singapore. TEL 65-773-0233 FAX 65-773-0353. 



Circle 1 64 on Inquiry Card. 




E 



6 6 6 6 6 6 6 



ven a free memory manager may not be a bargain— especially if it 
can't give you all the memory you need. 

Introducing QEMM 7 
me Memory Manager Worth l^'ng For 

The newest version of the Quarterdeck Expanded Memory Manager 
(QEMM), version 7, once again is extremely innovative in using the 
critical area between 640K and 1024K. It finds space for more TSRs and 
drivers in this area than anyone thought possible. It optimizes this area, 
taking into account the many drivers that need more memory at start- 
up than when running; instantly calculating millions of possible 
memory configurations to find still more memory for your programs to 
use. And it treats the rest of memory as a giant pool to instantly hilfiU 
the needs of all of your programs— whether they use extended or 
expanded memory Whether your PC has 1 megabyte or 16, you can 
benefit from new QEMM 7. 

Instant Riches 

what does more memory mean in a practical sense? It means that your 
DOS and MS Windows programs run faster, 
smoother and more reliably It means you can 
continue to add valuable utilities, drivers, 
TSRs and new capabilities to your PC. 
Whether it's workhorse drivers like LAN util- 
ities and fax drivers; productivity-enhancers 
like disk caches and disk compressors; or fun and 
exciting capabilities like sound boards, CD ROM drivers, graphics 
tablets, etc. The better your memory is managed, the more versatility 
and flexibility your PC has. QEMM 7 lets you have it all without fear of 
'out of memory' messages or crashes. 




How to Look 
a Gift Horse 
in ttie Mouth 




We tested DOS 6 with and without MemMaker and with QEMM6 and our new QEMM7 
runs away trow all of them. See details of test conditions listed below. 

D0S6Giveth;D0S6TakethAway 

The best feature of new DOS 6 is the stable of utilities it includes. 
Trouble is^ they all eat up memory. DoubleSpace file compression needs 
43K, Vsafe anti-virus needs 7-45K, Smartdrv disk cache needs 28K and 
even Undelete takes 10-14K as a resident program. Using 
Microsoft's free memory utility MemMakei; you could 
easily end up with a net loss of available 'conventional' 
memory in DOS 6. 

New QEMM 7 takes the best of the new DOS 6 
features into account finding ways to give you more 
free memory for your program while taking full advan- 
tage of DOS 6. One new QEMM 7 feature, DOS-Up 
moves the DOS 6 kernel, its data and resources to 
memory above 640K (this feature also works with DOS 
3-5), freeing 7-70K. Another new QEMM 7 feature. 
Stealth DoubleSpace, frees 40K of the memory 
addresses used by DoubleSpace and makes them avail- 
able for other drivers and TSRs. Both features ensure 
that the all-important memory below 640K is free for 
your programs. And QEMM 7's seemingly small feature 
of supporting DOS 6's multiple configurations gives you the flexibility 
and ease of setup that you expect. (MemMaker doesn't work well with 
this important DOS 6 feature.) That's why it makes more sense than 
ever to put your money on the best memory manager— QEMM. 

Pdge Frame: the Key to Your Future 

There's been a lot of talk about our patent-pending Stealth technology 
Jealous talk, mostly Because nobody else can touch its performance. 
Our Stealth ROM feature, pioneered in QEMM 6, frees 48-I15K of ROM 
addresses for use by TSRs and drivers. Our Stealth DoubleSpace 
feature, described above, frees another 40K. And as you might imagine, 
there's more to come. 



ANALYST'S CHOICE 




It Pt/COMPHTIHC 

iSi 


PRODUOl 
YEAR 1 


w 

100 


CI lOICE 


HIT PC PIDDUCIS 
C « T t « 0 1 T 

WINNER 


E 








BVTEBVTEBVTE 

KSSSHI IdrilliWIdlldM EI^iSsl^H 

El^^^^^H iiMdsMiinMTMa ezs^^^h 



There's lots more to QEMM 7: 

• Tuned for MS Windows 

• New ability to use Vidram inside 
MS Windows 

• DPMI Host 

• Pentium Support 

• Laptop suspend /resume support 

• PS/2 micro channel adapters 

• Compaq support 

• Fine tuning tools for power users 

• 32-bit architecture for speed 

• Enhanced compatibility in response 
to hardware needs of our milhons 
of users: 

Detects adapter RAM and ROM 
and bus-mastering hard drive 
controllers 

Monitors DMA access into 
memory 

Supports Shadow RAM 



Prior versions of QEMM won just about 
every competition in sight, as well as 
remaining the itl best-selling memory 
manager 5 years straight. 



The key to Stealth is its use of a 
64K reserved area above 640K called 
the page frame. Besides being used by 
Stealth, the page frame is used by 
Lotus 1-2-3 r2.x for larger spread- 
sheets and WordPerfect 5.x for larger 
documents, DESQview for multitask- 
ing, Novell Netware, IBM LAN Server 
and DECnet for reducing the network 
driver memory footprint plus games 
like Wing Commandei; Car and Driver, 
Ultima Underworld II, Wolfenstein and 
others for fast action. You sacrifice all 
this when you turn off the page frame 
(which other memory 
managers do to maxi- 
mize available 

memory above 640K). It's this use of the page frame by 
Stealth that lets you set up your PC with a mouse, CD 
ROM, sound board, a network such as Novell 
NetWare, reserve 8-24K of extra memory for optimal 
MS Windows performance, use all of DOS 6's 
memory-hungry utilities and still have more than 
630K available for your programs. (Compared to DOS 
6's 527K available in the same configuration, after 
using MemMaker). 

Easier to use for Novices, 
More Power for Experts; 
More Memory for Everyone 

Our seventh-generation thoroughbred QEMM has improved ease-of- 
use, with Express Install and Help features. And for power users. 
Advanced Install and editable parameters and troubleshooting hints. 

And QEMM 7 comes with Manifest the award-winning memory 
analyzer— enhanced for more flexibility— from Pentium testing to lap- 
top battery reporting; network analysis to editable configuration files. 

The new and ever more exciting capabilities coming to your PC 
will all compete for memory with your favorite application^ TSRs and 
drivers. And that makes QEMM 7 the front runner in your efforts to get 
get the best performance out of your PC today— and tomorrow. 




Quarterdeck Office System^ 150 Pico Boulevard Santa Monica, CA 90405 (310) 392-9851 Fax (310) 3144219 

Quarterdeck International Ltd, B.I.M. House, Crofton Terrace, Dun Laoghaire Co. Dublin, Ireland Tel. (353) (1) 284-1444 Fax: (353) (1) 2844380 

QEMM Users: upgrades are available from dealers. 
You can also buy direct from Quarterdeck. Call (800) 354-3222 ext 1D7 and ask about our special Game Pack offer witii your upg^de! 

How ws gilt the dutimmberi CPU— 186/33 ALR Power/business VE15A machine equipped with 16 megs of RAM and ninningMS-D0S6. Companions were done asing the following memory managers; QEMM 7, QEMM 6.02, MS-DCS 6 MemMaker. Inaddihon to the driver (or drivers) 
requiredby each memory manager, the following drivers, DOS resouros and programs were loaded for all compansons; in the CONHCSYS file: SETVER.EXE, D0S=H1GH, F1LES.20, BUFFERS=10, STACKS^.O, MVSOUNDSYS, SNDBK12.SYS, SLCD.SyS, DOS SHELL^fatement, in the 
AUTOEXECBAT file: VSAfE MSCDEX, UNDELETE, LSL.COM, NE2(»0.COM, IPX0D1.COM, NETX OR EMSNEH, M0USE.COM, SMARTDRV.COM, PRTSCCAP.COM. 
©1993 (Jiarterdeck Office Systems. Trademarks are property of theirrespective owners. 

Circle 1 35 on Inquiry Card . 



tSSBI Jordan 

KHALDOON TABAZA 

Windows 
on Arabia 



A 



Lrabs take great pride in 
their language. It remains the 
most important cultural factor 
bringing together more than 
215 million Arabs living across 
the Middle East. Its flexibility 
and variety make it a source of 
beauty and creativity in Arab 
literature and art. But for many 
years, the technology enabling 
the use of Arabic in comput- 
ing lagged. Now, thanks to Mi- 
crosoft and a host of Middle 
Eastern software companies, 
Arabic is catching up fast. 

Arabic differs from Latin 
languages in many aspects, the 
most important being that it is 
written from right to left. Also, 
Some Arabic characters are 
connected to each other, and 
the shape of a character usual- 
ly differs according to its loca- 
tion in a word. Some charac- 
ters have up to four different 
shapes. Another important as- 
pect of Arabic is its use of dia- 
critics over certain characters. 
The pronunciation of the char- 
acter — and the meaning of the 
word containing that charac- 
ter — differ according to the di- 
acritic imposed over it. 

Early attempts at "Arabiz- 
ing" software involved writing 
pure Arabic applications from 
scratch using English pro- 
gramming languages and op- 
erating systems. Producing 
Arabic characters on a com- 
puter screen required adding 
about 65 new characters to the 
usual Latin ASCII code. Writ- 
ing programs from scratch, 
however, proved to be a te- 
dious and financially unre- 
warding job. 



§ 



pr Editor 



CoWo! Psmei Ptri Manager Cfipboard MS-DOS Windows 
Viewer Prompt Setup 



I 



Arabization really 
took off with the 
concept of "transpar- 
ent Arabization": producing a 
software layer that ran over the 
existing version of DOS and 
let the user write in Arabic us- 
ing existing Latin applications. 
Because of widespread piracy, 
the first transparent solutions 
included pieces of hardware 
that converted Latin characters 
in the original application into 
Arabic characters. 

Many companies in the Mid- 
dle East established their own 
Arabization layers. They used 
cheaper and easier-to-install 
software solutions to run over 
DOS. A program called Na- 
fiatha from 01 Systems in 
Bahrain is the most popular. 
Another successful Arabiza- 
tion shell, from a Cairo-based 
company called al-Alamiah, 
was unique in offering the first 
Arabic spelling checker. Mi- 
crosoft also recently released 
an Arabic support disk that will 
accompany DOS 5.0 and DOS 
6. These different methods for 
Arabization have caused in- 
compatibility problems for 
users and deprived developers 
of a solid platform to develop 
Arabic applications. 

On the GUI side, Macintosh 
users had a strong version of 
the operating system developed 
by Apple in 1986. PC users, 
however, had to wait until 1 992 
for Microsoft to provide Win- 
dows 3.1 with Arabic Lan- 
guage Support. 

Windows 3.1 with Arabic 
Language Support has Latin 
menus and messages but pro- 
vides a degree of transparent 



^1 i^j) 



III 

ui>> 

0 



K. 



a: 



I 



Arabization that lets users use 
Arabic in most Latin applica- 
tions. It also provides compat- 
ibility with existing Arabiza- 
tion systems and an Arabic 
version of Windows Write. 
Most important, it provides a 
solid platform on which devel- 
opers can write purely Arabic 
or Arabic-aware applications. 

Microsoft Windows 3. 1 with 
Arabic Language Sup- 
port is just an enhanced 
version of the original 
English release, but 
Microsoft promises 
more direct support for 
Arabic. The first ver- 
sion of Multilingual 
Windows, which was 
slated to be available 
in June, will be a ful- 
ly localized Arabic 
Windows. 

This release will give 
Arab users an early 
taste of the technology 
planned for the forthcoming 
versions in other languages. It 
will let users with only one 
copy of Windows install and 
use as many languages as they 
wish. Users can purchase vari- 
ous Language Kits and switch 
to different languages on the 
fly. Arab users, for example, 
will get a basic English-Ara- 
bic version of Windows. Lat- 
er they can buy additional kits 
for languages such as French 
or Japanese. ■ 

Khaldoon Tabaza is an Amman- 
based computer writer. He can be 
reached on BIX c/o "editors. " 



The Middle East is one 
of the fastest growing 
computer markets. So it's 
not surprising that the 
first version of Microsoft's 
Multilingual Windows 
(above) is an Arabic 
version that includes 
localized menus and 
error messages. 




BYTE JULY 1993 



SEE UPGRADABILITY 
IN A WHOLE NEW LIGHT. 



Intel's OverDrive' Processor technology 
represents a new upgrade philoso- 
phy. Based on a single chip form 
factor — not boards, or modules. It 
lets you add future processor tech- 
nology to your current PC. 

This second Technology Briefing 
will explain how our OverDrive 
Processor technology works. 



Single chip 
processor 

UPGRADE. 

Intel has designed its 
new microprocessor 
families to be upgrad- 
able with OverDrive 
Processors. To do this, 
OverDrive Processors 
are actually based on 
and designed in 
tandem with 
our latest 
microproces- 
sors. To make 
OverDrive 
Processors 
compatible with 
the previous 
Intel microproces 
sors, they have been 
designed with a special 
external interface. This 
enables OverDrive 
Processors to plug 
directly into existing 
systems equipped with 
OverDrive Processor 
sockets. Once installed, 
they will increase appli 
cation performance by 
40 to 70%. 




The UPGRADE PATH. 

The first OverDrive 
Processor is based on 
an Intel486™ DX2 CPU 
core. It upgrades your 
Intel486 SX or DX CPU- 
based system to near 
Intel486 DX2 
perfomiance. Pentium™ 
OverDrive 

Processors are 
under devel- 
opment for 
Intel486 sys- 
tems and next- 
generation 
OverDrive 
Processors 
are already 
being designed 
for Pentium proces- 
sor-based systems. 

The ENABLING 
TECHNOLOGY. 

The core of every 
OverDrive Processor is 
a microprocessor, 
enhanced with new 
technology such as the 
DX2's "speed doubling" 
technology or the 




Pentium processor "s 
"superscalar" technology. 

This enhanced micro- 
processor core allows 
faster instruction execu- 
tion without having to 
modify the external 
system clock speed or 
memory sub- 
system. 

The cache 

IS KEY. 

Simply 
putting a faster 
processor core 
into a PC 
doesn't help 
much unless 
the system can supply 
enough data to keep it 
busy. That's why every 
OverDrive Processor 
also contains a large on- 
chip cache. The cache 
frees the OverDrive 
Processor to work inde- 
pendently of the memory 
subsystem. In fact, 90% 
of the time the cache 
contains the necessary 
instructions and data. 

BlU CONNECTING 
THE PIECES. 

The final component 
of an OverDrive 
Processor is the Bus 
Interface Unit (BIU). Its 
job is to transfer data 
between the OverDrive 
Processor and the exter- 
nal system in a way that 
is completely compati- 
ble with the original 
microprocessor. In 
addition, each BIU is 
designed to maximize 
system performance, 
based on the bus band- 
width of the original 
system and core micro- 
processor technology. 




^^EDDOUBLEH^ 



SYSTEM BUS 




Software power. 

The new "speed dou- 
bling" core of the 
Intel486 DX2 OverDrive 
Processor roughly dou- 
bles your original CPU 
performance. Overall, 
this translates into an 
application performance 
gain of 40 to 70% (see 
chart on the back page). 
Naturally, system bottle- 
necks such as disk drive 
accesses, bus bandwidth 
and graphics speed 
keep the i486'" DX2 
OverDrive Processor 
from fully doubling 
system performance. 



OVERDRIVE 



Intel486 DX2 OverDrive Processor 
FOR Intel486 SX or DX systems. 
Today's i486 DX2 OverDrive Processor combines 

i486 TECHNOLOGY (AN INTEGER UNIT, A FLOATING-POINT 
UNIT AND AN 8K CACHE ON ONE CHIP), WITH SPEED 
DOUBLING TECHNOLOGY. FOR EXAMPLE, THE OVERDRIVE 
PROCESSOR DOUBLES THE INTERNAL OPERATING SPEED 

OF A 33-MHz Intel486 DX CPU-based system to 66 
MHz. And while the CPU is operating twice as fast 
internally, it keeps its original external speed to 
maintain system compatibility. 




Pentium OverDrive Processor archi 
tecture for lntel>186 systems. 
The next generation Pentium OverDrive 
Processor will use Pentium processor 
superscalar technology that exe- 
cutes two instructions simultaneously, 
a 16 KB on-chip cache memory, a 
redesigned floating-point unit capable of 
one instruction per clock cycle, with a 
bus interface unit optimized for a 
32-BIT i486 CPU BUS. 



Intel486 DX2 
OverDrive processor 
speeds up applications. 

This chart represents the 
increase in performance 
with some popular software 
applications. 




Source: Intel OverDrive Processor Performance Brief. 



The Intel iCOMP™ Rating Index* 



ICOMP rating for base system. 

iCOMP rating after adding an OverDrive Processor. 



i486 DX-33 


















i486 SX-33 


















i486 DX-25 


















i486 SX-25 


















i486 SX-20 










0 


50 


100 150 200 


250 300 


"The iCOfyIP index is an Intel microprocessor "horsepower" rating It is a composite of selected performance measurements from SPEC 92, ZD Bench, 
and Whetstone. Source: ICOMP'" : A Simplified Measure of Relative Intel Microprocessor Performance, Intel Corp.. 1992. 



How DO I GET THIS TECHNOLOGY? 



Almost all Intel486 SX 
systems and most 
Intel486 DX systems can 
be upgraded with an 
Intel486 DX2 OverDrive 
Processor. For more 
information on 
how to upgrade 
your system, see 
your authorized 
Intel dealer. You'll 
find they have a 
ready supply of 
OverDrive 
Processors, as 



well as answers. Just look 
for the box below. And 
give your PC a mid-life 
kicker with an Intel 
OverDrive Processor. 




For more information 
on upgradability, 
CALL 1-800-955-5599. 

We're ready to supply you with all the 
additional information you need on OverDrive 

Processors: a performance brief a system 
compatibility guide, a demo disk, and even a 
specsheet. Ask for literature package #68. 
Plus, we 'II also be happy to send our first 
Technology Briefing on the Pentium processor. 
Remember, the information is free. 
So is the call. 



©1993 Intel Corporalion. *AI1 products mentioned are 
trademarks of their respective companies. 



Reviews 



Books & CD-ROMs 



Quest for the Silicon Grail 



HUGH KENNER 

Daniel Crevier's AI: The Tumultuous History of 
the Search for Artificial Intelligence comes 
from a writer whose reputation doesn't ride on AI's 
success or lack of it. Not that he'll conceal his fervent 
belief in its future; but he doesn't believe either that 
the Weizenbaums and Dreyfuses need sweeping under 
the rug. 

Crevier, a Canadian professor of electrical engi- 
neering, is founder of a firm "that uses artificial in- 
telligence to let computers see through TV cameras." 
That suggests an expert system, and nobody, not even Hubert Dreyfus, denies that 
they can do useful things right now. Whether or not their lookup-table facility 
equates with intelligence remains a different question. 

Crevier is also qualified enough in Techspeak to interview a Minsky, a Simon, 
or a Moravec and understand what's being said, and his narrative that starts in the 
age of von Neumann proceeds with easy clarity through the bold visions of the 
sixties, through the setbacks of the seventies, and all the way to three possible fu- 
tures for The Computer. 

(Those scenarios? 1 . Wholly bad: Machines will take charge altogether, like 
2007 's HAL, and in the scariest version they'll take charge of our weaponry. 2. 
Still ungood: They'll take charge of those of us who aheady get shortchanged and 
eavesdropped on, thus making present imbalances still worse. 3. Music, please!: 
They'll open the heavenly gates.) 

True, heavenly gates seem at present out of reach. As of now, "The world 
chess champion is still a human being," and "A hundred-thousand-dollar prize for 
the discovery of a new mathematical theory by a computer remains unclaimed." 
So two 1957 forecasts of Herbert Simon's are still unfulfilled. 

No denying that progress has been slow by those long-ago standards. Crevier 
is right to dwell on the slow and tight hardware of three decades ago: the punch- 
card access to a torpid CPU and a few kilobytes of RAM. He's right too in con- 
ceding to the Dreyfuses that conceptual difficulties were always underrated. 
(Can a lifetime's experience, acquired in many contexts, really be simulated by 
dumping encyclopedias down a funnel in the genie's head?) He's still optimistic. 

Quick Bits 

Enough already, you're saying, of books about the hacker underworld. Yes, I 
know; but here's a really fresh one: Approaching Zero by Paul Mungo and Bryan 
Clough. You may want to save their case histories till next winter's crackling fires. 
"The Bulgarian Threat" is an especially fine chapter. 
"The Illuminati Conspiracy" is another. 

And from page after fervent page of The Green 
PC, we may glean that 9.3 million trees are cut down 
annually to feed computer printers, or that there are 
more floppy disks in the world than people. There's 
also much advice, such as how to refill ink-jet print- 
er cartridges cheaply. You get a hypodermic syringe 
and find "the tiny pinhole at the top of the cartridge" 
and inject "fresh ink from a bottle of standard Shaef- 
fer or Scripto." I've no idea whether this is sound 
advice or not. You might ask Al Gore. ■ 



Hugh Kenner is Franklin and Callaway Professor of Eng- 
lish at the University of Georgia. You can contact him on 
BIX as "hkenner. " 




Al: THE HJMULTUOUS HISTORY 
OF THE SEARCH FOR ARTIFICiAl 
INTELIIGENCE 

Daniel Crevier, Basic Books, 
ISBN 0-465-02997-3, 
$27.50 

APPROACHING ZERO 
Paul Mungo and Biyan Clough, 
Random House, 
ISBN 679-409-386, 
S22 

THE GREEN PC: MAKING CHOICES 
THAT MAKE A DIFFERENCE 
Steven Anzovin, 
Windcrest/IVIcGraw-Hill, 
ISBN 0-8306-4311-7, 
$9.95 




ARTISTIC INFLUENCE 

Electronic Library of Art 

Ebook, Inc., 32970 Alvarado-Niles Rd., SuHe 704, 
Union City, CA 94587, (5101 429-1331, 
fax (510) 429-1394, $99.95 per volume 



ith its Electronic Library of Art se- 
ries. Ebook envisions an impres- 
sive set of CDs covering "the history of art, 
from primitive cave paintings to the most in- 
fluential works of the twentieth century." The 
first five installments of the library for Win- 
dows. Mac, and VIS (Video Information Sys- 
tem) platforms, and a sixth CD scheduled for 
release later this year, represent a solid foun- 
dation for this panoramic goal. 

The latest release in the series. Impres- 
sionism and Its Sources, covers the Impres- 
sionism movement of the late nineteenth cen- 
tury. It shares the same simple Windows 
interface as earlier entries in the series. A 
scrollable window displays a thumbnail of 
each work. Double-clicking on an image en- 
larges it and enables more options, such as 
reading the author's biography or — in some 
cases — viewing the image in greater detail. 
You can search by artist, title, medium, date, 
school, or object type (e.g., painting or sculp- 
ture). For added atmosphere, you can peruse 
the paintings while listening to classical mu- 
sic of the era. 

An introductory essay relates the spirit of 
rebeUion shared by the seminal Impressionists 
who banded together and defied the art es- 
tablishment of the day. Short biographies cov- 
er the major artists' life and work. But the 
images themselves best tell the story. The 
paintings reflect the revolutionary style of the 
Impressionists as they used light and color in 
new ways and imbued common f)eople with a 
romantic aura formerly reserved for sacred 
images. The important artists are well repre- 
sented in over 1000 images. 

Ebook has done a masterful job compiling 
this series. The next CD will include art de- 
picting Greek and Roman mythology. The 
Electronic Library of Art is an excellent refer- 
ence work and a great way to spend an evening. 

— Stanford Diehl 



JULY 1993 BYTE 49 



Circle 1 72 on Inquiry Card. 



PROTECT YOUR 
SOFTWARE 




NO BUnON, 
NO ACCESS. 

Dallas Semiconductor is re-shaping the world of software 
protection and distribution control with a new famUy of 
microchips called Buttons. We put the lid on software 
piracy by packaging microchips in button-shaped, stainless 
steel cans. The chips contain missing but critical 
information to make the software run. 

We offer a variety of Authorization Buttons and features so 
you can select the level of protection and price point that 
are right for you. 

Security Continuum 



Button Type 


Unique 
Serial # 


Read/Write 
Memory 


Password 
Protection 


Expiration 
Timer 


Decoy 
Responses 


DS1420 ID Button 


X 










DS1427 Time Button 


X 


4K bits 




X 




DS1425 Multi Button 


X 


2K bits 


X 




X 



Snap In, Snap Out 

Authorization Buttons interface to the installed base of 
100-t- million PC's via the DS1410 Button Holder. They 
simply snap in and out. The DS1410 accepts two Buttons 
concurrently. 

Toward a Dongleless World 

New computers that accept Buttons directly, including 
palm and notebooks, are being designed at OEM's today. 
Our Dongle Trade-In Program will help in your transition 
to this world. With an approved 
application, we'll pay you $7.00 
for each dongle that you 
trade in for an Authorization^ 
Button and Holder. This offer , 
is good until August 31,1993. ' 
The one-piece price for the 
DS1420 is S4.35; volume 
discounts apply. 

We're Serious About Security 

At Dallas Semiconductor, we design and manufacture our 
own microchips. And we're the only ones in the software 
protection business who do. Sixty intricate process steps 
and a 64-bit unique registration number lasered into each 
chip prevent duplication. 

To learn how to button down your software, give us a call. 

DALLAS 

SEMICONDUCTOR 

4401 South Beltwood Parkway, Dallas, Texas 75244-3292 
Telephone: 214-450-8170 FAX: 214-450-3715 




Reviews 



Books & CD-ROMs 



THE INCREDIBLE SHRINKING IMAGE 

FRACTAL IMAGE COMPRESSION by Michael Barnsley 

and Lyman Hurd AK Peters, ISBN 1-56881-000-8, $49.9S 



Occasionally a technology appears that's so new, differ- 
ent, and conceptually odd that it is difficult to grasp the 
idea. For me, fractal image compression is one current example. 
At one level, I understand that the basic idea of naturally repeat- 
ing fractals lends itself to data compression. At the same time, 
however, I admit to having no idea how this idea is reduced to 
practice. 

Fractal Image Compression by Michael Barnsley and Lyman 
Hurd provides more information about this technology than the 
casually interested will care to know. This is no light overview, 
but a serious discussion of the mathematical foundations beneath 
fractal compression. 

You'll spend a long time working through the mathematics 
in this book, but not all the discussion is left for the mathemati- 
cians. Barnsley and Hurd reduce each algorithm to strictly func- 
tional examples written in C. All the expository code is quite 
small (typically a page or two). I'd like to see an accompanying 
code disk, but the examples are not too large to be entered man- 
ually. 

Other compression methodologies, such as Huffman and arith- 
metic encoding, are also presented as mathematical discussions 
with expository C code. So too is a detailed investigation of trans- 
formations: scaling, rotating, moving, and stretching in two and 
three dimensions. 

Fractal Image Compression is an excellent treatise on the 
leading edge of compression technology by the people who cre- 
ated it. There's one catch: The actual fractal-compression algo- 
rithm included in the book is protected by a patent. If you're 
going to do more than play with it, you'll need a license from 
Iterated Systems. 

— Raymond GA Cote 



DO-IT-YOURSELF CD-ROM 

PUBLISH YOURSELF ON CD-ROM (WINDOWS, MAC, OR UNIX) 
by Fabrizio Caffarelli and Deirdre Straughan Random House Electronic 

Publishing, ISBN 0-679-74297-2, $50 



Publish Yourself on CD-ROM is based on the assumption 
that inexpensive and easy-to-use CD-recordable technol- 
ogy will free the repressed publisher in all of us. Apparently, 
Caffarelli and Straughan run with a richer, smarter crowd than 
most of us. CD-recordable technology has certainly made rolling 
your own CD-ROMs easier and more affordable, but the entry fee 
I can easily run over $8000, and the task requires 
■ more knowledge of file formats, device drivers, 
and publishing principles than the typical novice 
possesses. 

The authors' missionary zeal, however, does 
not diminish what is actually a good introductory 
guide to self-publishing on CD-ROM. To help you get started, it 
even includes image-formatting software, called EasyCD, for 



so BYTE JUL,Y 1993 




We Deliver 

Computiiis Know How 




PC Intern 

A literal encyclopedia of DOS knowledge. This book is a 
completely revised edition of our bestselling PC System 
Programming book which has been read by over 225,000 
programmers worldwide. Whether you want to program in 
Assembly Language, C, Pascal or BASIC, you'll find 
dozens of practical working examples in each of these 
languages. 

#B145. ISBN 1-55755-145-6. 
$59.95 with companion disk. 





Upgrading & 
Maintaining Your PC 

Turn your PC into a high performance screamer ! 
Whether you're adding memory or a hard 
drive, a CD-ROM or a sound board or upgrading 
an XT to a 386 or 486, this book shows you 
how. Includes companion diskette of utilities 
and System Sleuth™ diagnostic software that 
helps you analyze your systems performance. 
#B167. ISBN 1-55755-167-7. 
$34.95 with companion disk. 



DOS 6.0 Complete • Special Edition 



This is the practical user's guide to DOS 6.0. Over 1 100 
pages of helpful hints covering everything from installation 
tolDOS 6.0' s new utilities - MernMaker. DoubleSpace, 
Anti-Virus and Defrag. Also includes a companion disk 
with Tempest - a graphic shell for DOS 6.0 that lets you 
click, drag and drop!. 
#B182. ISBN 1-55755-182-0. 
$39.95 with companion disk. 





EXCEL for Science & Technology Sound Blaster Book The 486 Book Multimedia Mania 



This book/disk combination focuses 
on the users of Excel beyond the normal 
business uses of this powerful software; 
Physics, Chemistry, Technology, 
Ecology, Statistics, Social Sciences & 
Mathematics. 
#B196. ISBN 1-55755-196-0. 
$34.95 with companion disk. 



Order Toll Free 
1-800-451-4319 



Available at: B. Dalton, Barnes & Noble, 
Bookstar, Bookstop, Waldenbooks, Crown 
Books, Software Etc., CompUSA, Computer 
City Superstores, Fry's Electronics, Computer 
Literacy, Tower Books, Stacey's, and other 
retailers nationwide. 

In Canada at: Coles, W.H. Smith Books. 
Classic Bookshops, and London Drug. Call or 
write for our free catalog of PC Books. 



AbacusI 

Dept. B7, 5370 52nd Street SE, Grand Rapids, Ml 49512 
Phone: (616) 698-0330 • Fax: (616) 698-0325 

Circle 61 on Inquiry Card 
(RESELLERS: 62). 



Newly revised, this book is an in-depth 
guide to using the Sound Blaster, 
from installation to custom 
programming. Includes an overview 
of the different Sound Blaster cards, 
many specific software products and 
much more. Also includes simple MIDI 
system to use with your Sound Blaster. 
#B181. ISBN 1-55755-181-2. 
$34.95 with companion disk. 



Explains the features that make this 
processor so advantageous- the 
memory capabilities, the math 
coprocessor, the specialized software 
that maximizes the CPU's performance 
and more. Find out why the 486 is 
replacing the earlier processors. PC 
INFO program and System Sleuth™ 
diagnostic software included the on 
companion diskette. 
#B183. ISBN 1-55755-183-9. 
$34.95 with companion disk. 



Learn the basics from adding CD- 
ROMs and sound boards to making a 
MPC system. Includes CD-ROM with 
over 400 megabytes of sounds, 
graphics, animations, samples and 
techniques. Experiment with several 
commercial multimedia demon- 
strations . Valuable coupons from major 
software publi shers worth over $600.00 
inside. Register your book and get a 
free jewel case. 
#B166. ISBN 1-55755-166-9. 
$49.95 with companion CD-ROM. 



I Flesee rush me the following books: 

PC intern $59.95 ea. 

Upgrading & Maintaining ...$34.95 ea. 

DOS 6.0 Complete SE $39.95 ea. 

Excel for Sci. & Tech $34.95 ea. 

Sound Blaster Book $34.95 ea. 

TVie 486 Book $34.95 ea. 

MultimaJia Mania $49.95 ea. 

Subtotal: 

M! orders include 4°/= sales tax: 

in US & Canada add $5.00 shipping: 

Foreign orders add $13.00 per item: 

Total amount (US funds): 



For fast delivery Order Toll Free l-dOO-451-4319 edct. 27, or FAX (616) 69&-0325~l 
Or mail this coupon to; Abacus, 5370 52nd Street SE, Grand Rapids, Ml 49512 
Method of Payment: □ Visa □ Master Card □ Am.Express □ Check / M.O, 
Card#:l_l_LI_l_l_l_l_LI_l_l_l_l_l_l_l Expires: / 
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□ Yes, please rush your free catalog of PC books and software. 



Dept. B7 



Circle 81 on Inquiry Card. 



IROMDISK 

SOLID STATE 

Disk and Drive 
Emulators 

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DR DOS is a trademark of Digital Research; MS DOS is a trademark of Microsoft 






Ever seen a grown pirate cry ? 
Just plug this in ... and watch 



MEMOPLUG™ 

The amazing Software protection system based on a 
hardware plug. Contains read-write programmable 
memory. This system is practical and easy to use for 
both programmer and end-user. Supports various 
programming languages, operating systems and 
types of computers. 



U-PLUG™ 

The premiere protection plug for UNIX systems 
that connects the standard serial port of computers 
and workstations. 



IiANPLUG™ 

Comprehensive network protection starts with 
a single plug. The LANPlug lets you operate 
protected software from any workstation on the 
network, while supervising a number of 
authorized simultaneous operation applications. 



CLOCKPLUG 

This unique Time-limited software protection system is 
based on a plug containing a real-time clock. It allows _ 
users limited execution times for leasing and demonstration 
applications. 

A password system allows you to rewind the clock by telephi 

U.S. office; Tel: 1 (800) 677 1587 

Tel: (407) 682 1587 Fax: (407) 869 1409 
South Africa: LionSoft Tel: 0 1 1 640 6002 
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Currently looking for international distributors 




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Tel: 972-4-516111, Fax: 972-4-528613 



Reviews 



Books &CD-ROM$ 



Windows, DOS, Mac, and Unix on CD-ROM. This bundled soft- 
ware explains the book's relatively high price. EasyCD is no 
match for professional premastering software such as Dataware 
Technologies' CD Prepare, but it serves well as a beginner's 
tool. 

The authors cover all the basics of standards, hardware, and me- 
dia in a complete, easy-to-understand manner. The book goes 
an extra mile with its advice on setting up your application, 
complete with multimedia files, for publication. It explains how 
to assemble the tools and possible licenses you need, and how to 
estimate production costs. A hypertext version is on the bundled 
CD-ROM. 

The book has two weaknesses, if you ignore its early hyf)erbole. 
First, it provides almost no examples. Caffarelli and Straughan 
could have created a sample application to produce on CD-ROM 
and used it throughout the book. Second, after exhorting their 
readers to dive right into the world of CD publishing, the au- 
thors shrug off what is arguably the most vital information they 
could have provided: how to sell your completed product. In- 
stead, they sagely tell you that you need help in this area and list 
four distributors. 

If CD-recordable technology has stirred the publisher in you. 
Publish Yourself on CD-ROM, with the EasyCD software, is a rel- 
atively painless way to experiment. If you decide to take the next 
step, however, you will need to find better sources of information 
on selling and promoting your products. 

— Michael Nadeau 



PARADOX BY EXAMPLE 

PARADOX FOR WINDOWS DEVELOPER'S GUIDE by Lee Atkinson, 
Tom Hovis, and Randy Magruder Sams, isbn o-672-30105-9, $44.9S 

Great beginnings are not the strong suit of Paradox for Win- 
dows Developer's Guide. There's a great deal of fat here — 
in both its wide-margin layout and its content. The authors waste 
space explaining that they're about to explain something, and 
the book would have been just fine 
without their gushing over Borland's 
database strategies. Several appen- 
dixes are equally worthless. Nonethe- 
less, the authors put plenty of beef 
into the examples that form the core 
of the book. And examples are what 
anyone tackling Paradox for Windows 
will be looking for. 

An enclosed disk contains over 6.3 
MB of compressed sample databas- 
es, programs, scripts, bit maps, and 
other miscellanea. You'll even find 
C programs that illuminate the fine art of attaching DLL sup- 
port routines to ObjectPAL programs. Working through the ex- 
amples reveals the real worth of the book. Having the live screens 
on your computer's display is essential, because some of the 
screen shots don't reproduce well in the book. 

As a developer's reference, this book falls short of the mark. As 
a cookbook of programming examples, however, it's worth pe- 
rusing. ■ 

— Rick Grehan 



aradox' 
)r Windows 

evelopgr's Guide. 




52 BYTE JULY 1993 



Circle 86 on Inquiry Card. 



A Couple of Gigs 
That'll Play in Peoria* 



Introducing PowerTape Series 2400 from 
Colorado Memory Systems. With up to 
2.4 Gigabytes of capacity using data 
compression, and a native capacity of 1.2 GB, 
PowerTape 2400 is perfect for backing up a lot 
of data, even networks, onto one tape about 
the size of your hand. 

At only $1,295 including SCSI controller, 
software and more, PowerTape 2400 is the 
best act in the house. And if you're looking 
for a powerful performance, PowerTape 



transfers data at up to 18 MB per minute. 

PowerTape plays to virtually any crowd. 
It supports workstation backup from most 
network operating systems including Novell 
NetWare*, NetWare Lite", LANtastic'', 
3COM* and IBM* PC-NET. PowerTape is 
also available in 4 GB models as well as NLM 
and VAP editions. 

Call 1-800-451-0897, 

ext. 327 for a FREE 

76-page catalog. 




POWERTAPE 



SERIES SAOO 




© ] 993 Colorado Memory Systems Inc, AH rights reserved. PowerTape and Colorado are trademarks of 
Colorado Memory Systems Inc. All other trademarks are property of their respective companies. PTB~BYT030493 



CircU 69 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 70). 




Now's 

You wanted the power to choose from a world of dif- 
ferent appUcations. DOS appHcations. Windows™ 
appHcations. OS/2® appHcations. OS/2 2.0 
gave you the power. And the response was 
impressive, to say the least. Over two million 
copies shipped in less than one year. More than 
1,200 OS/2 applications already available? But now 
you want more. More features. More functions. More 
applications to choose from. That's why we're intro- 
ducing OS/2 2.1. 

The new OS/2 2.1 lets you run the latest 
Windows 3.1 applications, in addition to the 
DOS, Windows and OS/2 applications you can 
already run. We've also added TrueType fonts, select 
Windows applets. File Manager and support for 
Windows 3.1 printer and display drivers, including 
32-bit seamless SVGA support. And now you can 
start DOS and OS/2 applications from a WIN-OS/2 
session, too. 

Portable users will be glad to know that 
OS/2 2.1 provides industry-standard Advanced Power 

^ With OS/2 2.1 at the heart of your PC, you can run a world of DOS, Windows and OS/2 applications. 



your 




There's no need to buy DOS and Windows to run DOS 
and Windows applications. 




Management (APM) support, to help extend 
battery life. We've made the cursor larger so it's 
easier to find your place on the screen. And 
OS/2 2.1 continues to exploit 
the very latest in technology. 
You'll find improved support for 
multi-media applications and 
pen-based capabilities, along 
with built-in CD-ROM support 
and AS/400® terminal 
emulation. 

Of course, OS/2 2.1 still 
gives you true pre-emptive 
multitasking, 
superior OS/2 
Crash Protection™ 
and the easy-to-use 
object-oriented Workplace 
Shell™ interface. All the 
features that made Version 2.0 
an award-winner. But now, 
you also get a whole new world 
of possibilities. 



Introducing 
Version 2.1 




4 



chance 



OS/2 2.1 is now also available on 
CD-ROM. It comes with exciting 
multimedia samplers, full-motion video 
demos and more. 

Demand OS/2 2.1 
preloaded on your 
next PC. 

With our free demo diskette, you 
can find out even more about all the 

the 

powerful features OS/2 2.1 has to 
offer. For your copy, to find out 
more about OS/2 2.1, or to order, 
a,«yor^o..yr.e call 1 800 3-IBM-OS2. 
demo diskette. In Canada, call 1 800 465-7999. 

Operate at a higher level! 



to run 



OS/2 2.1 Advantages 



Improves productivity 

• Now runs OS/2, DOS 
and new Windows 3.1 
applications. 

• New TrueType fonts, 
Windows applets, 
File Manager. 

• Advanced Power 
Management (APM) 
support extends battery 
life for portables. 

• OS/2 Crasfi Protection and 
pre-emptive multitasking. 



Easy to use 

• Now also available on 
CD-ROIVl. 

• Object-oriented Workplace 
Sfiell interface. 

Advanced 32-blt 
architecture 

• Seamless SVGA support. 

• Fully exploits latest 
multimedia applications. 

• Supports CD-ROM, 
PCMCIA and pen 
tectinologies. 




worid 



"To order CD-ROM with list of OS/2 applications, call Walnut Greek at 1 800 786-9907 IBM, AS/400, OS/2 are registered trademarks, OS/2 Crash 
Protection and Workplace Shell are trademarks, and "Operate at a higher level" is a service mark of International Business Machines Corporation. 
Windows is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. TrueType is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. ©1993 IBM Corp. 



Circle 96 on Inquiry Card. 



"Raima Database Server's performance 
is rouglily equivalent to hitting the 

afterburner. - John Michelsen, Millennium Software 

John Michelsen knew what he wanted in a database. 
After doing his homework, John chose Raima Database 
Server as the client-server DBMS for his exciting new 
Dominion™ Accounting Series. 

Raima Database Server is the cUent-server database of 
choice for applications with demanding perfomiance 
requirements. It has everything you look for in a client- 
server DBMS: ANSI-standard SQL, support for Microsoft 
ODBC and SAG client APIs, declarative referential 
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user functions on the server via Raima's embedded remote 
procedure call mechanism. 

And ultimately, performance. Raima Database Server 
delivers consistently high throughput and fast response 
times. We support all the major server platforms, including 



Seattle • Los Angeles • Chicago • New York • Australia • Belgium • Brazil • Costa Rica • Estonia • Finland • France • Germany • Italy 
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© 199,1 Raima Corporation. Raima Databa.(£ Ser\'er is a irademarlc and Raima is a rcyiMered trademark of Raima Corporation. Otiier computer and software natnes arc trademarks or registered 
trademarks of their respective holders. Raima Corporation. 1605 NW Sammamish Rd. Suite 20t). Issaquah. W.^ 98027 USA. Millennium Software. Inc.. 4223 Cenlcrgate. San Antonio. TX 78217 



NetWare 386, OS/2, UNIX, and Windows NT. And Raima 
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Hit the afterburner with your client-server application. 
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Call today for a free 
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RAIMA 



Feature 



Cluster PCs for Power 




MICHAEL J. GUTMANN 



very day, more and more 
MIS managers are down- 
sizing their mainframe and 
minicomputer applications 
to client/server arciiitecture. However, 
big-iron applications sometimes require 
more processing power than your serv- 
er can deliver. And applications such 
as image processing and full-motion 
video require more network bandwidth 
than Ethernet or token-ring networks 
can currently provide. To overcome the 
barriers to using such applications, you 
can try a relatively inexpensive network 
design approach called a PC cluster. 

A PC cluster uses a small, high-band- 
width network to group together high- 
end computers or workstations to serve 
as a high-capacity extension of your ex- 
isting network. While an Ethernet or to- 
ken-ring network typically provides you 
with file- and resource-sharing capabil- 
ities, a PC cluster is used for problem- 
solving applications, making it more of 
a distributed system than a computer 
network. 

Physically, a PC cluster resembles a 
standard network, but instead of 10- 
Mbps Ethernet or token-ring topolo- 
gies, you use a 100-Mbps network to 
loosely couple your high-end worksta- 
tions. The combined processing power 
of the clustered computers and the high- 
bandwidth interconnection creates a 
large server capable of processing ap- 
plications that were once beyond the 
scope of your server and network. The 
novelty of a PC cluster is that it lets you 
exploit intermachine connections for special-purpose, multi- 
processor, and network-intensive applications, such as image 
processing and full-motion video. 

Since you build a PC cluster around the computers that you al- 
ready have, your existing software runs on it without modifica- 
tion, and your program development team has a familiar plat- 
form with which to write new applications. It also saves you 




Do you need more 
processing power? 
How about more 
network bandwidth? 
You can turn your 
existing network into 
a PC cluster. 



money. For example, rather than re- 
placing your low-bandwidth network, 
you can continue to use it for client sys- 
tems and such operations as database 
processing and E-mail. The PC cluster 
connects to the low-bandwidth client 
network through standard network in- 
terfaces on cluster machines, allowing 
the systems on the client network to ob- 
tain access to cluster data. 

Three key components are neces- 
sary for building a PC cluster. The first 
is any type of network that is capable 
of a sustained 100-Mbps data transfer 
rate, such as a fiber-optic network. Second, you need a computer 
that has sufficient bus bandwidth to handle distributed CPU 
processing and to drive the network. Finally, you must have 
software to control network and PC-cluster data transfers. A 
33-MHz 486-based computer augmented with an IEEE 1296 
bus would satisfy the computer criterion, but the PC-cluster 
concept is applicable to a variety of microcomputer platforms 



JULY r993 BYXE 



S7 



Feature 





WHAT'S A PC CLUSTER? 



A PC CLUSTER IS a 
network design that 
creates a large server 
by linking work- 
stations through a 
high-bandwidth 
networ1(. 

A PC CLUSTER IS a 
way for you to 
downsize complex 
applications that were 
once too huge for 
your server 
to handle. 

A PC CLUSTER IS built 
with the computers 
you already have, 
giving you a familiar 
development platform 
tiiat runs your existing 
software. 

A PC CLUSTER IS 

a development 
platform for 
multiprocessor 
applications Uiat take 
advantage of high- 
speed networking. 

A PC CLUSTER IS a 
high-powered, high- 
speed extension of 
your existing network 
that specializes 
in problem-solving 
applications. 






operating in the client-server environ- 
ment. 

Bus Bursts Data 

The IEEE 1 296 bus, also called the Multi- 
bus II, is well suited for building a PC 
cluster. The Multibus II is a 32-bit syn- 
chronous bus with parity and designed 
with stringent electrical and mechanical 
specifications, making it highly reliable. 
Because it is so reliable, you can load it 
with processors and peripheral controllers 
and not have to be concerned with un- 
wanted interactions resulting from elec- 
trical interference. 

The Multibus II features backplane mes- 
sage passing, which, due to its efficiency, 
lets you build a high-speed, compact net- 



work. Configuring a 
system around the 
Multibus II is simple, 
because the message- 
passing interface de- 
couples CPUs from 
data transfer over- 
head, resulting in a 
320-Mbps data trans- 
fer rate without any 
intervention by the 
central processing 
unit. As a result, its 
overall speed is suffi- 
cient to drive the PC 
cluster's high-band- 
width interconnection 
as close as possible 
to its physical limits 
while also avoiding 
excessive CPU over- 
head, which would 
slow down system performance. 

The Multibus II backplane can support 
up to 2 1 processor cards, so you can tailor 
it for specific applications. Because of the 
decoupled, packet-switching nature of its 
message-passing protocol, concurrent I/O 
transfers at the local cards" maximum 
bandwidth are possible. This makes for an 
attractive I/O environment. You could, for 
example, load up the Multibus II with se- 
rial communications cards and build an 
enormous modem server at a cost of about 
$200 per communications port. 

A computer built in compliance with 
the IEEE 1 296 format enables you to con- 
struct compact PC clusters. For example, 
you can fit 16 such computers into an en- 
closure no larger in volume than one or 
two tower computer cases. Further, if you 



Transport Protocols 


FEATURE 


BENEFFF 


Transfers small control and 


Keeps intermachine communications 


interrupt messages 


efficient by sending status signals rapidly 


Transfers data messages as small 


Moves data at high speeds without 


as 20 bytes and as large as 


software overhead or CPU 


16MB 


fragmentation, preventing network- 




performance slowdowns 


Connectionless mode and low- 


Makes it easy to write apphcations and 


overhead transaction management; 


disk drivers; applications can be 


supports out-of-order responses 


partitioned over cluster CPUs 


Asynchronous interfaces with 


Grees you a NetBIOS-like interface and 


nonspecific and specific buffer 


flexible buffering; eliminates copying 


preposting 


data blocks 



incorporate a workstation computer into 
the backplane chassis, you can use it as a 
front end to other chassis cards, such as 
the CPU and I/O modules, without addi- 
tional external cabling and packaging. 

Communication Controls 

To ensure that the computers in your PC 
cluster are able to use their high-speed in- 
terconnection effectively, your PC-clus- 
ter intermachine software must use a data 
transfer protocol based on the bus back- 
plane message passing. Such a protocol is 
said to be "lightweight," meaning it's not 
CPU-intensive or laden down with transfer 
management functions. 

The transfer protocol will let you trans- 
fer both small-block (i.e., blocks as big as 
20 bytes) and large-block (i.e., blocks as 



A 486-Based PC Augmented with Multibus II 



V 



Workstation ISA bus 




interface 




">|r Cluster 
i 



interface 



Multibus II 



r 



PC-cluster interface software O decouples the CPU from transfer overhead and uses a 
backplane message-passing protocol, enabling concurrent I/O data transfers at maximum 
bandwidths. @ A workstation 's ISA bus doesn 't have sufficient bandwidth to push data fast enough 
for I/O-intensive operations. But under applications-software control, a 320-Mbps Multibus II bus 
can assume I/O-intensive operations. Routine system tasks are left to the ISA bus. 



S8 BYTE JULY 1993 




-oo — 




Our new color printer 
not only looks great on paper, 
it looks great on paper. 




The eye 
when it sees biack 
and white. 



The eye 
when it sees color. 



True, the brilliant color produced by the new Tektronix 
Phaser® 200 is captivating. But the price is equally attractive. 
And though we've become the award-winning leader in 
color printers by frequently outdoing the ^. 
connpetition, this time 7^ 
we've even outdone our- 
selves. Introducing our 
newest business work 
group color printer 

The Phaser 200 is compatible with virtually any business 
software and can print two colorful pages per minute. No, 
not two minutes per page— two pages per minute. And 
even at a speed like that, it still manages to print eye-catch- 
ing color on common laser paper or transparencies using a 
separate input tray for each. You select the medium you 
want at your computer keyboard. And it switches automat- 
ically from user to user just as easily, using its parallel, serial, 
AppleTalk,™ or optional EtherTalk™ and Ethernet™ ports. 



It has all the advantages of a laser printer True Adobe 
PostScript™ Level 2, networkability Pantone® colors, speed 
and price. (Did you notice it's only $3695, slightly below 
unheard of?) And when you add to that extremely high 
materials capacity and sparkling TekColor™ output — not just 
any color, but the indisputably best color in the business — 
you've got something even better than our previous best. 
Which is quite a feat. 

So stop by your nearest Tektronix dealer or call us at 
800/835-6100, Dept. 28J for a free 
output sample. For faxed infor- 
mation call 503/682-7450, 
ask for document 1 1223. 
You won't find another 
business investment that 
looks this good on paper 

Tektronix 




Phaser is a trademark of Tektronix. Inc. FbstScnpt is a trademark of Adobe Systems, Inc. All other marks are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. 



CircU 1 48 on Inquiry Card. 



Feature 



big as 16 MB) data messages directly to 
or from the transport-application buffers. It 
must do so without CPU intervention and at 
the 320-Mbps Multibus II backplane data 
transfer rate. Its transaction mechanism 
must support out-of-order responses and 



asynchronous interfaces with nonspecific 
(i.e., a pool of buffers) and specific (i.e., a 
designated buffer) preposting capability. 

When designed in this manner, the 
transport protocol lets you build applica- 
tions that are partitioned over your cluster 



CPUs. This means that you can use the 
transport protocol for those parts of an ap- 
plication that require high-bandwidth com- 
munications, leaving routine network op- 
erations to be handled by NetBIOS. 

For example, you can design an OCR 
scanning application in which only the 
large-block images are transmitted over 
the PC cluster and the rest of the data is 
sent via Ethernet. A typical Ethernet net- 
work fragments data into small blocks be- 
fore shipping them across the network. 
The larger the OCR application's image, 
the more data Ethernet has to chop into 
blocks, and the more blocks it has to ship. 
These operations degrade performance, 
because they monopolize your CPU and 
choke your network bandwidth. But a PC 
cluster can send the OCR application's 
images in one large block over the high- 
speed connection, freeing the CPUs and 
Ethernet for other jobs. 

Using a PC -cluster design, you could 
build the OCR image-processing system 
using as few as nine 486-based PCs to 
process, compress, and store scanned im- 
ages, and you could use one PC to act as a 
file server (assuming that an uncompressed 
600-KB image requires approximately 3 
seconds to compress on a 486-based com- 
puter and that three images must be 
processed every second to keep up with 
the scanned image input). The large-block 
transfers to the file server's SCSI disk ar- 
ray and across the PC-cluster intercon- 
nection would free up enough bandwidth 
so that the file server could feed the sys- 
tems executing the compression algorithms 
at a pace that would satisfy the applica- 
tion's requirements. 

Furthermore, you could build a network 
video server capable of serving eight cli- 
ents simultaneously. Your base would be 
a 486 computer equipped with up to four 
SCSI connections, multimedia technolo- 
gy (e.g., DVI) to decompress video files, 
and up to 60 GB of storage for a 1000-clip 
video database (1 MB gives you 5 seconds 
of playback). Exploiting the cluster's large- 
block transfers, uninterrupted 200-Kbps 
(which is the minimum for high quality) 
video streams are possible. 

A scalable video server can be built 
with a cluster of individual computers 
with one or more Ethernet and SCSI con- 
trollers. The 100-Mbps interconnection 
would satisfy client requests to the video 
database. The maximum bandwidth of the 
SCSI or cluster interconnection determines 
the number of simultaneous clients (an 
expected situation in, say, educational ap- 
plications). The cluster lets your video 
server scale at both the client and video- 
storage interfaces. Adding a PC to the 



PC-Cluster Connectivity 




In addition to a 
special-purpose 
application, PC- 
cluster computers 
run NetBIOS and ~ 
network drivers for 
both the PC cluster 
and Ethernet. 




Cluster transport 
driver 



Cluster PC 



100-Mbps PC-cluster interconnect 




Ethernet 



A PC cluster creates a 
large server by combining 
the processing power of 
several high-end PCs 
linked by a high- 
bandwidth, 100-Mbps 
network. A standard 
network interface 
connects the PC cluster to 
a low-bandwidth Ethernet 
network, allowing the 
Ethernet client PCs to 
access cluster data. 



With NetBIOS running 
on client PCs and PC- 
cluster computers, 
applications can be built 
that transparently 
access resources and 
data located on a 
clustered PC or on an 
Ethernet network. 




Client PCs use 
the low- 
bandwidth 
Ethernet for 
E-mail and 
database 
operations. 




A NetBIOS interface permits applications to transparently access a computer in the PC cluster or 
a computer residing on an external network. 



eO BYTE JULY 1993 



Our Competitors Are So 
Confident Of Their Products, 
They Guarantee Them To Last 

A Third As Long As Ours. 



3 YEAR warranty 

All COMPAQ Computers* 



1 YEAR WARRANTY 

IBM PS/ ValuePoint and PS/1 




I YEAR WARRANTY 

All Packard Bell Computers 



1 YEAR WARRANTY 

AH Dell Computers 




why all PCs are not the same. 

That there are important 
differences in quality. And re- 
liability. And compatibility. 

That, in the end, COMPAQ 
computers are designed to help 
you get more 
done with few- 




er problems. 
But we also 

The COMPAQ_ProLinea, and all our 
know that this affordable computers, feature high- 
perjormance processors Jrom Intel. 



There's a common misconception to- 
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they're made from the same compo- 
nents. That a box is a box is a box. 

Well, here at Compaq, we have over 
9,000 employees who could tell you 



could sound like an empty ad- 
vertising promise if we didn't 
back it up. So we do. 

Because unlike others who 
charge for extended coverage, 
all of our affordably priced 
PCs include a 3 year warranty with one 
year of on-site service!* Free. 

And only a company that offers a bet- 
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For a reseller near you, please call us 

at 1-800-345-1518. COMPAQ 



© I99J Compaq Computer Corporation. All Rights Reserved. COMPAQ registered U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Product names mentioned herein may be trade- 
marks and/or registered trademarks of their respective companies. The Intel Inside logo is a registered trademark of the Intel Corporation. *A11 monitors shown are cov- 
ered by a one-year warranty. For Further details on our limited warranty, conUct the Compaq Customer Support Center. ••This service is provided by Contracted Service 
Providers and may not be available in certain geographic locations. Certain restrictions and exclusions apply. 



Circle 71 on Inquiry Card. 



I 



Feature 



Four Multibus II Cards and Shared Peripherals 



DOS, Windows GUIs, 
applications, and 
cluster-transport drivers 
run on a computer 
connected to a high- 
bandwidth PC cluster. 



A second, application- 
specific computer hides 
PC-cluster control and 
interrupt messages from 
the DOS environment. 




Fast large-blocit transfers to the 
file server's SCSI disk array and 
across the 100-Mbps 
interconnection enable rapid-fire 
data feeds from the file server to 
the clustered computers running 
an application. 

\ 



PC-cluster 
file server 



iiiiiiiiiiiiiim iiiiiiiiiiiinHr 



1 00-Mbps PC-cluster interconnection 




A PC-cluster computer with an 
Ethernet controller links the 
low-bandwidth Ethernet network 
and the high-bandwidth PC- 
cluster interconnection so that 
computers on either netwoili 
can share peripherals and 
access data. 




■ 



On a PC cluster. PCs can share bus peripherals. Cluster NetBIOS support redirects hard disk accesses to the cluster PC that runs the file server. 

cluster gives you more Ethernet segments Standard Network Support work must interface with the PC cluster 

or disk capacity. As mentioned earlier, your existing net- without modification. Thus, your PC- 



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Circle 1 53 on Inquiry Card. 



The New 

Generation 

Monitors 



ViewSonic's New Generation is everything high 
performance monitors should be ... and more. 

The ViewSonic 15, 17, 20 and 21 produce 
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Dot Pitch (mm) 


0.28 


0.28 


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0.26 


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All products and brand names are registered trademarks of Iheir registered companies. 

Circle 1 55 on Inquiry Cord (RESELLERS: 1 56). 




Feature 



cluster DOS software needs a NetBIOS 
interface to ensure that your applications 
can communicate across the PC-cluster 
backplane just as they do over a standard 
PC network. A NetBIOS interface also 
permits applications to transparently ac- 
cess another computer in the PC cluster 
or one residing on an external network. 

Intel offers OEMs PC-cluster DOS soft- 
ware with a control-block interface that's 
similar to the NetBIOS NCB (network 
control block). Its MPCB (message-pass- 
ing control block) is passed via a software 
interrupt to the message-passing driver, 
and the MPCB uses the NCB's asynchro- 
nous notification-routine technique to re- 
turn completion status and to deliver new- 
ly received messages. If you're familiar 
with the NCB interface, you'll be able to 
work with the MPCB interface easily. 

A Windows/NetBIOS interface allows 
you to use Windows DDE protocols be- 
tween computers in the PC cluster. You 
can extend the Windows environment with 
a Windows process to field DDE messages 
and route them over the network as need- 
ed. Because the DDE router is a NetBIOS 
application, it runs across any network that 
supports the NetBIOS interface. 

A PC-cluster NetBIOS interface also 



allows DDE-capable Windows applica- 
tions to run across a PC cluster. This ap- 
plication environment lets one or more 
computers in the PC cluster perform an 
application-specific function and pass user- 
interface data to another system that exe- 
cutes the GUI. If the front-end computer is 
part of the PC cluster, you can create em- 
bedded applications that do not require ex- 
ternal cabling or packaging of the opera- 
tor's system. 

Sharing Cluster Resources 

A PC cluster can share a single keyboard, 
monitor, and drive, a plus in terms of cost 
and ease of use. Cluster PCs can also share 
a single backplane Ethernet controller or a 
serial communications controller. A disk- 
less DOS-boot capability lets you boot up 
diskless PCs across the backplane. 

Your PC-cluster software should sup- 
port the sharing of Multibus II disk and 
LAN controllers and bus peripherals. Use 
NetBIOS support to redirect hard disk ac- 
cesses to the computer in the PC cluster 
that functions as the file server. 

A keyboard and monitor redirector can 
also be included in the cluster software. 
The redirector would use the PC-cluster 
transport to carry out its operations. 



Future Applications 

Cunently, Intel's PC-cluster software sup- 
ports DOS text-mode graphics programs. 
But given the bandwidth of the PC-clus- 
ter interconnection, it should be possible 
to support bit-mapped graphics across the 
backplane as well. This could change your 
concept of console monitoring and con- 
trol. Bit-mapped graphics would let you 
observe activities on other Windows- 
based systems linked to your backplane. 
Further, you could manipulate those ma- 
chines through Windows on your ma- 
chine. Thus, instead of Windows-based 
virtual machine multitasking, you would 
have true multimachine multitasking ca- 
pabilities. 

Since the PC cluster's design is based 
directly on exisdng CPU cores, you'll be 
able to adapt your PC-cluster hardware 
and software to evolving industry trends. 
Additionally, the size and scope of the ap- 
plications that you can develop for use 
with your PC cluster will also follow those 
trends. ■ 



Michael J. Gutmann is a software engineer with 
Intel Corp. (Hillsboro, OR). You can contact 
him on the Internet at Mike _Gutmann@ ccm 
.hf.intel.com. 



DATA COMPRESSION LIBRARIES 



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Circle 133 on Inquiry Card. 



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IN 



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Feature 



Data from the Depths 




BEN SMITH 



ata acquisition in a con- 
trolled environment is a 
challenge all its own, 
but when the sensors are 
400 meters below the surface of the 
ocean and towed by a research ship off 
the Azores, a new set of challenges 
arises. Even though the data acquisi- 
tion methods used by WHOI (Woods 
Hole Oceanographic Institution) are 
distinctive, they are applicable to sev- 
eral other data acquisition problems 
and reflect a new trend in data acqui- 
sition systems. A number of sites are 
relying on small, programmable data 
acquisition systems that operate inde- 
pendently of computers. 

Ocean Currents 

This case study covers a small part of 
the large and complex Subduction Ex- 
periment sponsored by the Office of 
Naval Research. As the Gulf Stream 
crosses the Atlantic, it bends clock- 
wise — a phenomenon caused by the 
Coriolis force (i.e., the whirl in fluids 
resulting from the earth's rotation) — 
and generates strong oceanic currents. 
The Subduction Experiment, a three- 
year study of these currents and their 
effect on the weather, covers both 
oceanographic and meteorological 
data collection in an area covering 
more than 1 million square kilome- 
ters. It involves a number of other research institutions be- 
sides WHOI. 

Subduction is the process of one earth plate sliding beneath 
another. In much the same way, one ocean current layer can slide 
beneath other layers. By understanding where and how subduc- 
tion occurs in ocean currents, researchers can develop a better un- 
derstanding of the currents and the weather in general. 

The Subduction Experiment incorporates three studies. The 
first study is of the large-scale structure of wind and thermal 
forces, as well as the upper ocean responses to these. The sec- 
ond study is of the mesoscale structure of the velocities and 




Acquiring data from tiie 
ocean reveals a trend: 
programmable devices that 
operate independently of 
personal computers 



directions of mixing currents 
and the currents' vortices. The 
third study is of the currents 
and thermal front that occur off 
the Azores. 

There are three primary in- 
struments to the Subduction Ex- 
periment. The third is the focus 
of this case study: 



• Moored instrument buoys — these record meteorological and sur- 
face conditions and collect information from the water that flows 
past them at different depths. 

• Free-moving buoys — some record their position as they drift 
with the current at a depth of 300 m; others float near the surface, 
and a satellite tracks them; and some regularly come to the sur- 
face to transmit data to a satellite and then dive to various depths 
to collect more data. 

• The Seasoar (manufactured by Chelsea Instruments, Surrey, 
U.K.) — this towed vessel has on-board sensors that collect a ver- 
tical cross section of CTD (conductivity, temperature, and depth) 



JULY 1993 BYTE 89 




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Circle 140 on Inquiry Card. 



Feature 



data and the data of the Seasoar itself. For 
its sensors to collect data in this way, the 
Seasoar oscillates between a depth of 400 
m and the surface as it is pulled behind a 
170-foot research ship at 8 knots. Because 
the movement of the currents at a thermal 
front includes a vertical component as well 
as a horizontal component, the Seasoar is 
necessary to gather data for the study of 
this complex, 3-D activity. Without a con- 
tinuously collecting vessel like the Sea- 
soar, a ship would have to make frequent 
stops and lower a sensor to collect the data 
at different points and depths along the 



Inside the Seasoar 



grid. The data collected with the Seasoar, 
combined with the data from an Acoustic 
Doppler Current Profiler (on-board the 
ship) and from monitoring the diffusion 
of a short-lived tracer (radon-222), pro- 
vides a clear, multisensory picture of what 
the currents are doing in the complex re- 
gion of the Azorean front. 

Rough Seas 

The Seasoar consists of a hydrodynamic 
case, roughly 0.4 m in diameter by 1 m 
in length. Its overall length is approxi- 
mately 2.5 m. It includes a towing bridle 




Impeller 
sensor 



Pitch 
sensor 



UART = universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter 



at the bow, an impeller and stabilizer fins 
at the stem, and wings on either side of 
the instrument case. Its sensors and elec- 
tronics are in pres- 



PAUL "LUIGI" FUCILE 



handled the details of 
devising a data 
acquisition module for 
the Seasoar. He 
designed the solution 
around an off-the-shelf, 
self-powered, data- 
logging board, the 
Tattleye4A. 




The Seasoar contains a control module and two data acquisition components: the scientific 
package for logging CTD data and the engineering package for determining the Seasoar' s status. 



sure-tight tubes in- 
side the instrument 
case. 

Fortunately, the 
CTD data acquisi- 
tion system in the 
Seasoar uses stan- 
dardized oceano- 
graphic sensors. Un- 
fortunately, there is 
a problem obtaining 
the operations and 
engineering data 
used for monitoring 
the operation of the 
Seasoar itself and 
determining its ex- 
act location at all 
times. 

The Seasoar de- 
termines its depth by 
adjusting the angle 
of attack of its wings. 
An impeller-driven 
pump at the back of 
the unit hydraulical- 
ly powers the wing 
rotation. An elec- 
tronic valve (i.e., the Moog servo valve), 
which is part of an on-board analog-depth- 
sensor feedback loop, controls the hy- 
draulics. A panel on the deck of the ship 
controls the depth and frequency of the 
Seasoar's dives. 

TTie exact orientation of the Seasoar is 
actually unknown. At times, the Seasoar 
had problems in performance when it was 
near the surface and at the bottom of its 
dive. Only two weeks before the Seasoar 
was due to leave port, the WHOI project 
team decided to add a second data acqui- 
sition system to the Seasoar, to better con- 
trol its performance. This was a problem 
for the design team. 

The Design Team 

The success of a project depends on the 
planning that goes into it. WHOI excels 
at planning and engineering. It has sup- 
port engineers as well as oceanographic 
scientists, and all specialize in oceanog- 
raphy. The support engineers must also 
perform tasks that relate to fields ranging 
from fluid dynamics to computer design. It 
takes a seaworthy party of scientists to run 
an oceanographic cruise, and a multidis- 
ciplinary team to solve problems before 
the cruise. 

The first member of the design team is 
Jerry Dean, a research specialist and a 



JULY 1993 BYTE 7X 



Announcing the first network printer 




Operating System Tbpology 


Novell Netware 


'Ethenwtl 802.3 




Tbken Ring (41 16 Mbps) 


Microsojl^ 


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'Standard in the HP LaserJet4SI MX printer. • 'Foroperating 
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mark of UNIX System Laboratories Inc. in the U.S.A. and 
other countries, tin Canada call 1-800-387-3867, Ext. 7299. 
C 1993 Hewlett-Packard PE12353 



Multiple environments are no 
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HEWLETT 
'HM PACKARD 



Circle 93 on Inquiry Card. 



Feature 



WHOI engineer on the Seasoar project. 
He focuses his work on oceanic and ma- 
rine meteorological sensors for moorings 
and buoys and on the free-drifting, 
acoustically tracked ocean-current meters 
that are part of the Subduction Experi- 
ment. Dean knew that with specific in- 
formation on the Seasoar' s roll and pitch, 
wing angle, and depth pressure, and the 
rotation rate of its impeller-driven pump, 
he could determine the Seasoar' s exact 
position. In addition, the information could 
determine the cause of the performance 
problems. 

Constraints were formidable. Electron- 
ics and a power source had to fit in the 
small, pressure-tight instrument tube in- 
side the Seasoar. The budget for collecting 
data for Seasoar control was small. The 
design team had to find an inexpensive so- 
lution quickly. The problem of working 



Shipside 



out the details was handed to Paul "Luigi" 
Fucile, Dean's circuits expert. Fucile's so- 
lution was simple and inexpensive, and it 
fit in the Seasoar' s constrained space. Dean 
called this new data acquisition system 
"the engineering package." 



p-eng p-ctd roll pi 



rots tensn y,i] 



Calmer Waters 

The engineering package was designed 
around an off-the-shelf, self-powered data- 
logging board (see "Small, Portable Data 
Acquisition Systems"). This design ap- 
proach represents a trend in data acquisi- 
tion: taking the data- 
collection component 
off large computer 
systems and placing 
it directly on a mea- 
suring device. In this 
case, Fucile used a 
Tattletale 4A from 
Onset Computer. The 
Tattletale offers eight 
12-bit A/D channels. 




Cable- 
tension 
sensor- 



ADC 


PC running 




a QuickBasic program 






DAC 



Control current 



Moog valve current 

Seasoar analog control 

Command voltage 



CTD pressure data 



Scientific data logger 




Tattletale 
•-communications 



Seasoar 
communications 



CTD 

communications 




Sea cable 



A personal computer on-board the research ship takes the ASCII daia coming into the serial 

port and plots it as five separate curves representing the five elements of data. In addition, the 
program sends pressure data out through an A/D converter to the shipside Seasoar controller, 
thereby eliminating the need for the Seasoar depth sensor. 



18 programmable 
digital I/O ports, and 
a three-wire asyn- 
chronous serial port 
for communications 
and control. It mea- 
sures 5.7 by 9.46 
centimeters and con- 
sumes 2 to 15 milli- 
amperes at 5 V in ac- 
tive mode, and only 
30 microamperes in 
sleep mode. The Tat- 
tletale's data acquisi- 
tion and control func- 
tions are programmed 
in TTBASIC (Tattle- 
tale BASIC) through 
a serial port with a 
terminal or a serial- 
communications pro- 
gram. It also has 32 
KB of RAM, backed 
by a lithium battery. 
TTBASIC resides in 
16 KB of ROM. 
Fucile used only four A/D ports and one 
digital I/O port for his data channels. He 
built the signal-conditioning electronics 
using wire-wrapped components on a 
board (supplied by Onset) that plugs di- 
rectly into the Tattletale's piggyback con- 
nectors. 

The pitch and roll sensors are elec- 
trolytic fluid inclinometers. The pressure is 
measured with a load cell that incorpo- 
rates its own amplifier. The wing angle is 
measured with a linear potentiometer and 
voltage divider. A magnetodiode sensor 
determines rotation speed by tracking tiny 
magnets that are cemented to the impeller 
blades. The data coming from the sensor is 
a digital signal; therefore, it doesn't need 
an A/D channel. 

The BASIC program on the Tattletale 
controls the power to the sensors, mea- 
sures and keeps a running average of the 



A QuickBasic 
program on the 

shipside personal 
computer displays the 
engineering data as it 
is sent up from the 
Tattletale 4A inside 
the Seasoar. Some of 
the data comes from 
the shipside Seasoar 
control, and some 
may come from the 
scientific sensors. 
Note the delay 
between the voltage 
sent to the Seasoar 
Moog valve ( CMD) 
and the actual depth 
as shoivn by pressure 
(p-ctd or p-eng). 



74 BYTE JULY 1993 



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Feature 



Small, Portable Data Acquisition Systems 



HOWARD 
EGLOWSTEIN 

One trouble with data is 
that the interesting stuff 
never seems to be near a labo- 
ratory bench. Your network is 
having difficulty with packet 
collisions from time to time; 
what's the network load as col- 
lisions reach their worst? Or say 
you raise dairy cattle and want 
to monitor each animal by tag- 
ging it with coded markers and 
weighing it as it passes through 
a gate. 

You could design special- 
ized hardware for these tasks, 
or you could run power to the remote 
site and use a standard personal com- 
puter. A better option might be a low- 
power dedicated controller or data log- 
ger. These critters are inexpensive and 
come ready to run with data acquisi- 
tion and control hardware built in. You 
can put them anywhere, program them 
to do just about anything, and then con- 
nect them to a standard personal com- 
puter to extract the logged data for 
analysis. The following text describes 
my experience with two of them — Blue 
Earth Research's Micro 440 and Onset 
Computer's Tattletale 5LCD. 




Blue Earth Research's Micro 440 (lefti features a 12-MHz processor, eight 8-bit Mi 
channels, two serial ports, 32 KB of battery-backed RAM, a real-time clock, and 14 
digital status and control lines. A customized version of BASIC runs the show. 
The Tattletale 5LCD runs off a Hitachi 6303 processor and comes with a serial port, 
digital I/O lines, EEP1H)M for storing program configurations, and a customized 
BASIC interpreter. As with the Micro 440, you connect the Tattletale to your personal 
computer and write your control program in BASIC or assembly language. 



Micro 440 

Blue Earth Research's Micro 440 is 
smaller than a radar detector and weighs 
only a few ounces. Under the hood, 
you'll find a 12-MHz processor, eight 
8-bit A/D channels, two serial ports, 32 
KB of battery-backed RAM (good for 
10 years), an RTC (real-time clock), and 
14 status and control lines. A version of 
BASIC runs the system. 

The Micro 440 runs from a single 
power supply of 7 to 16 V at 75 milli- 
amperes. Connectors at either end of the 
case provide connections for power, se- 
rial lines, data lines, and external mem- 



ory or other peripherals. For 
simple analog data acquisition 
solutions, you merely provide 
the Micro 440 with power and 
your signal. For control appli- 
cations, you'll need to add ap- 
propriate interface hardware 
to the TTL-compatible data 
outputs. 

The processor in the Micro 
440 is an Intel 83C51B, an en- 
hanced 805 1 . Blue Earth's BA- 
SIC is an unusual dialect of 
BASIC, with extensions for the 
Micro 440 's hardware and easy 
access to assembly language. 

The Micro 440 connects to 
your development environ- 
ment through one of its two 
serial ports. You run the BA- 
SIC interpreter and enter your program 
directly into Micro 440 RAM. For as- 
sembly language programming, the res- 
ident monitor/debugger provides an as- 
sembler and debugger. Talking to the 
RTC, ADC (A/D converter), or I/O hard- 
ware requires memory-mapped I/O. 

Our Micro 440 came with the Appli- 
cation Module (with a speaker, a poten- 
tiometer attached to one A/D channel, 
and a seven-segment display) and the 
ST-I/O module (with all analog and dig- 
ital ports brought out to convenient 
screw connectors). I used the ST-I/O 
module and the Micro 440's built-in 



frequency of pulses coming from the mag- 
netodiode sensor, converts all the data to 
ASCn character strings, and sends the data 
up to the ship through the Tattletale's RS- 
232 port. Serial communication with the 
ship uses just three conductors on the cable 
running from the Seasoar to the ship. 

On the receiving end, a personal com- 
puter running a QuickBasic program (writ- 
ten by Jim Luyten, the head of the Physical 
Oceanography department) takes the ASCII 
data coming in through the serial port and 
plots it as five separate curves representing 
the five elements of data. The program also 
sends raw data to a disk file and sends the 
pressure data out through an ADC (A/D 
converter) to the shipside Seasoar con- 
troller, thereby eliminating the need for a 
preexisting Seasoar depth sensor. 



All that's needed to test or modify the 
Tattletale's program is a personal com- 
puter with a simple communications pro- 
gram, such as Procomm Plus. Modifica- 
tions of the program can take place while 
the Seasoar is 400 m below the ship. 

The Tattletale uses far less power than 
do the sensors connected to it. It can store 
the data in its battery-backed RAM rather 
than send it back to the ship; however, 
since scientists use the data to monitor and 
control the activity of the Seasoar (and 
hence must collect it in real time), the Tat- 
tletale hasn't needed to use its on-board 
data storage. 

Design Evaluation 

Although the design used only a small sub- 
set of the features of the Tattletale 4A, its 



simplicity and flexibility and the speed of its 
development far outweighed the parts-cost 
saving of not having to build a 6805/ROM- 
based system (an architecture with which 
Fucile has substantial experience). 

Several data acquisition engineers may 
wonder why certain elements turned out 
the way they did. For example, Fucile and 
Dean could have beefed up the RS-232 
communications by using higher output 
circuits than those on the Tattletale or using 
the RS-485 instead of the RS-232, but this 
approach would have required more hard- 
ware. Instead, they opted to use parts on 
hand, including parts salvaged from earli- 
er projects. In many places, they could have 
used a more suitable part, but they chose 
not to order a new part if they had some- 
thing on the shelf that could do the job. 



■76 BYTE JULY 1993 



PHOTOGRAPHY: SCOTT PARKER /AVIS PHOTOGRAPHY © 1993 



Feature 



PWM (pulse-width modulated) com- 
mand to try a simple feedback/control 
solution. 

I started with a one-tenth-scale radio- 
controlled electric car, an Associated 
RCIO. The servos commonly used in 
these cars require a pulse train to position 
the motor. A single pulse of varying 
width sets the motor position; this pulse 
repeats every 16 milliseconds. I discon- 
nected the steering servo from the car's 
radio and connected it through a buffer 
to a single output pin from the Micro 
440. The Micro 440's BASIC command 
PWM provides easy, precise control 
over the pulse output while the ONTIME 
statement provides accurate interrupt- 
driven time control from within BASIC. 
Three or four BASIC statements were 
enough to generate a stable pulse train as 
a background process. To this, I added a 
control loop. 

Three photocells mounted to the front 
of the car watched the ground. I put one 
in the center of the car and the other two 
by each of the front wheels. Each of these 
connected through a voltage divider to 
one of the Micro 440's A/D channels. 

I placed the car over a white stripe 
painted on the ground. A BASIC pro- 
gram monitored the relative brightness of 
the stripe and the surrounding pavement 
and adjusted the pulse width to keep the 
car centered over the stripe as it moved. 
The whole project took just a few hours. 



thanks to the excellent documentation 
and easy access to the I/O ports. 

Tattletale 5LCD 

The Tattletale 5LCD from Onset Com- 
puter is one of a family of data-logging 
computers. The Tattletale 5LCD runs off 
a Hitachi 6303 processor and comes with 
a serial port, eight digital I/O lines, eight 
12-bit analog input lines, EEPROM for 
storing programs and configurations, and 
a customized BASIC interpreter. As with 
the Micro 440, you connect the Tattletale 
5LCD to your personal computer and 
write your control program in BASIC or 
assembly language, or both. When you're 
ready to go to the field, you store the 
program in the Tattletale 5LCD's per- 
manent program storage (i.e., EEPROM 
on the Tattletale 5LCD; 
hard drive versions are also 
available). 

The Tattletale 5LCD I 
reviewed included eight 12- 
bit A/D channels, 512 KB 
of data storage, an LCD, 
and three front-panel but- 
tons. Unlike the Micro 440 
and the Tattletale 4A that 
the Woods Hole Oceano- 
graphic Institution uses, the 
Tattletale 5LCD doesn't 
have a lithium battery for 
data retention, although you 
can load your program into 



COMPANY INFORMATION 



Blue Earth Research 

(Micro 440) 
165 West Lind Court 
Mankato, MN 56001 
(507) 387-4001 
fax: (507) 387-4008 
Circle 981 on Inquiry Card, 



Onset Computer Corp. 

(Tattletale 5LCD) 
P.O. Box 3450 
Pocasset, MA 02559 
(508) 563-9000 
fax: (508) 563-9477 
Circle 982 on Inquiry Card. 



the EEPROM. Onset targets the Tattle- 
tale 5LCD for unattended data-logging 
applications. The Tattletale SLCD's A/D 
channels have better resolution than the 
Micro 440's and more RAM to store the 
logged data. The Tattletale 5LCD needs 
only 20 mA to run and a mere 3.5 mA to 
retain its memory in sleep mode. 

Onset's BASIC in the Tattletale 5LCD 
comes in two flavors. The first (TTBA- 
SIC) is a conventional integer BASIC 
with limited variable naming, no arrays, 
and a requirement for line numbers. I 
found TTBASIC to be adequate for sim- 
ple tasks but tedious for developing 
longer programs. If you're using an IBM 
PC or a Mac for development, the tok- 
enized version (TXBASIC) uses your 
desktop PC to pretokenize the program 
before downloading it to the 
Tattletale 5LCD. With more 
resources free to handle your 
code, TXBASIC gives you 
arrays, floating-point, and 
free-form structure using la- 
bels instead of line numbers. 
In addition, you get a primi- 
tive multitasking capability 
for background processing. 



Howard Eglowstein is a testing 
editor for the BYTE Lab. He 
designed BYTE's automated 
equipment for testing portable 
computers. You can reach him 
on BIX as "heglowstein. " 



"These designs are intentionally sim- 
ple," notes Dean. WHOI is more interested 
in whether a design works in the field than 
if it is using the most modem technology. 
The simpler the design, the more likely it is 
to work in the field. The fewer parts, the 
more reliable the device. The less complex 
the software, the more likely there will be 
someone on-board who can fix or modify it 
in an emergency. Dean puts it this way: "If 
it works for us, we stop." 

WHOI originally built Seasoar's engi- 
neering data acquisition package as a "one- 
time-use" instrument — to try to answer 
some questions about the Seasoar's per- 
formance problems. But, as is so often the 
case, WHOI liked having all the data and 
wanted to use the package all the time. 
Now it hopes to incorporate an entire con- 



trol system into the shipside personal com- 
puter, making the computer responsive to 
information from the engineering package. 

Dean and Fucile's design cost them less 
than $500 (not including sensor hardware). 
It took just a few hours to sketch out and 
required less than a week to build and pro- 
gram. 

Tattletale Applications 

The fixed buoy used in the Subduction Ex- 
periment is another Tattletale-based sys- 
tem. Tattletales reside in several of the test 
and calibration systems used in free-mov- 
ing buoys. In fact, of the 14 major micro- 
processor-based projects that Fucile has 
worked on in the last seven years, eight 
involved Tattletales, including the fol- 
lowing: 



• Antarctic Lake ice ablation sensor — a 
sensor that sits in an 8-inch-diameter hole 
in the ice and measures the change in ice 
thickness. It is capable of running off its 
own batteries to record data for two years 
without maintenance. 

• Low-power RS-485-based network — a 
multidrop/multipoint communications 
standard used in data acquisition and in- 
strument-control networks. It was used to 
interface many existing oceanographic in- 
struments without requiring any new (i.e., 
expensive) electronics. 

• Buoy dynamics recorder — an instrument 
that uses a high-end Tattletale with a hard 
drive that spins up when needed. 

• Automatic geocompass — a device at- 
tached to the deep-diving submarine Alvin 
(the submarine used to explore the wreck 



JULY 1993 BYTE 77 



Feature 



Data Acquisition in the Mainstream 



The factory and processing plant, the re- 
search environment, and the hospital all 
use instruments to detect and record tem- 
perature, pressure, conductivity, pH, flow, 
pollutants, and many different variables 
and values of the physical world. Today, 
thb data collection is done automatically by 
electronic circuits and computers in place 
of direct observation and record keeping, 
thermographs, barographs, seismographs, 
and other mechanical graphs. Data acqui- 
sition is the element of electronics and 
computing that deals with this automated 
process. 

Subjects related to data acquisition in- 
clude data analysis, data visualization, and 
control. At times, the three fields are so 
closely integrated that they exist in a single 
appliance. Consider an electronic digital 
thermostat for your home. It has a sensor 
(a thermistor), an ADC (A/D converter), a 
digital clock, and some buttons for you to 
set the temperature range and associated 
times. In addition, the thermostat has the 
circuitry for taking all this data and de- 
ciding whether your furnace or air condi- 
tioner should be on or off. The data acqui- 
sition part of the electronic thermostat 



of the Titanic). When the arm touches a 
face of the underwater geological forma- 
tion, the geocompass records the strike 
(i.e., the geographical orientation) and dip 
(i.e., the angle) of the feature. 

Designs vary according to application; 
in some, the data is sent out the serial port, 
while in others, it's stored on the system. 
Most of WHOI's exotic instruments are 
placed in hostile environments, where it's 
impractical to have a full-size computer 
processing the data. In these situations, 
the data is stored in the instrument, at least 
until it is beamed up to a satellite. Some- 
times the data-storage requirements are on 
the order of tens of megabytes; for these 
situations, the designs use Tattletales 
equipped with hard drives or optical drives 
that only spin up for a data dump from 
memory. 

Oceanographic instruments are certain- 
ly not the only application for autonomous 
data loggers. By using inexpensive remote 



consists only of the sensor and the A/D cir- 
cuits. 

In data acquisition systems, the sensors 
are specific to the application. Often, the 
sensors are also the most expensive ele- 
ment of the system. You can get a simple 
thermistor at Radio Shack for less than a 
dollar, but a high-preciskin electronk strain 
sensor can cost hundreds or even thousands 
of dollars. 

Sensors are categorized as either actwe 
(i.e., they produce a current or voltage) or 
passive (i.e., they change in resistance or 
capacitance). Signal-conditioning circuitry 
converts any device's output to a voltage 
that is within the range of sensitreity of the 
ADC (usually between 0 and 5 V). Con- 
ditioning circuits often use voltage dMders 
or operational amplifiers to do their work. 
Some A/D boards have adjustable gain am- 
plifiers built in. 

The resolution of a data acquisition sys- 
tem is determined by the number of bits 
that its ADC provides. For example, an 8-bit 
ADC can give you only the nearest degree 
of temperature ranging from +128 to -127, 
but a 12-bii ADC can give better than the 
nearest tenth of a degree. 



data acquisition systems that can commu- 
nicate with the host computer via a simple 
asynchronous serial link, you have tremen- 
dous flexibility in where you place the data 
acquisition equipment. You can easily de- 
ploy large-area data collection by putting 
the inexpensive data acquisi- 
tion systems in a box with a 
modem and telephone line. A 
central computer can then 
poll each data acquisition 
node once a day or less, up- 
load the data, and reset the 
node's memory. These little 
boards have been tucked into 
the engine compartment of 
race cars, built into patients' 
wheelchairs, and used exten- 
sively on farms and in pro- 
duction plants. The CIA has 
even purchased thousands of 
the devices — although for 
reasons known only to itself. 



COMPANY INFORMATION 



Chelsea Instruments, 
Ltd. 

(Seasoar) 
2/3 Central Ave. 
East Molesey, Surrey 
KT8 OQX 
U.K. 

+44 81 941 0044 
Circle 983 on Inquiry Card 



Endless Possibilities 

Because WHOI gathers most of its research 
away from land, power consumption is a 
major design criterion for its research in- 
struments. Fucile has looked at two other 
single-board data-logging and acquisition 
systems, but the power requirements of the 
others made them less desirable. Fucile's 
summary: "When it came to designing a 
data-logging engine, Lon Hocker [of Onset] 
knew exactly what was required: low pow- 
er, simple I/O, and an operating system that 
is easy to understand." 

The idea of an autonomous intelligent 
data-logging computer is not new, but it 
is a growing trend now that these systems 
are inexpensive. Dozens of manufactur- 
ers produce a wide spectrum of data log- 
gers. The price of some of the more elab- 
orate systems can be in the tens of 
thousands of dollars, but the low-end de- 
vices will suffice for most mainstream ap- 
plications. 

Many data acquisition applications are 
far more complex than the Seasoar. For in- 
stance, your application may require high- 
er data-sampling rates and dozens of chan- 
nels. For the next step up from the Tattletale, 
Fucile says he would go to a low-power 
single-chip personal computer. One of many 
bases for this design is a single-chip per- 
sonal computer and a PC-104 bus. PC-104 
cards measure 9.65 by 9. 14 cm and run at 5 
or 10 V. Gespac's (Mesa, AZ) PC Light, a 
typical CPU board, consumes 1 W — com- 
pared to an AT's 15 W or more. Still, 1 W 
is 10 times the power consumption of a 
Tattletale. With PC-104, additional boards 
(e.g., a modem) stack above the baseboard, 
one on top of another, to maintain the 9.65- 
by 9.14-cm form factor. Six boards stack 
only 10.16 cm high. At least a dozen data 
acquisition boards are available for PC- 
104. But the added functionality of a gen- 
eral-purpose PC-on-a-chip demands far 
greater complexity and cost, as well as a 
greater source of power. 

No matter what your needs 
are, the goal for data acqui- 
sition has always been the 
same: Make it accurate. With 
autonomous data loggers, you 
can also make it convenient, 
simple to build and modify, 
durable, and inexpensive. ■ 



WHOI 

News & Information Office 
93 Water St. 
Woods Hole, MA 02543 
(508) 457-2000 
Cirele 984 on Inquiry Card. 



Ben Smith is a testing editor for 
the BYTE Lab. He is also the 
author of two books: UNIX Step- 
by-Step (Sams. 1990) and UNIX 
E-Mail and Usenet News (Sams, 
forthcoming). You can contact 
him on BIX as "bensmith " or on 
the Internet at ben@ bytepb. 
byte.com. 



T8 BYTE JULY 1993 



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Cover story 




Cover story 



CHANGES 



X H E 





ANDY REINHARDT 



The first Pentium 
systems are here, but 
you might not want to 
buy one yet. None are 
fully optimized for 
Intel's new chip. This 
scenario is likely to 
change with the next- 
generation Pentium 




PCs as more vendors 
make use of high- 
speed buses, enhanced 
bidirectional I/O ports, 
and fast SCSI-based 
disk subsystems. 



Dropping a 66-MHz superscalar 
processor into an architecture 
originally designed around the 
8086/8088 chip and an 8-bit I/O 
bus is like putting a Ferrari engine 
into a Model-T chassis; The ma- 
chine moves forward, but it doesn't exact- 
ly purr. "Pentium raises the ante for all sub- 
systems," says Larry Shintaku, an R&D 
project manager for Hewlett-Packard in 
Sunnyvale, California. To complicate matters, the software environment is 
poised for change: A half-dozen 32-bit operating systems are set to com- 
pete on Intel-based systems, and downsizing from host systems is pushing 
microcomputers into new and more demanding roles. By borrowing design 
concepts from mainframes, minicomputers, and workstations — and by 
pioneering some entirely new ones — vendors are devising next-genera- 
tion PC compatibles that are significantly advancing the state of the art 
of microcomputers. 

Nowhere is this more evident than in servers. The Pentium is so power- 
ful that it outruns some mainframes in raw compute speed, yet if it's strapped 
into a conventional PC design, the resulting system won't provide the per- 
formance or robusmess needed for it to be the center of an enterprise network. 
To boost critical I/O speed, engineers are using new bus designs and stor- 
age subsystems. Equally important, they are harnessing techniques such 
as redundancy, error correction, and predictive diagnostics to give 80x86 sys- 
tems the reliability and manageability typical of hosts. 

The first Pentium systems don't take full advantage of the new CPU. As 
with the transition from 386 to 486 systems, old designs are being adapted for 
use with the faster processor. But in the next year, a growing number of 
"true" Pentium systems will appear. 

The New High End 

Initial Pentium systems will be richly configured because vendors assume 
that the first, most eager buyers are less cost sensitive. According to Tony 
Tong, product marketing manager for motherboard producer Elitegroup 
i Computer Systems (Fremont, CA), Intel's reference design for Pentium ma- 

® chines "uses higher-performance, higher-cost components and reinforces 

> 
< 

=) 

S JULY 1993 BYTE 81 



Cover Story 



What Makes a Real Pentium System? 



Server and Desktop: 
H%h-speed 
serial portls) 

Server and Desktop: 
EPP or ECP 
parallel port(s) 

Desktop: 

Graphics accelerator 
on local bus 

Server and Desktop: 
Built-in SCSI-2 

Server 
EISA or Micro 
Channel slots 

Desktop: 

ISA, EISA, or Micro 
Channel slots 



Server: 
PCI slots 

Desktop: 
PCI or 
VL-Bus slots 



Server: 

Parity-checking 
or ECC memory 
with 64-bit 
interface 

Desktop: 
Parity-checking 
memory with 
32- or 64-bit 
interface 




Desktop: 

Sound chip or DSP 




an attitude that these will be sexy, no- 
holds-barred systems." 

For example, Pentium systems may of- 
fer VRAM-based (video RAM) graphics 
accelerators, built-in SCSI-2 connectors, 
CD-ROM drives, or multimedia support 
via DSPs (digital signal processors) or ded- 
icated audio/video chips. In fact, the ar- 
rival of Pentium systems could herald a 
new baseline for how the market views a 
"standard" PC, because vendors will pack 
the systems with fancy features. 

Whether these deluxe capabilities will 
migrate down to the mass market as Pen- 



tium systems become 
more common is open 
to question. Neal 
Margulis of video 
chip manufacturer S3 
(Santa Clara, CA) 
says that by putting 
such features into sys- 
tems now, vendors 
push up volumes and 
make the features less 
expensive. "Not much 
of this stuff will get 
stripped out once it 
appears to be standard 
in Pentium systems," 
he says. "Customers 
will no longer want to 
buy systems without 
it." Others argue that 
given the price sensi- 
tivity of commodity 
PCs today, stripped- 
down Pentium ma- 
chines are bound to be 
marketed in the fu- 
ture. 

It is commonly as- 
sumed that the Pen- 
tium will find its 
strongest initial accep- 
tance as a server plat- 
form, but this may 
be only partly true. 
"In servers, the Pen- 
tium will be overkill 
for some time," says 
Mark Carver, vice 
president of corporate 
strategy at Tricord 
Systems (Plymouth, 
MN), which never- 
theless plans to use 
the Pentium in its 
ES5000 PowerFrame 
server. Carver says 
that Pentium servers 
will boost network 
throughput only if 
there are matching 
improvements in I/O performance. 

On the other hand, database and other 
application servers used in client/server 
environments can benefit now from a faster 
CPU and memory subsystem. "The Pen- 
tium is going to mean a lot more to my 
customers running SQL Server and Notes 
and Oracle on OS/2 than to my customers 
running NetWare," says Davis Fields, vice 
president of marketing for Parallan Com- 
puter (Mountain View, CA). Parallan, 
which is partly owned by IBM, designed 
the superservers that are sold as the PS/2 
Models 195 and 295. 



Most of the initial Pentium systems are 
based on upgradable designs in which the 
processor/memory complex may be opti- 
mized for the Pentium, but the balance of 
the system is generic to 386 or 486 imple- 
mentations. 'The first generation of 486 
systems were patched solutions — a 486 
CPU slapped into a box optimized for the 
386," says Jim Mathios, an R&D project 
manager for HP. "The same thing will hap- 
pen with the Pentium: Right now, every- 
body is gluing together less-than-optimal 
systems based on 486 designs." By the 
end of 1993 or early 1994, however, cus- 
tomers will start to see what Mathios calls 
"proper" Pentium systems — machines de- 
signed from the ground up around the Pen- 
tium. 

Real Pentium Systems 

How to define a "real" Pentium system is 
far from obvious. One criterion might be a 
completely 64-bit design, but this is im- 
plausible for technical and economic rea- 
sons; for example, there's no rationale for 
a 64-bit version of the ISA/EISA bus. Why 
add the complexity and cost if some com- 
mon add-in devices — modems, for in- 
stance — can't take advantage of it? 

Instead, the Pentium standard will like- 
ly combine multiple buses, fast interfaces, 
and a higher degree of integration on the 
motherboard than 486 systems. Desktop 
systems will include accelerated graphics, 
stereo audio, and other multimedia fea- 
tures. Servers will likely offer high-relia- 
bility features, diagnostics, and system 
management. 

One element that may set Pentium sys- 
tems apart from their predecessors is their 
memory subsystem. The chip's 64-bit 
memory interface now operates at 60 and 
66 MHz. At these speeds, today's DRAMs 
require an external cache to keep the 
processor fed with code and data. Most 
systems will use caches of 256 KB or larg- 
er — probably built from synchronous 
SRAM (static RAM) chips — to ensure hit 
rates above 90 percent (see "New Memory 
Architectures to Boost Performance" on 
page 86). 

With a cache hit rate this high, the path 
from cache to main memory may not need 
to be wider than 32 bits; HP estimates that 
the incremental performance from using 
64-bit DRAM could be as little as 5 per- 
cent, because the wider bus will help only 
when there is a cache miss. Given that 64- 
bit memory can be configured and ex- 
panded only in multiples of 8 MB, a 5 per- 
cent performance gain may not justify the 
reduction in RAM flexibility. 

But Tom Benoit, business development 
manager for motherboard maker Micronics 



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Cover story 



8 bits - 



(Fremont, CA), takes a different view. 
■'Anything with a 32-bit memory interface 
isn't a real Pentium system," he says. Mi- 
cronics has implemented 64-bit memory 
on its Pentium motherboards because it 
adds no incremental cost, Benoit says, 
adding that even a 5 percent performance 
delta can make a big difference to high- 
end users. 

As for emerging RAM architectures, 
vendors are taking a wait-and-see attitude. 
For now, traditional hierarchical cache de- 
signs can bridge the processor/memory 
bandwidth gap and cost less to implement. 
But systems will eventually need faster 
DRAM to accommodate cache misses. 



Hierarchical Buses 

Another defining element of real 
Pentium systems will be the use 
of a local or mezzanine bus. A 
local bus is a direct extension of 
the processor's lines and oper- 
ates on the same clock, like the 
VESA (Video Electronics Stan- 
dards Association) local bus 
with the 486. A mezzanine bus 
is conceptually between a local 
bus and an I/O bus: Its lines are 
buffered from the processor's, 
and its clock can be proportion- 
al to the CPU's (i.e., one-half or 
one-third the speed). "A faster 
bus is implicit in any system 
sold today, 486 or above," says 
Elitegroup's Tong. "The bene- 
fits are obvious: For almost no 
incremental cost, you get much 
better performance." 

Intel is pushing vendors to 
adopt its PCI (Peripheral Com- 
ponent Interconnect) specifica- 
tion and chip set for a mezza- 
nine bus in Pentium systems, 
and most vendors believe the 
two will become tightly linked. 
PCI is now specified at 32 bits 
and operates at half the speed of 
the Pentium's external clock. 
The new PCI 2.0 revision adds 
support for 64-bit addressing 
and 3.3-V implementations, as 
well as the first definition of a 
PCI connector slot for add-in 
cards. Use of PCI among sys- 
tem makers will get a boost late 
this year when VLSI Technol- 
ogy becomes a second source 
for a Pentium-PCI chip set. 

However, unless PCI also be- 
comes a factor in the 486 mar- 
ket, it could become, as one wag 
put it, "the next EISA: a server 
architecture with limited pene- 



tration." In other words, if PCI is too close- 
ly associated with the Pentium, and if Pen- 
tium volumes stay small compared to the 
486' s, the market for PCI add-ins won't 
be large enough to attract third-party de- 
velopers. Vendors say that another sup- 
plier besides Intel needs to deliver PCI 
support for the 486, but none has yet com- 
mitted. 

The alternative to PCI is VESA's VL- 
Bus, which has gained wide use in the 486 
world. Opti (Santa Clara, CA) has a chip 
set that supports the Pentium and VL-Bus, 
and it may prove to be a lower-cost solu- 
tion than PCI because of the large num- 
ber of inexpensive VL-Bus controllers al- 
ready available. 

Like PCI, VL-Bus is currently speci- 



The PC, circa 1986 



CPU 


k , 


1 

Memory 1 


32 bits 



ISA bus (16 bits) 



Serial/parallel | I Video | | IDE | Expansion slots 

(modems, NICs, 
SCSI) 



Hie PC, circa 1993 



Memory 


> 




32 bits 
or 64 bits 


CPU 1 



32 bits 
or 64 bits 



Local bus 



8 bits - 



Graphics I ! IDE 
accelerator I or SCSI 



16-blt ISA or 32-bit EISA/IVICA 



T 



T 



Serial/parallel 



Expansion slots 
(modems, NICs, 
multimedia cards) 



The trend in PC design is to move functions off the general-purpose ISA bus 
and onto wider, specialized buses tied to the speed of the CPU. ISA 's 8-bit 
interface and 8-MHz clock create a bottleneck for all peripheral functions. 
By contrast, today's systems have 32- or 64-bit paths from CPU to 
memory and 32- or 64-bit local buses for speedy subsystems such as video 
and storage. Today 's systems also use ISA for slower I/O and to maintain 
backward compatibility. 



fied at 32 bits, but the pending 1 . 1 speci- 
fication will provide support for 64 bits. 
Waqas Khan, senior product marketing 
manager for Opti, says that the company 
started with VL-Bus support for Pentium 
"because there are controllers available, 
so people could get machines right now." 
By comparison, he says, there is an "ex- 
treme shortage" of controllers and add-ins 
for PCI, although many are scheduled for 
introduction in upcoming months. 

The major criticism of VL-Bus is that it 
is not as robust as PCI and may run out of 
gas above 50 MHz because its timing was 
designed for 40 MHz or below. "PCI has 
done a better job of addressing what a lo- 
cal bus needs to be," says a senior design 
engineer at a leading system maker. Since 
VL-Bus is so closely tied to the 
486, glue logic is needed to im- 
plement it as a mezzanine bus for 
the Pentium. 

Only two of the systems that 
were tested by the BYTE Lab 
use the VL-Bus. Some use a pro- 
prietary local bus for video and 
none use PCI. Some, including 
Compaq and NCR, say they are 
committed to eventually imple- 
menting PCI. 

However, for low-speed func- 
tions, such as serial I/O with mice 
and modems, you don't need 
anything more than the low-cost 
ISA bus. Ahmet Houssein, di- 
rector of engineering for the net- 
works and servers product group 
at Zenith Data Systems (Buffalo 
Grove, IL), notes that ISA offers 
a larger choice of option cards 
than newer buses. On the other 
hand, designers might be able to 
eliminate an ISA bus entirely by 
using only VL-Bus or PCI and 
attaching one of the emerging 
serial I/O schemes to it for use 
with slower devices. The PCI 2.0 
specification also includes a 
shared slot that allows you to in- 
stall either an ISA or a PCI card. 

EISA is a different story. Mi- 
cronics' Benoit believes that Pen- 
tium servers will typically in- 
clude EISA slots. "Servers need 
eight or more slots, and you can't 
put that many on VL or PCI," he 
says, adding that while customers 
have balked at the price of EISA 
in the past, it's relatively less 
expensive in a Pentium system. 

Others are less sure. Carl Am- 
dahl, chairman and chief techni- 
cal officer for superserver maker 
NetFrame Systems (Milpitas, 



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Cover story 



New Memory Architectures to Boost Performance 



TOM R. HALFHILL 

One of the system bottlenecks ex- 
posed by high-speed processors 
like the Pentium is the interface to main 
memory. This interface is the most cru- 
cial pathway in the entire computer, be- 
cause it's responsible for carrying a con- 
stant flow of program instructions and 
data between memory chips and the 
CPU. If memory or the pathway fails 
to keep pace with the CPU's insistent 
requests, the CPU stalls in a wait state 
and valuable processing time is lost. 

Today's DRAM chips — variously 
known as asynchronous, page-mode, or 
generic DRAMs — are constrained by 
both their internal architecture and their 
interface to the CPU's memory bus. 
DRAM architecture hasn't changed sig- 
nificantly since 1974; neither has the 
memory interface in desktop PCs, ex- 
cept that memory buses have grown 
wider— from 8 bits on the 8088 to 64 
bits on the Pentium. Although wider 
buses have increased the available raw 
bandwidth, throughput still lags behind 
the spiraling demands of faster micro- 
processors. 

More and more PCs now bridge the 
gap by using high-speed SRAM (static 
RAM) chips to cache traffic between 
the CPU and DRAMs. A typical 486 or 
Pentium system might have 256 KB of 
SRAM cache. But SRAM is much cost- 
lier than DRAM, and boosting cache 
beyond 256 KB yields a diminishing 
rate of return. 

To get around these limitations, sev- 
eral new technologies have been devel- 
oped. Most of these technologies re- 
quire new types of DRAMs, but two of 
them attack the memory interface prob- 
lem. It's not clear at this point which 
will become the new DRAM standard. 
All of them cost about 1 5 percent more 
than generic DRAM, but even so, they 



can reduce the overall cost of a system 
by eliminating the SRAM cache and as- 
sociated controller chips. This can also 
result in a smaller motherboard that con- 
sumes less power. These are important 
considerations for portable systems. 

Enhanced DRAM. EDRAM, the 
brainchild of Ramtron (Colorado 
Springs, CO), is the only new DRAM 
that is now shipping in volume. It takes 
an evolutionary approach by integrat- 
ing a small SRAM cache with a fast 
core of otherwise generic DRAM. Each 
EDRAM chip has 2 Kb of 15-nanosec- 
ond SRAM and 4 Mb of 35-ns DRAM. 

Ramtron's benchmarks show an 
EDRAM-equipped machine outper- 
forming a comparable system with 
generic DRAM and an SRAM cache, 
unless the application program fits com- 
pletely inside the cache. In that case, 
EDRAM delivers about the same per- 
formance as the other system. Ramtron 
says it already has 44 EDRAM cus- 
tomers and that EDRAMs are going into 
everything from desktop PCs and work- 
stations to laser printers and copiers. 
However, none of the first Pentium sys- 
tems use EDRAM. 

Rivals criticize EDRAM for being 
single-sourced. Ramtron says it is seek- 
ing second sources. Without the price 
competition and redundant supply fos- 
tered by multiple sources, some ven- 
dors are reluctant to adopt EDRAM. 

Cache DRAM. CORAM, invented by 
Mitsubishi, is similar to EDRAM. It in- 
tegrates an SRAM cache with either 4 
Mb or 16 Mb of DRAM. Although 
CDRAM's on-board cache is larger (16 
Kb versus 2 Kb), the DRAM is slower 
(70 ns versus 35 ns). But CDRAM's 
on-board SRAM can be used as either a 
cache or a buffer, depending on whether 
the application requires serial or ran- 
dom access to the data. 

When retrieving data serially — for 
example, to refresh a bit-mapped 
screen — CDRAM can prefetch the data 



from its DRAM core into the SRAM 
buffer and thus improve performance. In 
fact, Mitsubishi claims that CDRAM, 
which is single-ported, is faster for such 
applications than dual-ported VRAM 
(video RAM) is. The company says a 
CDRAM-based PC will run as fast as 
a comparable machine with DRAM and 
a 256-KB secondary SRAM cache. 

Mitsubishi is the sole source for 
CDRAM, which is now being ramped 
up to volume production. However, Mit- 
subishi says chips will also be available 
from NEC and perhaps another company. 

Synchronous DRAM. SDRAM is an- 
other evolutionary alternative, and it is 
attracting the widest support among 
semiconductor manufacturers. SDRAM 
chips are coming later this year or in 
1994 from Mitsubishi, NEC, Samsung, 
Texas Instruments, and nearly every 
other major DRAM player. To ensure 
that SDRAM chips are interchangeable, 
a standard is being developed by the 
JEDEC (Joint Electronic Device Engi- 
neering Council). 

Unlike today's asynchronous 
DRAMs, SDRAMs exchange data with 
the CPU in sync to an external clock 
signal and are designed to run at the full 
speed of the CPU/memory bus without 
imposing wait states. For instance, TI's 
16-Mb SDRAM, which the company 
will be sampling late this year, is rated 
for speeds of up to 100 MHz. That's 
fast enough for the 66-MHz Pentium, 
with enough headroom to accommo- 
date even faster processors. 

SDRAM performs best when trans- 
ferring data serially. TI says it's ideal 
for applications like word processing, 
spreadsheets, and multimedia. But for 
programs that depend heavily on ran- 
dom access (e.g., databases), a cache- 
type memory like CDRAM or EDRAM 
will probably outperform SDRAM. 

Rambus DRAM. RDRAM, developed 
by Rambus (Mountain View, CA), takes 
a more revolutionary approach to the 



CA), says EISA is "not appropriate" for 
mission-critical servers, citing its lack of 
both scalability and support for parity 
checking. By contrast, he says, NetFrame 
can use an unlimited number of its pari- 



ty-checking, 25-MBps MPSA (Multi- 
processor Parallel Server Architecture) 
buses in a single system. 

Tricord Systems shares Amdahl's cri- 
tique, using its own bus design to optimize 



performance and reliability: CPU, mem- 
ory, and disks are on a separate high-speed 
interconnection, while off-the-shelf cards 
such as network interfaces plug into EISA 
slots. Similarly, Parallan uses a high-speed 



se BVXE JULY 1993 



Cover Stoiy 



DRAM-Microprocessor Performance Gap 

160 



140 
120 
100 
80 
60 
40 
20 
0 



• 


CPU 






DRAM 



8080, 



8086 




75 76 77 78 79 '80 'SI '82 '83 '84 '85 '86 '87 



'90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96 '97 '98 



Comparing the relative speeds of microprocessors and memory chips necessarily requires some 
apples-and-oranges compromises, but no matter how these cim'es are plotted, the results are 
similar: CPU performance is rapidly outstripping DRAM perf ormance. While the CPU curve 
climbs steeply, the DRAM cun'e remains almost flat. 



memory-bandwidth problem. In addition 
to introducing a new type of memory 
chip, Rambus has reinvented the inter- 
face to the CPU. 

RDRAM chips are vertically packaged, 
with all pins on one side. They exchange 
data with the CPU over 28 wires that are 
no more than 12 centimeters long. The 
bus can address up to 320 RDRAM chips 
and is rated at 500 MBps, although 400 to 
450 MBps is more realistic. That com- 
pares to about 33 MBps for asynchro- 
nous DRAM. 

RDRAM chips have no on-board 
SRAM, but pages are cached by reading 
the sense amplifiers. The controller em- 
ploys a new type of I/O cell, and the bus 
requires no extra glue logic. The chips 
can be manufactured in the same plants 
that make generic DRAMs. 

Rambus is now sampling 4-Mb 
RDRAMs to major system vendors and is 
planning for volume production this fall. 
A 16-Mb RDRAM is also in the works. 
Rambus has licensed its technology to 
Fujitsu, Hitachi, NEC, and Toshiba. 

RatnLink. This technology is the most 
revolutionary of all, but it is destined for 



use further in the future than the others. It 
concentrates on the CPU/memory inter- 
face rather than the internal architecture of 
the memory chips. RamLink originates 
from the IEEE, but many firms are in- 
volved in its development, including Ap- 
ple, Hewlett-Packard. TI, and all the ma- 
jor DRAM makers. 

The technology is an offshoot of a re- 
cently adopted IEEE standard known as 
SCI (Scalable Coherent Interface), which 
defines a system architecture that en- 
compasses anywhere from one to 64,000 
microprocessors. RamLink is a memory 
interface with point-to-point connections 
arranged in a ring, like a network. Traffic 
on the ring is managed by a memory con- 
troller that sends messages to the DRAM 
chips, which act as nodes. Other nodes 
can be ROM chips, flash ROMs, drives, 
or even additional RamLink rings. 

Hans Wiggers of HP Labs, who is 
chairman of the IEEE RamLink commit- 
tee, says that RamLink could run as fast 
as 500 MHz or even 1 GHz. But Ram- 
Link is .still years from reality. "Every- 
body says, 'Oh, this is very interesting,' 
but nobody has committed any designs 



to it yet," Wiggers says. 

Even if you disregard RamLink and 
focus on the near-term contenders, it's 
unclear whether EDRAM, CDRAM, 
SDRAM, or RDRAM will become the 
new memory standard. "I wouldn't even 
touch predicting which of these will be 
the long-term winner," says Sherry Gar- 
ber, an analyst at In-Stat (Scottsdale, AZ). 
"These things just haven't been out long 
enough. It takes a lot of momentum to 
replace a known product." 

System makers are reluctant to adopt 
any of these alternatives until an obvious 
leader emerges. Nobody wants to build 
a computer with RAM that's not in wide 
production and that users can't readily 
find when they want to expand memory. 
"It's really hard for a clone maker to go 
out on a limb," notes Steven Przybylski, 
a consultant in San Jose, California, who 
specializes in system architectures. 

Przybylski says that although the new 
DRAMs all command about the same 15 
percent premium over existing DRAMs, 
prices could swing radically as produc- 
tion ramps up. "Volume is everything," he 
says. "What makes them so expensive is 
that no one is buying them." 

The new DRAMs may filter slowly 
into the market by filling niches. They 
offer clear advantages for certain em- 
bedded applications and may replace 
VRAM on video cards. As volumes rise 
and prices fall, they could move gradually 
into main memory. 

Another possibility is that an evolu- 
tionary design such as SDRAM will fill 
near-term needs for faster memory in Pen- 
tium-class systems. Later in the decade, as 
processor speeds approach 1 GHz, a rev- 
olutionary approach such as RDRAM or 
RamLink might rescue users from yet an- 
other memory bottleneck. 

It's also possible that no single solu- 
tion will prevail. In-Stat's Garber notes 
that the worldwide DRAM market was 
worth $8.5 billion last year. "That's big 
enough to support more than one DRAM 
architecture," she says. 



Tom R. Halfliill is a BYTE senior news editor. 
You can reach him on BIX as "thatfhill. " 



internal bus for CPU, memory, and SCSI- 
attached disks and offers dual Micro Chan- 
nel slots for network interfaces, WAN 
(wide-area network) connections, fax 
modems, and tape drives. 



Motherboard Integration 

Pentium systems will have an even high- 
er level of motherboard integration than 
486 machines now have. "The more inte- 
gration, the lower the price and the higher 



the reliability," says Tom Mays, senior 
vice president of NCR's general-purpose 
product group in Dayton, Ohio. 

Mays projects that within about 12 to 
18 months, users will see single-board 



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HEWLETT 
PACKARD 



Cover Story 



Revisiting the Lowly I/O Ports 



T our system has a sizzling processor and an 
architecture enhanced to match lis horse- 
power. But when you print a document, the 
data is saueezed through a parallel port at a 
measly 150 KBps. Clearly, something is wrong 
with this picture. 

With the arrival of the Pentium, system mak- 
ers are taking a hard look at serial and paral- 
lel I/O. These ports are now seeing increased 
use — for attaching not only printers but also 
devices ranging from tape drives to network 
interfaces — and are quickly becoming a per- 
formance bottleneck. 

Many vendors are now adopting port tech- 
nok^es that dramatically boost I/O port speed. 
The new ports are also smarter, opening up 
new avenues of capability and easing the bur- 
den of configuration. Some of these ports will 
b^n appearing in systems this year. 

Faster Parallel 

Improvements to the standard parallel port 
began a few years ago when Xircom, a maker 
of parallel-port network interfaces, helped In- 
tel define a faster specification. The Enhanced 
Parallel Port, or EPP, was supported in Intel's 
386SL chip set and became common in note- 
book computers. It raised throughput from 
150 KBpsto2MBps. 

Hewlett-Packard was also interested in rais- 
ing parallel-port speed to boost LaserJet per- 
formance, and it devised a technology called 
Zippy that runs between 2 and 5 MBps. Zippy 
is bidirectional, which means the printer can 
talk back to the PC to report job status or er- 



ror conditions. After Microsoft joined forces 
with HP, the technology was renamed Extend- 
ed Capabilities Port, or ECP. Now an IEEE com- 
mittee considering parallel-port enhancements 
has decided to roll EPP and ECP together into 
a standard called 1284. 

Support for IEEE 1284 parallel ports is forth- 
coming from chip-set and BIOS vendors, as 
well as from HP and other printer and scanner 
makers. The impact on system cost is expect- 
ed to be negligible. Microsoft will add support 
for bidirectionality in the next version of Win- 
dows; for example, improved Print Manager 
dialog boxes might inform you that a printer is 
out of paper or low on toner. 

Serial Upside 

Engineers see even more opportunity in serial 
I/O than in parallel I/O: It uses less physical 
space; presents fewer electrical problems, 
such as cross talk; and scales up more easily 
to optical media. Two technologies may gain 
wide use in the next few years: Access.bus 
from Philips Semiconductor and Serial Bus 
from the IEEE. 

Access.bus is like AD6 (Apple Desktop Bus), 
"only much better," says Denis Pavillard, an 
engineer at LogKech. K's faster than ADB and 
supports more devices. The technology, origi- 
nally developed by Signetics, lets you connect 
more than 100 serial devices, such as key- 
boards, mice, trackballs, and digitizers, to a 
single 100-Kbps port, eliminating the need for 
multiple connectors on the back of the sys- 
tem. Devices identify themselves and can be 



"hot-plugged" (i.e., connected while the system 
is running). DEC is already using Access.bus in 
its Maxine workstation, and Logitech has de- 
livered a compliant mouse. 

Higher up on the performance scale is Ser- 
ial Bus, also known as IEEE P1394. Serial Bus 
is rated now for 100 Mbps, but someday it 
might scale up to 400 Mbps; with speeds like 
that, it's cleariy intended to be more than a 
mouse port. In fact. Serial Bus is meant to be 
a general-purpose interface that can replace a 
range of I/O types, including ADB, RS-232, RS- 
422, parallel, and SCSI. According to Michael 
Teener, a plumbing architect for Apple and 
former chairman of the P1394 committee, "It 
will be the standard I/O interconnect of the 
future, beyond Apple and even beyond com- 
puters." 

Like Access.bus, Serial Bus will require only 
a single inexpensive connector on the back of 
a system; attached devKes need no DIP switch- 
es or jumpers, and they will identify and con- 
figure themselves dynamically. Unlike wHh 
SCSI, a chain of Serial Bus devices won't need 
addresses or terminators, yet the performance 
is high enough to match that of SCSI-2. 

Members of the IEEE P1394 group include 
Apple, IBM, and NCR; Apple has reportedly al- 
ready developed Serial Bus controller chips 
that it will license to other companies. Teener 
confirms that hardware and software proto- 
types are now up and running and promises 
that "real" hardware will ship in 1994. Pentium 
and PowerPC systems are ideal candidates for 
a Serial Bus port. 



computers based on either the 486 or the 
Pentium with SCSI-2, DSPs, video codecs, 
and LAN interfaces on-board. Some of 
these components will show up even soon- 
er in early Pentium systems. 

SCSI is a given. "It's clear that SCSI-2 
has completely won for any kind of high- 
performance systems," says Amdahl. "The 
notion of using IDE just isn't right in these 
[systems]." IDE is closely tied to the ISA 
bus and suited for a small number of local 
devices, whereas SCSI supports more de- 
vices at greater distances and with more 
flexibility. In servers, and perhaps even in 
some desktops, single- and dual-SCSI con- 



trollers will be tied to the local bus for the 
highest possible throughput. Slower de- 
vices, such as tape drives and CD-ROMs, 
might be hung off yet another SCSI port on 
the EISA bus or Micro Channel. 

Networking is less certain, because stan- 
dards are in flux. Zenith's Houssein be- 
lieves that integrating a network interface 
makes sense in a desktop or portable sys- 
tem but not in a server; since the vendor 
doesn't know how the server will be net- 
worked, open slots are provided instead. 
But even on-board Ethernet, which has 
steadily gained in popularity, may become 
too limiting as new networking schemes. 



such as Fast Ethernet and FDDI over cop- 
per, come on-line. 

One of the best opportunities for inte- 
gration in high-priced Pentium systems is 
multimedia. Intel is actively promoting the 
incorporation into Pentium systems of an 
Analog Devices AD 1848 sound chip, the 
same device used in Compaq's Business 
Audio and Microsoft's Sound System. The 
AD 1 848 offers a basic interface between 
real-world analog signals and the com- 
puter's digital format (i.e., 16-bit A/D and 
D/A conversion at rates of up to CD-qual- 
ity 44.1 kHz). However, user functions 
such as voice annotation of documents or 



90 BYXE JULY 1993 




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Cover story 



spoken attachments to E-mail messages 
must be provided through software, and 
adding music functions requires addition- 
al hardware — either a dedicated synthe- 
sizer chip or a programmable DSP. 

Micronics' Benoit isn't ready to take 
the plunge into multimedia. "We are re- 
luctant to put anything on the motherboard 
that will be obsolete within a year," he 
says. "Sound and video are still going 
through too many changes right now to 
integrate on the motherboard." While ba- 
sic parts such as the AD 1848 won't be 
made obsolete, the functions wrapped 
around them are indeed in evolution. For 
example, dissatisfaction with the quality 
of synthesis music is leading quickly 
to the adoption of wave-table audio, and 
video-compression standards are in flux. In 
the long run, these functions will likely be 
provided by a DSP coupled with software 
tailored to specific multimedia tasks, and 
makers of commodity systems don't yet 
see a strong-enough market demand to 
warrant the added cost of a DSP. 

Graphics accelerators are also likely to 
be integrated, but only in desktop systems 
where imaging, desktop publishing, CAD, 
and other graphics-intensive applications 
need the extra horsepower. Intelligent 



graphics controllers (e.g., bit blitters) are 
likely to be attached to the local bus, as 
they are now in many 486s. S3's Margulis 
says that because early Pentium adopters 
"won't be price-sensitive," he expects a 
typical graphics subsystem to include 2 to 
4 MB of high-performance VRAM, not 
less expensive DRAM. With 4 MB of dis- 
play memory, a system can achieve 1024 
by 768 resolution in 24-bit full color. 

The Next Big Thing 

Held back for years by a lack of standards 
and software support, SMP (symmetric 
multiprocessing) is one of those technolo- 
gies that are often described as the Next 
Big Thing. With the arrival of the Pen- 
tium, Microsoft Windows NT, and Sun- 
Soft's Solaris 2.0, the era of SMP may 
have finally dawned. 

George White, president of Corollary 
(Irvine, CA) and a longtime promoter of 
multiprocessing, says that the Pentium will 
cause "RISC bigots" to take a fresh look at 
Intel. "We expect multiprocessing to get a 
big boost from people looking for higher 
performance and losing their bias against 
Intel," he says. Siemens Nixdorf has com- 
mitted to using Corollary's C-Bus II, a 
400-MBps backplane that can support up 



to 10 Pentium CPUs. Four or five compa- 
nies are expected to demonstrate C-Bus II 
systems at Fall Comdex this year. 

Some people consider Corollary's ap- 
proach too proprietary, arguing that SMP 
won't become commonplace until it's sup- 
ported by major chip-set vendors. Yet the 
multiprocessing architectures used by su- 
perservers, from the Compaq Systempro to 
systems from Parallan and Tricord, are 
also homegrown and, in many cases, not 
really symmetrical. Corollary's licensable 
designs, C-Bus II chips, and support for 
them in Windows NT could expand the 
use of SMP into a broader market. 

However, Intel has also complicated the 
picture with its rumored P54C, a kind of 
"overdrive" Pentium that, instead of dis- 
abling the existing chip (as does the 486 
OverDrive), would work alongside it in a 
multiprocessing fashion. Intel will posi- 
tion this solution as a quick and easy way 
to boost performance on the desktop, rather 
than as a scalable multiprocessing archi- 
tecture. 

"The concern among MP people is that 
this could give multiprocessing with Intel 
CPUs a bad name," says White. While the 
P54C requires system makers to simply 
add a socket, it won't boost performance 




NOONENOTICEDTHE 
GUAfiAMOLEONHISTIL 



Cover Stoiy 



except for multithreaded programs in en- 
vironments such as NT or OS/2. It isn't a 
real SMP solution, because the chips share 
the same bus and external cache. 

Another kind of multiprocessing may 
be redundant designs for improved fault 
tolerance. Says Opti's Khan: "People have 
understood this technology for years, but 
with the extreme price competition, they 
haven't implemented it in PCs. The Pen- 
tium will be the platform of choice for do- 
ing things like dual-processor multipro- 
cessing for reliability." 

Brian Croxon, vice president of Zenith's 
network and server products group, pre- 
dicts that Pentium systems will be designed 
to absorb host functions previously un- 
known in PCs. "You are going to see the 
ability to do remote diagnostics, automat- 
ic dial-out, and system-level network man- 
agement capability," he says. 

HP's Mathios agrees. "Customers are 
looking for high availability. This leads to 
things like redundancy, ECC [error check- 
ing and correction] memory, disk arrays, 
and predictive diagnostics," he says. "And 
these things start driving the system ar- 
chitecture." 

Leading the charge in this arena are the 
superserver companies. For instance, Par- 



allan now delivers ECC memory and par- 
ity on all buses, and it offers a sophisti- 
cated monitoring and diagnostics capabil- 
ity. "Our system maintenance is actually 
better than what's available for main- 
frames, because it uses a GUI front end," 
says Parallan's Fields. The next release of 
the system management software will sup- 
port the SNMP protocol, which will allow 
Parallan servers to operate in heterogene- 
ous network management systems. Tri- 
cord and NetFrame servers provide similar 
levels of data integrity and diagnostics. 

The Pentium itself will also help in this 
regard, because it incorporates several new 
diagnostic capabilities. On-chip perfor- 
mance-monitoring registers maintain sta- 
tistical information on cache hits, bus trans- 
actions, and average processor waits. In 
compliance with the Joint Testability and 
Automation Group standard, internal Pen- 
tium registers can be read directly, which 
should help in debugging and testing sys- 
tems. And the Pentium's FRC (functional 
redundancy-checking) mode lets two chips 
run side-by-side and compare their results 
in real time. Unfortunately, FRC mode 
doesn't indicate a resolution in case of an 
error, so it serves to flag — but not solve — 
data integrity failures. 



Investing in Pentium 

The first generation of Pentium PCs does 
not yet take full advantage of the new 
CPU. If you must buy a Pentium-based 
system today, protect your investment by 
seeking out one with a PCI or VL-Bus for 
video or disk I/O. A 64-bit memory inter- 
face and a 32-bit I/O bus are nice bonuses. 

However, it's probably worth waiting 
until the rest of the architecture catches 
up with the chip and until the operating 
systems that take full advantage of the 
Pentium are available and robust. And if 
you're not sure of your needs but are plan- 
ning to buy a 486 system anyway, consid- 
er one with a P24T socket on-board (to 
accommodate Intel's unannounced Pen- 
tium "overdrive" processor), with the un- 
derstanding that when the chip that plugs 
into it is delivered, it won't give you the 
same performance levels as a native 64- 
bit Pentium system. ■ 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

BYTE executive editor Rich Malloy. senior news 
editors Gene Srnarte and Tom R. Halfhill. and 
news editors Ed Perralore. Dave Andrews, and 
Pat Waurzyniak also contributed to this article. 

Andy Reinhardt is BYTE's West Coast bureau 
chief. You can reach him on BIX as "areinhardt. " 




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Pentium PCs! Power to Burn 



RAYMOND GA COTE 
AND BARRY NANCE 



The first afternoon I spent with a 
roomful of new Pentium sys- 
tems took me back 10 to 15 
years — roaring fans, special 
cooling hardware, and sturdy tank-like 
cases that must be kept closed or the 
electronics inside will surely melt. It is 
difficult to view the first round of Pen- 
tium-based systems as microcomput- 
ers. They blur the already indistinct line 
between microcomputers, supermicro- 
computers, and minicomputers. 

BYTE ran preliminary tests on nine 
servers and two desktop systems. Most 
of the units were based on existing de- 
signs. All the vendors had been privy 
to the Pentium specifications for some 
time. This allowed them to build flex- 
ibility into their latest 486 designs to 
accommodate the Pentium. To move 
their systems up to the Pentium, ven- 
dors employed either a daughtercard 
or a processor card approach. The de- 
signs of these cards vary; they can con- 
tain the processor, cache, DMA, and 
memory with a 64-bit interface, or they 
can provide simply the processor and 
some support circuitry with a 32-bit 
interface. 

The ALR Evolution V-Q was the 
only machine we looked at that imple- 
ments the Pentium on the motherboard. 
It and the NCR System 3360 are the 
only two machines that feature com- 
pletely new system designs to support 
the Pentium. 

All these machines are hot, in a very 
real physical sense. A 66-MHz Pentium requires about 15 W 
just to keep itself running — never mind the high-speed support- 
ing electronics immediately surrounding it. The Pentium may 
not be the first chip to have its own private fan mounted direct- 
ly to it, but it is the first such chip to reach the mass market. 
All the Pentium systems BYTE examined use at least a heat 




The first 

Pentium systems 
offer significant 
performance 
gains over the 
486, but they 
could do better 



Zenith offerings, use both a heat sink and a fan 
mounted directly to the IC. Newly designed sys- 
tems such as the multiprocessor NCR System 3360 
incorporate separate air channels and pathways 
that guarantee processor cooling. Between these 
two extremes are systems such as the Acer Acer- 
Frame 3000MP, which uses a large conductive 
cooling plate, and the IBM Model 95 66-MHz 
Pentium Server, which has a row of squirrel-cage 
fans mounted near the processor. 

As processor speed and complexity increase, so 
too does the need for raw electrical power. Pentium 
systems tend to have large power suppUes — 400 W 
or more is not uncommon. The power supply itself 
produces its own heat problems, but most vendors have already 
dealt with this problem in their fastest 486 designs by separating 
the power supply and its cooling fan from the rest of the system. 

All the systems we looked at adequately isolate the power 
supply's cooling airflow. However, heat is likely to become more 
of a problem as the Pentium becomes readily available and clone 



sink, as Intel recommends. Some, including the Compaq and manufacturers place this year's electronics in last year's cases. 



34. BYTE JULY 1993 



Cover story 




Hewlett-Packard 



Zenith Z-Server LT 
466XE Model 



Acer AcerFrame 3000MP 



Look for designs that 
allow adequate air- 
flow through the sys- 
tem; Intel recom- 
mends a minimum of 
400 feet per minute. 

On the Server Side 

We ran the Novell 
file I/O server bench- 
marks under various 
network loads. Al- 
though there are sig- 
nificant differences 
among the systems 
in the group, most 
of their results were 
within shouting dis- 
tance of one anoth- 
er. Cost becomes 
an obvious determi- 
nant when evaluating 
these machines. Based on pi icing avail- 
able at press time, expect to pay at least 
$8500 for a base-model Pentium server. 





iDeskprsS 



We ran the random and sequential file 
I/O tests five times for each server. The 
benchmark activity was the only LAN 
traffic during each 
test. The network 
connections consist- 
ed of two Thomas- 
Conrad 4045 token- 
ring cards, each con- 
taining 128 KB of 
on-board memory. 
The IBM Model 95 
66-MHz Pentium 
Server used two Mi- 
cro Channel token- 
ring cards and was 
the only server that 
didn't use Thomas- 
Conrad adapters. 

The token-ring 
speed was 16 Mbps. 
The LAN was split 



v.? 



. Unisys PW^ Advantage Plus S606 



into two ring segments, each with 50 work- 
stations. For the tests involving an odd 
number of workstations (25 and 75), one 
ring segment had one more workstation 
active than the other. One of the more te- 
dious aspects of the test was assigning 
workstations. We had to ensure that each 
ring participating in the test had an equal 
number of clients. The actual tests consist 
of sequential and random workstation I/O. 
Each file I/O test is run on 10 2-MB files, 
reading and writing 512 bytes at a time. 

What is most interesting about these 
tests is what they reveal about the need to 
balance total system performance with the 
Pentium processor. The BYTE bench- 
marks allow you to configure a "processor 
load," which attempts to keep the server's 
processor busy while the clients perform 
the timing tests. Run- 
ning the benchmarks 
on each server with 
and without proces- 
sor loading produced 
negligible changes 
in the throughput 
results. This indicates 
that our tests were 
exercising the hard 
drive subsystem more 
than the actual Pen- 
tium chip. That's no 
real surprise, but it's 
a point to be remem- 
bered when deter- 
mining if you need a 
Pentium system. 

Even more telling 
were the results of 
the Pentium-based 
systems compared to 
those of the Zenith Z- 
Server LT 466XE Model 500 with a 50- 
MHz 486. (The Zenith Pentium module 
was delivered too late to be included in 
the network tests.) The 486-based Zenith 
outperi'ormed the DECpc 560ST and IBM 
Model 95, and it didn't do that poorly 
against the other systems, either. Again, 
this points out that overall performance is 
much more important than simply the per- 
formance of a single component. 

These systems would have undoubtedly 
exhibited completely different rankings if 
they had been tested with a more compute- 
intensive environment such as SQL Serv- 
er under OS/2. However, for a strict file 
server, our numbers indicate you can do 
just as well without a Pentium as you can 
with one. 

Desktop Power 

Two of the first Pentium systems we eval- 
uated — the Unisys and the Compaq — are 



JULY 1993 BYTE »S 



Cover Sto 




System memory with 128-bit interface 

256-KB secondary cache 




Pentium processor with heat sinic and fan 



being marketed as desktop machines, so 
we tested them with the BYTE low-level 
DOS and Windows benchmarks. The DOS 
CPU benchmarks show the Pentium sys- 
tems running at speeds of up to 13 times 
the throughput of a Compaq Deskpro 
386/33. However, overall system config- 
uration will drastically affect the perfor- 
mance of an actual application. The Unisys 
PW2 Advantage Plus 5606 system per- 
formed exceptionally well on the file I/O 
tests, but it was outclassed by the Com- 
paq Deskpro 5/66M system in raw CPU 
throughput and video. 

The Windows benchmarks show even 
more confusing results. The Unisys, which 
uses a special pixel-caching video adapter, 
outstrips the Compaq for drawing indi- 
vidual pixels, and it maintains this advan- 
tage for bit-block transfers. However, 
drawing real-world items such as lines, el- 
lipses, and polygons is nowhere near as 
speedy. Likewise, the Unisys system is 63 
percent quicker than the Compaq at se- 
quential file I/O tasks but nearly 31 percent 
slower at the random test. 

Many of the discrepancies that these 
tests show arise due to the number of dif- 
ferent caches throughout the system. First, 
the CPU and FPU tests show the speed of 
the system only while it's operating from 
within the processor cache on the system 
processor board. All the current BYTE 



Isolated 

power 

supply 



The ALR Evolution V-Q 
was the only system 
among the 11 that BYTE 
examined that had the 
Pentium mounted on 
the motherboard. 



Acer took a unique 
approach to dissipating 
the heat generated by the 
Pentium in the 
AcerFrame 3000MP. 
A metal plate acts as a 
heat sink; it's thin 
enough to allow normal 
spacing of the expansion 
slots. 



Compaq's TriFlex 
architecture allows its 
existing Deskpro system 
design to accept this 
Pentium processor card. 
It places all the timing- 
critical components, 
such as cache and DMA, 
on the card. 





Processor 
board slots 



The NCR System 3360 was designed as a multiprocessing Pentium system. The processor cards and 
memory reside in their own compartment, at one end of which is a large fan that generates enough 
airflow to keep the two processors cool. 



96 BYTE JULY 1993 



Why some software sells 
more than others. 




Success. All software 
developers strive 
for it. Now, Don 
Gall was on top of 
the world. Software 
protection made 
all the difference. 
Especially in 
Europe and Asia. 
Sales were four times 
better than before. He is 
the founding father of 
Sentinel — the guru of 
software success. 

Struggling 
Software Sales 

One day, trekking through 
the coffee fields of Java, 
Don ran into his old college 
buddy Simon Seagull. "Don, 
my sales are well below 
expectations." Simon 
explained his plight, "My 
software should sell like 
yours, Don!" Yet despite 
critical acclaim Simon's 
company, SimonSays 
Software, teetered on a 
financial tightrope. "What's 
your seaet, Don?" 

They spent hours 
analyzing potential problems 
They looked at everything. 

TlK Key to the Proidem 
Finally, Don leaned back 
and asked the assumptive 
question, "What about 
protection - are you using 
Sentinel?" 



e IS wnai.'! 




Nervously, Simon sipped 
his coffee. His hands shaking 
as his eyes darted the room, 
"No. I didn't think I 
needed to." 

Don's chair slid 
out from under 
him and he crashed 
to the floor. Amazed 
in disbelief, Don cried, "You 
What?!" Grabbing his tattered 
scrapbook, Don 
pulled out photos 
, of his travels. "Ever 

I ^fl^Q I ^^^^ Seoul? 

l^Tlk " Prague? Anywhere? 
Ten bucks will buy 
you anything, even 
bootlegged copies of software." 

Don^ Road to Success 

Thumbing through the 
scrapbook, Don shared his 
experiences. "Back in the 
'80s, I was in your shoes - 
beaten, battered 
and bruised." 
Simon listened. 
"Then, after \ 
a heart breaking ^ 
trip around the ir 
world, I called the Software 
Publishers Association (SPA).' 

"I could hardly believe 
it. They told me developers 
lose billions of dollars each 
year Why? Illegally copied 
software, hi some countries 
there are nine pirated copies 
for each legal copy sold." 





Simon was disgusted, "ft's just 
not fair." 

"That's why I committed 
myself to solving the 
piracy problem," 
explained Don. 
Simon's eyes lit 
up. "The dongle!" 
he shouted. Don 
corrected him, "Not just any 
dongle — the dongle that 
paved the road to success 
for over 10,000 developers 
worldwide — Sentinel." 

Successful Developers 
Use Sentinel 

Don pulled a stack of letters 
out of his gunny sack. "AU 
of these people tell the same 
story." Don read about a 
successful developer from 
California who swears she 
wouldn't be in business 
without Sentinel. Another 
company says protection costs 
less than litigation, plus 
they don't have to 
spend time and 
money supporting 
illegal users. 

Others confessed 
they wouldn't market 
products internationally 
without protection. 

The hours flew by, story 
after story, Simon learned 
Don Gall's secret. To succeed 
is to protect. To protect is to 
secure with Sentinel. 





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© 1993 Rainbow Technologies, Inc. All produa names are rrademarks of their respective owners. 



Circle 137 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 138). 



Cover Story 



DOS Benchmarks 

Compaq Deskpro 5/66M 
Unisys PW2 




0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 



10 15 20 25 30 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 



All results are Indexed, and higher numbers indicate better pertormance. For each index in the DOS tests, a Compaq Deskpro 386/33L running Compaq DOS 5.0 = 1 . 

The overall index is the average index of the individual tests. The BYTE low-level twnchmark suite identifies relative performance at the hardware level, breaking down 
performance by system component. The results of these tests can help you to identify the relative performance of a given subsystem and to determine where performance 
bottlenecks may tie. For a complete description of these tests, see "BYTE's New Benchmarks: New Looks, New Numt)ers," August 1990 BYTE. The BYTE low-level 
benchmarks, version 2.4, are available in the byte.bmarks conference on BIX, or you can contact BYTE directly. 



Unix Benchmarks 

Compaq Deskpro 5/66M 
NCR 3360 
Unisys PW^ 
Zenith Z-Server LT 



Dhrystones 



Exec! 












01 23456789 10 



Pipe Context Switch 



Shell Scripts 



Unix Overall 



Compaq Deskpro 5/66M 
NCR 3360 
Unisys PW^ 
Zenith Z-Server LT 





All results are Indexed, and higher numbers indicate better performance. For each index in the Unix tests, a Sun Sparcstation IPC = 1 . The 
overall index is the average index of the individual tests. 

Our Unix tests show relative performance for double-precision arithmetic, the Dhrystone 2 benchmark, spawning a process (execl()), pipe-based 
context switching, and running a shell script with eight concurrent scripts running. Unix benchmarks are available on Usenet, in the listings area 
on BIX, or on disk. 



Metaware compiler 
I SCO binary 



Windows Benchmarks 



Graphics 



Memory 



File I/O 



Windows Overall 



Compaq Deskpro 5/66M 
Unisys PW^ 







0 2 4 6 a 10 12 14 16 18 0 



8 10 12 0 



8 



12 16 20 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 



All results are indexed, and higher numbers indicate better perfomiance. For each index in the Windows tests, a Compaq Deskpro 386/33L running Compaq DOS 5.0 and 
Windows 3.1 = 1 . The overall index is the average index of the individual tests. 

BYTE's Windows test suite measures system performance running Windows. It is divided into three categories: Graphics, which includes calls to GDI drawing routines: li^emoty, 
which measures the speed of memory access under Windows; and File I/O, which measures performance of the file system on disk. 



98 BYTE JULY 1993 






You've been waiting for a powerful optical 
storage drive that slides easily into any 

standard half-height computer 
bay. And Pioneer engineers did 
it. Presenting the world's first 
5W half-height multifunction 
(rewritable/ WORM) drive. The DE-UH7Wh 

This feature packed 
optical drive gives you 
everything. Half-height 
form factor, 53 msec 
average seek time, dust protection, SCSI 
interface, and removable media with 
654 MBytes on a single 5Vi" optical disk. 
The multifunction capability allows use as 
an erasable, rewritable work- 
horse drive. And as a 
WORM (write once 
read many) archiver 
for mass storage. 

Along with great features. Pioneer 
continues to build reliability into every 
drive. By improving existing technology 
and reducing the number of parts we 
achieved an astounding 32,000 hours 
mean-time between failures. 





The DE-UH7W1 is available 
in internal or external units. 




Call Pioneer at 1-800-LASER-ON 

for full power at half the size. 



Pioneer New Media Technologies, Inc. 

OPTICAL MEMORY SYSTEMS DIVISION, 
2265 E. 220th Street Long Beach, CA 90810 



Circle 255 on Inquiry Card. 



Cover Story 



NetWare Benchmarks 

KBps 



7000 



Random I/O 



6000 



5000 



4000 



3000 



2000 



1000 




KBps 

18000 



16000 



14000 



12000 



10000 



8000 



6000 



4000 



12 25 50 

Number of stations 


75 


100 


AcerFrame 3000MP 




IBM Model 95 


DECpcSeOST 




ALR ProVeisa V 


ALR Evolution V-Q 




Siemens Nixdorf PCE-5S 


HP NetServer 5/60 LM 




Z-Server LT* 



Sequential I/O 










■ 


1 










i 


1 








■ 


1 


1 






■ 


1 


i 


1 






H 


1 




1 




■ 








1 






if 






1 




■ 


1 


1 





12 



25 



50 

Number of stations 



75 



100 



• Zenith server tests run on 486/50 CPU. 



On ttie networlt file I/O tests, worltstations open. read, and write files on 
tfie server using either sequential or random-access patterns. The file 
I/O tests measure true server throughput; disk I/O speed is the most 
important factor, but processing speed and network I/O performance 
also contribute. 

All servers are tested under NetWare 3.1 1 . The figure shows the 
aggregate throughput for each server for each test. Note that the figure 
shows fo/a/ throughput on the network — that is, the sum of the throughput 
seen by each client on the network. 



benchmarks don't require hits in main 
memory. Conversely, the file I/O tests 
highlight differences in approaches to on- 
board disk caches as well as to the inter- 
face. 

Tlie More, the Merrier 

Beyond the promise of simply more speed 
lies the ability to gang Pentium processors 
into multiprocessing systems. We received 
two such systems for review: The Acer 
AcerFrame 3000MP and the NCR System 
3360. We were unable to pit these two sys- 
tems against each other, since the Acer- 



Frame arrived with only one processor 
board. 

The NCR 3360 we received had two 
Pentium processor boards. NCR claims it 
will deliver systems that support up to 16 
processors. This is a ground-up redesign 
that NCR configures for either desktop or 
server use. It includes custom memory 
management chips, a custom local bus for 
video access, and the ability to provide 
multiple processor access to shared video 
memory. This means that the video is not 
tied to a particular processor — whichever 
processor board is free can update the dis- 



play. This also leads to the potential, with 
still unrealized software, of allowing dif- 
ferent processors to write to specific win- 
dows on the display. 

NCR's use of a nonstandard local-bus 
definition for the video means you'll be 
limited in your choice of video cards for 
this machine. For server use, this is not 
much of a concern, and NCR claims it is 
seriously considering PCI (Peripheral 
Component Interconnect) 2.0 for future it- 
erations of the 3360. 

The 3360 points out the difference that 
a good compiler can make to performance. 

continued 



iOO BYTE JULY 1993 



Cross 
platfoniis 
easily 

New Timbuktu is tlie easiest way to networl( Macintosii and Windows 
computers, so you can share printers, files and screens. 




Call today for a free 
demonstration video: 

1-800-998-7760 ext. 4. 

I J 

H MacUser ltl|^ 

PC Week labs Overall Score 4.2 
Macworld '^^'^"k 
LAN Times 5 Nodes 



Moving information between Macin- 
tosh" and Windows™ computers used to 
be quite a feat of skill. Let alone nerves. 

But now there's Farallon's new 
Timbuktu" for Macintosh and Windows. 

Timbuktu is the easiest way to create 
a peer-to-peer network. So, whether 
you're on a PC or Mac, you can share 
expensive peripherals like printers. And 
exchange files quickly and easily. 

You also get a 
unique benefit- 
remote control. 
Timbuktu can send 
a real-time, full-color 



MICROSOFT® 
WINDOVS.. 
COMmm£ 



It rure with 
NetWare 



Power to the network: 



picture of your screen over the 
network so you can control and 
view it from another Mac or 
Windows PC. This lets you use 
your network for new things like 
collaboration and user support. 

Of course, Timbuktu is easy 
to use and install. You don't need a dedi- 
cated gateway or server. And it works 
with what you've got. Even other networks 
on NetWare or TCP/IR 

For a free Timbuktu 
product demo video, 
just call. It's that easy. 
1-800-998-7760 ext.4! 



*Call i-800^78*5075 for upgrades from Timbuktu and PtioneNET PC (previously AppleShare PC and PlioneNET Talk). Upgrades also available for SitkaTOPS and CartMHi Copy. 

A copy of Timbuktu is required on each machine on the network. Single- and multi-packs are available. 

All trademarks are property of their owners. ©1992 All rights reserved. For customer service, call (510) 814-5000. Or contact us on America Online'^ or AppleLink* ID: Farallon. CompuServe* ID: 75410. 2702. imernet ID: Farallon@farallon.com. 



Circle 87 on Inquiry Card. 



Cover Story 



PENTIUM SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS 

These are the most important differences among the first Pentium systems. Pricing will be critical, with early models expected to cost 
from $5000 to $20,000. Ail these systems will eventually ship in 66-MHz versions. (P=parity; EDAC=error detection and correction; 
MC=Micro Channel; N/A=not available.) 



SYSTEM 
TESTED 


PROCESSOR 

SPEED 

(MHZ) 


PROCESSOR- 
TO-MEMORY 
BANDWIDTH 


MEMORY 
TYPE 


CACHE 
(AS TESTED) 


EXPANSION- 
BUS TYPE 


SCSI-2 


CONFIGURATION 
AS TESTED (RAM, 
STORAGE, VIDEO, MONITOR) 


PRICE 
AS TESTED 


AcerFrame 3000MP 


60 


32-bit 


EGG 


256KB 


EISA, ISA 


None 


16MB, 5 520-MB 

bCbl, 640x480, 
no monitor^ 


$23,995' 


ALR ProVeisa V 


60 


32-bit 


P 


512 KB 


EISA, ISA 


None 


32 MB, 4 540-MB SCSI 
array, 1024x768, 14" 


$12,989 


ALR Evolution V-Q 


60 


128-bit 


P 


512KB 


EISA, VL 


None 


32 MB, 4 540-MB SCSI 
array, 1024x768, 14" 


$13,320 


Compaq Deskpro 5/66M 


66 


128-bit 


P 


256 KB 


EISA 


None 


^ c KJID c^^ niD ir»c 
Id Mti, o1U-Md lUh, 

1280x1024, 20" 


$9399 


DECpc 560ST 


60 


32-bit 


P 


256KB 


EISA 


Option card' 


16MB, 1-GBSCSI, 
1024x768, 14" 


$8500^ 


Hewlett-Packard NetServer 5/60 LM 


60 


32-bit 


P 


256KB 


EISA 


Integrated' 


16MB, 4- GB SCSI, 
640x480, 14" 


$12,899 


IBM Model 95 66-MHz Pentium Server 


66 


64-bit 


ECO 


256 KB 


MC 


Option card' 


16MB, 2 540-MB SCSI, 
1024x768, 14" 


N/A 


NCR System 3360 


60 


128-bit 


EDAC 
orP 


256 KB 


MC 


Integrated 


64 MB, 1-GB SCSI, 
1280x1024, 19" 


$19,000' 


Siemens Nixdorf PCE-5S 


60 


64-bit 


EDAC 


256 KB 


EISA, ISA, 
VL 


Integrated' 


16MB, 510-MB SCSI, 
1 024x768, no monitor 


N/A 


Unisys PW Advantage Plus 5606 


60 


32-bit 


P 


256 KB 


EISA 


Integrated 


16MB, 1.2-GB SCSI, 
1024x768, 14" 


$10,000 


Z-Server LT 466XE Model 500 


66 


64-bit 


P 


256 KB 


EISA 


Integrated' 


16MB, 3 500-MB SCSI, 
1024x768, 17" 


$8915 



' Fast SCSI. 



' Includes 525-MB QIC tape drive. 



' Estimated price. 



The BYTE Unix benchmarks are compiled 
using the standard SCO Unix compiler. 
We ran these standard binaries and a ver- 
sion of the benchmcirk compiled with the 
native NCR Metaware C compiler. 

In some cases, the Metaware compiler 
shows a 2.5 percent increase over the 
standard SCO speeds. It was interesting to 
see that some tests, such as spawning oth- 
er tasks, were actually quicker when the 
SCO compiler was used. With the 
Metaware compiler, the 3360 ranks be- 
tween the Silicon Graphics Indigo and 
the IBM RS/6000 in speed. This speed 
increase is seen without using a Pentium- 
specific compiler. 

The AcerFrame has been around since 
late last year in 486 form. It supports up to 
four Pentium processors. Memory is 
shared and accessible by all CPUs and 
EISA-based subsystems. The processor- 
to-memory interface, which Acer calls the 
FrameBus, boasts a claimed bandwidth of 
264 MBps. 

Best is Yet to Come 

We expect few Pentium systems to land 
on desktops in the immediate future. The 
486 is still more than adequate for the av- 
erage user. It's likely that most Pentium 
systems will be sold for use with server 
applications, such as database and multi- 
user Unix environments, where the pro- 
cessing power can make a difference. 



Our early tests of Pentium systems are 
hardly the last word. Most of the units 
we've seen are not yet finished, particu- 
larly in terms of software drivers and BIOS 
code. All the systems discussed in this ar- 
ticle will eventually ship with 66-MHz 
processors, too, although many arrived at 
BYTE with 60-MHz parts. Furthermore, 
we've yet to see what these systems can re- 
ally do with applications written using 
compilers designed specifically for the 



Pentium architecture. 

For now, these systems are merely good, 
fast implementations of 486-class ma- 
chines. We won't know what their full po- 
tential is until Pentium-specific applica- 
tions appear. ■ 



Raymond GA Cote is a BYTE consulting editor. 
You can reach him on BIX as "rgacote." Barry 
Nance is a contributing editor for BYTE. You can 
reach him on BIX as "harryn." 



Company Information 


Acer America Corp. 


Hewlett-Packard Co. 


Siemens Nixdorf 


San Jose. OA 


Palo Alto, CA 


Information Systems, Inc. 


(800) 733-2237 


fax: (800) 752-0900 


Burlington, MA 


fax; (408) 456-0471 


Circle 1064 on Inquiry Card. 


(800) 226-1484 ext. 3396 


Circle 1060 on Inquiry Card. 




(617) 273-0480 ext. 3396 




IBM PC Co. 


fax: (617) 221-0201 


Advanced Logic 


Somers. NY 


Circle 1067 on Inquiry Card. 


Research, Inc. 


(800) 722-2227 




Irvine, OA 


fax: (800) 426-4329 


Unisys Corp. 


(800) 444-4257 


Circle 1065 on Inquiry Card. 


Blue Bell, PA 


fax: (714) 581-9240 




(800) 448-1424 


Circle 1061 on Inquiry Card. 


NCR Corp. 


(215) 986-4011 




Dayton, OH 


fax: (215) 986-6850 


Compaq Computer Corp. 


(800) 637-2600 


Circle 1068 on Inquiry Card. 


Houston, TX 


(513) 443-5000 




(800) 345-1518 


Circle 1066 on Inquiry Card. 


Zenith Data Systems 


Circle 1062 on Inquiry Card. 




Buffalo Grove, IL 
(800) 553-0331 


Digital Equipment Corp. 




(708) 808-5000 


Maynard, MA 




fax: (800) 472-7211 


(800) 722-9332 




fax: (708) 808-4434 


(800) 524-5694 




Circle 1069 on Inquiry Card. 


Circle 1063 on Inquiry Card. 







3.02 



IS V I I ; JULY 1993 



June 14, 1963. 
Cindy Smith plays witli color. 




Thirty years later her business 
depends on it. 



Introducing the 
QMS ColorScript Laser 1000. 

Now your business has 
total freedom of expressioa 



For Cindy, communicating da:ision-critical 
information quickly flawlessly and in 
brilliant color is now her livelihood. That's 
why she depends on the QMS ColorScript* 
Laser 1000 Print System. It frees her to 
print entire forms and letterhead with color 
logos, images and high quality text without 
changing paper It saves her the cost of 
stocking special fonns, letterhead and 
multiple sets of supplies and uses standard 
p^^r and transparencies. It improves her 
message by highlighting key data with 
color in multipage presentations and 
documents. Add direct connection to a 
variety of networks and anyone can realize 
both greater productivity and a per user 
cost that rivals personal printers. Plus, our 
easy software loadable upgrades virtually 
eliminate obsolescence. 



Save money Save time. Free yourself from 
limitations. Discover the advant^es of the 
QMS* ColorScript Laser 1000 Print System. 

• Laser color and monochrome printing 

• Compatibility with PostScript" Level 2 and 
Level 1, HP PCL"5C and HP-Cr • TmeType 
font scaling • Automatic collation • All 
four ports accept data simultaneously 

• Automatically inteiprets incoming 
data and selects correct language from 
those available • 65 resident type fonts, 
all with multilingual character sets 

• EfiColor"" and Colorimetric color 
dictionaries and Apple ColorSynch" 
device profile • Supports DOS, Window^ 
Macintosh* and Unix* applications 

• Software loadable system upgrades 

• QMS Crown™ multitasking technology. 



QMS 




Expression is a serious business. 
Call QMS today at 800 841-0760 or 205 633-4300 for more infomiation. 

QMS,QMSO)kKScri|*aiidlheQMSlogoarelra(kniarteorregtstefedtr^^ Inc. FtelScript is a trademark of Adobe S>stEmi™»qK)raledw^ 

cHtain jurisdioions. All other product aixl ctKipany names mentioned are 



Circle 109 on Inquiry Cord (RESELLERS: 110). 



state of the Art 



New Knowledge T0015 

Combining knowledge-based systems with neural networks, genetic algorithms, case-based reasoning, 
and other emerging technologies produces new types of tools. They'll help you come to grips with tasks 
that will dominate the workplace in the coming years. 



SARA HEDBERG 



Anew generation of applications is 
helping companies work smarter 
by letting them take advantage of their col- 
lective experience. The applications, called 
KBSes (knowledge-based systems), are 
also playing a growing role in rightsizing 
companies by reducing costs and improv- 
ing workers' performance. 

KBSes capture a company's intellectu- 
al capital — its expertise and experience — 
and distribute it throughout the enterprise 
over a network. For example, American 
Express (New York, NY) placed corpo- 
rate policies and procedures in its KBS to 
assist its credit authorizers to rapidly han- 
dle transactions. 

New intelligent systems combine KBSes 
with other emerging technologies, such as 
neural networks, CBR (case-based rea- 
soning), genetic algorithms, virtual reality, 
and multimedia (see the glossary). Poten- 
tial new applications of these hybrid tech- 
nologies include coordinating all the func- 
tions and departments of a corporation, 
improving customer service at reduced 
cost, and developing better software more 
quickly. 

Smarter Tools 

KBS technology evolved from expert sys- 
tems, which were designed to encode an 
expert's knowledge into a computer pro- 
gram in the form of IF. . .THEN rules. The 
expert systems of the early 1980s proved to 
be difficult to build because of the chal- 
lenge of capturing all of an expert's knowl- 
edge. They were also difficult to maintain, 
because their large rule bases had little or- 
ganization. Most expert systems were 
stand-alone applications on dedicated 
workstations. 

In the mid-1980s, researchers married 
rule-based expert systems with powerful, 
frame-based, object-oriented representa- 
tion. This combination helped represent 
complex data structures, their constraints. 



and their relationships. The pairing pro- 
duced a new generation of software de- 
velopment tools and applications, called 
KBSes. 

With their ability to represent, manage, 
and analyze complex knowledge and 
processes, KBS software development 
tools offer powerful advanced program- 
ming techniques that are highly produc- 
tive. "KBS technology is really a super- 
set of object technology," says Dennis 
Yablonsky, president of the 
Carnegie Group (Pittsburgh, 
PA), a consulting firm spe- 
cializing in intelligent-soft- 
ware technologies for man- 
ufacturing. 



A KBS QUICK PRIMER 



The Next Generation 

Researchers and software 
developers are combining 
KBS tools with other emerg- 
ing software technologies. 
Although the hybrid systems 
are still largely experimen- 
tal, preliminary results indi- 
cate that such coupling can 
enable more complex prob- 
lem-solving techniques than 
have been available to pro- 
grammers in the past. 

For example, if you com- 
bine multimedia and virtual 
reality with KBS technol- 
ogy, you create a powerful 
user interface for the KBS. 
Programmers can use KBS 



technology to manage and 
retrieve multimedia data sources and to 
create intelligent agents and objects in vir- 
tual reality. As a result, computer inter- 
faces come alive (see "See, Hear, Learn" 
on page 1 19). 

When a system combines a KBS and 
CBR, it can intelligently process a wider 
variety of information than could be han- 



A KBS (knowledge-based 
system) is an application 
that can store, retrieve, and 
analyze vast stores of 
knowledge and data. KBSes 
are extensions of the old Al 
notion of an expert in a box. 
As a new generation of what 
used to be called expert 
systems, KBSes came into 
being about 8 years ago. 
Today, they are used to 
accomplish such tasks as 
diagnosing equipment 
problems, forecasting 
stock trends, scheduling 
production, and designing 
new products. 



died by either of the technologies it com- 
prises. Because it can access, organize, 
and analyze unstructured information that 
cannot be captured in databases (e.g., free- 
text data), CBR allows the hybrid system 
to handle people's experiences, or cases. It 
also enables the system to perform broad, 
shallow reasoning across these cases by 
matching new cases with existing ones in 
the case base (see "Roll Your Own Hy- 
brids" on page 1 13). 

Customer service is one 
area where companies are 
implementing systems that 
combine KBS and CBR 
technology. For instance, 
Compaq Computer (Hous- 
ton, TX) is using this ap- 
proach to automate such 
customer service functions 
as answering questions and 
troubleshooting (see the text 
box "Help Is on the Way"). 



Coordinated Engineering 

Hybrid systems composed 
of KBS and CBR technolo- 
gy are also proving fruitful 
in managing product life 
cycles (i.e., coordinating 
the design, marketing, and 
parts inventory of a prod- 
uct). With its rich represent- 
ation capabilities, a KBS 
allows a company to store 
and intelligently retrieve 
product decisions and 
trade-offs that can guide fu- 
ture decision-making. DEC, Boeing, and 
General Motors are a few of the compa- 
nies that use KBSes to coordinate such 
tasks. 

One of the most prominent research ef- 
forts in product-engineering coordination 
going on today is ARPA's DICE (Defense 
Initiative for Concurrent Engineering). 

conlinued 



New Knowledge Tools 

Knowledge-based systems let you 
make the most of your business's 
intellectual capital 106 



Roll Your Own Hybrids 

Sometimes, your knowledge system needs the services 
of other technologies, such as neural networks 
or case-based reasoning U.3 



See, Hear, Learn 

Combining knowledge systems with 
multimedia and virtual reality yields 
Intriguing results U9 



H fTi 



ILLUSTRATIONS: DOLORES FAIRMAN S> 1993 



JULY 1993 BYTE 107 



state of the Art! 



New Knowledge Tools 



Glossary 



CBR (case-based reasoning) Programming 
by example in which knowledge is stored in the 
form of experiences, or cases. 

expert system Technology designed to 
encode an expert's knowledge into a 
computer program in the form of IF... THEN 
mies. 

frame-based representation A technique 
enabling more elaborate data definition of the 
facets of an object (e.g., constraints and 
multiple inheritance) than can be achieved 
with pure object-oriented technology. 

genetic aigoritlim A technique based on 
natural selection. Generations of bit strings 
are created, combined, and evaluated using 
genetic-like operations to find near-optimal 
solutions. 

KBS (Icnowiedge-based system) An 

application for representing knowledge that 
offers the ability to analyze this knowledge 
using IF.. .THEN rules. 

muitimedia The presentation of information 
on a computer using audio, video, text, 
animation, and graphics. 

neural network A system that emulates the 
human nervous system and brain to process 
information. Neural networks are used for 
such things as sensor and signal processing 
and pattern recognition. 

procedu re-based system An object- 
oriented programming technique that enables 
the attachment of behavior to objects in the 
fonti of code. When a message is received by 
the code, the behavior is executed. 

rule A technique for representing human 
problem-solving and heuristic reasoning using 
an IF.. .THEN form. 

rule-based systems An approach 
popularized with expert systems that uses 
IF.. .THEN mies and frames to encode 
expertise in a knowledge base. An inference 
engine controls how the rules are used during 
the problem-solving process. 

virtual reality A process that uses 
computers to simulate realistic 3-D audio, 
visual, and tactile worlds. 



Under the leadership of the Concurrent 
Engineering Research Center of West Vir- 
ginia University (Morgantown, WV), the 
research focuses on integrating intelligent 
software tools — including KBS and 
CBR — to support the coordination of en- 
gineering activities. 

Another innovative group in this arena 
is the Knowledge Assisted Design Lab at 
Carnegie Mellon University (Pittsburgh, 
PA), under the direction of D. Navin Chan- 
dra. The lab is mixing KBSes, CBR, and 



KBSes vs. Hybrid Systems 



KBS 



User interface 



Inference engine Knowledge base 


^ Reasoning , 


Rules and facts 


mechanism 


Explanation 


Database 


facility \^ 




i Problem 


Problem 


1 trace 


description 





Hybrid system 



Front end 

(chooses subsystem 
to solve problem) 



— ( Neural network 1 
— Rule-based system 1 — 
/I — Neural network 2 — 
Rule-based system 2 
— 1 Neural network 3 — I 



Back end 

(formats and 
considers answer) 



A generic KBS ( knowledge-based system) relies on its own database, knowledge base, 
explanation facility, and inference engine, but a hybrid system can select a subsystem to handle each 
problem through the front end while the hack end formats and consolidates partial answers from 
each subsystem. (Data courtesy of Silverman, Barry. Expert Systems, Addison-Wesley. 1987: 
Eherhart. Russell C, and Roy W. Dobbins. Neural Network PC Tools; A Practical Guide, 
Academy Press, 1990) 



natural-language-query techniques to cre- 
ate a system that captures and makes avail- 
able to users all the design decisions of 
the corporation. With this information, 
employees can avoid repeating mistakes 
made by others, says Navin chandra. 



New Hybrids 

Some hybrid systems are commercially 
available today. For example, Art*Enter- 
prise from Inference (El Segundo, CA) 
represents a new generation of KBS tools 
packaged for the complex tasks of coordi- 
nating the functions of a corporation. 
Art*Enterprise com- 
bines the usual KBS 
technologies (i.e., rules, 
frames, object-orient- 
ed programming, and 
GUIs) with CBR, cor- 
porate databases, and 
multimedia. "The re- 
sult is a scalable de- 
velopment tool that 
enables a range of ap- 
plications in one envi- 
ronment," says Chuck 
Williams, Inference's 



vice president of marketing. 

Using the same environment. Art* En- 
terprise allows you to build a conventional 
query-and-update application merely by 
pointing and clicking on the program's in- 
terface. You also have the option of build- 
ing custom, complex applications that blend 
KBS and CBR technology. Other general- 
purpose KBS software development tools 
from such vendors as IntelliCorp (Moun- 
tain View, CA) and Trinzic (Palo Alto, CA) 
provide many of the same features as 
Art*Enterprise, but they do not have built- 
in CBR or multimedia capabilities. 



Some KBS Development Tool Components 



a rich knowledge-representation language 
combining frame-based and object-oriented 
representation schemes 
message passing 
reasoning through rules 
a GUI 

the ability to integrate with such systems as 
databases, sensors, and news feeds 



lOS BYTE JULY 1993 



state of the Art 



New Knowledge Tools 



For years, KBS 
technology has been 
integrated into pro- 
cess-control systems, 
monitoring and con- 
trolling the workings 
of such facilities as 
plastics factories and 
nuclear power plants. 
The KBS analyzes all 
information provided 
by the control devices 
and initiates correc- 
tive actions. This ap- 
proach is faster and 
more cost-effective 
than traditional math- 
ematical methods. 
Some large process- 
control vendors, such 
as Bailey Controls 
(Wickliffe, OH), now 
offer or are currently 
developing products 
that combine KBS 
and controller tech- 
nologies. 

The dominant KBS 
player in this market 
niche is Gensym (Cambridge, MA), which 
introduced a new product, called NeurOn- 
Line, that layers neural-network technol- 



Hybrid Knowledge-Based System Trade-offs 


Combine a KBS with: 


PROS 


CONS 


Neural networks 


The system learns/trains itself and provides h^- 
response accuracy. 


It often requires prolonged training and offers no 
explanations for its results. 


Case-based reasoning 


The system is able to store, analyze, and process 
previous experiences/decisions. Inductive systems 
explain themselves. 


There is no standard underlying the adaptive 
algorithms. The system has difficulty 
prioritizing cases. 


Genetic algorithms 


The system can search an entire domain for a solution, 
and it breeds on established success paths. 


It is developmefltally difficult and computationally 
expensive. 


Multimedia 


The system integrates graphics, text sound, and video. 
It's simple to use and consists of increasingly 
commonplace technology. 


It accesses stored knoiwledge unintelligently. 
The system is resource intensive and expensive. 


Virtual reality The system can immerse a user in a 3-D environment 
and remotely simulate movements and situations. 

* Data courtesy of Cognitive Systems (Stamford, CT) and Symbologic (Redmond. WA) 


Its applications are mainly used for entertainment 
or military purposes.Tlie system requires 
sophisticated equipment 



ogy onto G2 Real-Time Expert System, 
Gensym' s general-purpose KBS/process- 
control tool. NeurOn-Line's algorithms 



allow it to learn while it's monitoring a 
process. "Now we can have nonUnear adap- 
tive models," explains Gensym's president 



Hybrid KBS Applications 



Neural network 

• pattern recognition 

• foreign language translation 

• process control 

• financial/credit analysis 



Virtual reality 

• training 

• remote operation 

• process control 



Multimedia 

• training 

• maintenance/documentation 

• entertainment 




CBR 

• customer support 

• classification/prediction system 

• policy compliance 



Genetic algorithm 

• financial/credit scoring 

• biotechnical/medical analysis 

• selection/profile generation 



Combined witll a base KBS (knowledge-based system), such technologies as CBR (case-based reasoning), neural networks, and virtual reality 

help create applications suitable for a wide range of tasks. 



JULY 1993 It V I I: X09 



state of the Art 



New Knowledge Tools 



Help Is on the Way 



STEVEN L. SPERRY 



How Resolve Works 



Product support has been 
called the computer indus- 
try's battleground of the 1990s. To 
help support staffs solve customer 
problems faster and more accurate- 
ly, companies are seeking efficient 
techniques that combine proven 
knowledge-engineering and infor- 
mation-retrieval technologies with 
an open, component-based archi- 
tecture. 

No single technology or retrieval 
algorithm can yield the optimal way 
of creating a powerful product-sup- 
port system. But the Customer Sup- 
port Consortium, an alliance of 20 
computer-industry leaders — which 
includes Banyan Systems, Com- 
puterLand, Intel, IBM, NCR, DEC, 
Hewlett-Packard, Silicon Graphics, 
Legent, 3M, and Sybase — has come 
up with a hybrid product called Re- 
solve that might do the trick. De- 
veloped by Symbologic, a software 
development firm in Seattle, Wash- 
ington, Resolve combines CBR (case- 
based reasoning), text retrieval, a rela- 
tional database, and an expert system 
and provides a C++, object-oriented 
front end. 

Solving product-support problems is 
a complex and dynamic task. A firm's 
knowledge base is constantly shifting 
and evolving. And with ever-accelerat- 
ing product releases and shortening life 
cycles, product knowledge may become 
obsolete soon after it's acquired, or it 
may be valid for years. 

Problem resolution is further com- 




Customer 
support 




y 

IIIIIIIIII 
IIIIIIIIII 




Caller 



Knowledge 
server 




External 
information source 



External 
Information source 



Resolve aids support personnel in answering customers ' questions. A support 
person enters problem information into Resolve. Because it's a client/server 
system, Resolve resides on both the desktop component and the knowledge 
server. Resolve generates queries on the infonnation and submits them to the 
knowledge server. If the answer isn't there. Resolve sends the query to 
information servers, which could be databases in other parts of the company. 
Resolve then filters and returns the results of the queries to the support person. 



ject-oriented DBMS 
from Object Design 
(Burlington, MA). 

The application is 
designed to acquire 
knowledge dynami- 
cally while the sup- 
port person resolves 
the caller's problem. 
Support staff can use 
any available infor- 
mation resources to 
reach a solution, such 
as databases. E-mail 
messages, on-line 
documents, and CBR 
systems. Each in- 
formation server, or 
retrieval tool, access- 
es on-line informa- 
tion resources, which 
can be located any- 
where within the en- 
terprise. 



plicated by its multifaceted nature: A 
person providing support must investi- 
gate, analyze, and document each trans- 
action. The person must synthesize all 
these elements to fully understand the 
problem. 

Resolve is based on a client/server 
model with a distributed, object-orient- 
ed architecture. The system's compo- 
nents can reside on either the client or 
the server. And the data-storage tech- 
nology is a persistent, shared-object 
space that will be provided by an ob- 



Smarts Beget Smarts 

The main compo- 
nents of the Resolve 
system are the user 
interface, problem- 
resolution facility, knowledge server, 
object database, and information server. 
The user interface is the support per- 
son's visual workspace, where infor- 
mation returned from searches is ren- 
dered as graphical objects. The interface 
can be embedded in and accessed 
through a call-tracking system, a com- 
bination of telephone and database tech- 
nology that can handle thousands of calls 
a day. 

The problem-resolution facility trans- 
lates the support person's understanding 



Bob Moore. "Processes are nonlinear. So, 
this is a breakthrough to allow true opti- 
mization of advanced control not previ- 
ously possible with mathematical models. 
The neural network's ability to learn al- 
lows adaptation." 

Some of the latest work in combining 
KBSes with other technologies has been 



pioneered by the Carnegie Group, whose 
products are available through its consult- 
ing services. The company recently inte- 
grated Testbench, its KBS tool for equip- 
ment troubleshooting, with hypertext, neural 
networks, and CBR. 

According to the Carnegie Group's 
Yablonsky, Testbench detects symptoms. 



analyzes failures, and recommends repairs. 
Text and graphics technology have been 
added so that equipment and trouble- 
shooting documentation can be stored in 
hypertext. Integrated neural-network capa- 
bilities enable the system to learn and adapt 
in nonlinear situations. Finally, the Car- 
negie Group included CBR in the system so 



llO BYTE JULY 1993 



Circle 1 06 on Inquiry Card. 



State of the Art 



New Knowledge Tools 



of the problem into queries against the 
external information sources. As part of 
the system's response to the search, the 
facility evaluates and ranks the rele- 
vance of the results. 

The knowledge server manages the 
object model of the support domain 
and queries against the knowledge base, 
where dynamically acquired problein/ 
solution information is stored. The ob- 
ject database provides the persistent, 
shared-object space for the system. This 
component manages and synchronizes 
distributed object storage and access. 
Information servers generate queries 
against external information sources 
(e.g., document and bug databases) and 
package the query results as objects 
that can be evaluated by the problem- 
resolution facility and rendered by the 
user interface. 

Resolve's component-based archi- 
tecture makes it possible for third-par- 
ty retrieval products to be incorporated 
into the support staff's set of tools. 
When new products and new versions 
of products become available, a com- 
pany can quickly augment, change, or 
merge the elements of its knowledge- 
base model. 

Because customer-support applica- 
tions are so knowledge intensive, the 
companies that most efficiently acquire 
and distribute knowledge will eventu- 
ally achieve the high ground. Hybrid 
systems that combine many informa- 
tion technologies provide the means 
for firms to win the battle of customer 
support. 

Steven L. Sperry is president of Symbologic. 
He is also executive director of the Cus- 
tomer Support Consortium. You can reach 
him on BIX c/o "editors. " 



that unstructured information in cases could 
be available as another knowledge source to 
Testbench. 

Software Integration 

Some of the greatest challenges arising 
when combining KBSes with other tech- 
nologies are software integration prob- 



lems, says Michael DeBellis, a scientist 
at Andersen Consulting. DeBellis has been 
struggling with this problem for the past 
few years in the course of his work on a 
KBS/CASE research project. In the easi- 
est scenario, both the tools used in the hy- 
brid system are written in C, so commu- 
nication is straightforward. However, 
when one tool is written in an object-ori- 
ented language (e.g., Smalltalk) and the 
other is written in a different language 
(e.g., C), communications become more 
difficult unless the tools support the same 
communications protocols. 

Another way of integrating different ar- 
chitectures is by working through a central 
object-oriented programming representa- 
tion that glues diverse architectures to- 
gether, says DeBellis. Much of the work 
involved in combining KBSes with other 
intelligent technologies uses a hybrid ob- 
ject-oriented frame architecture for this 
purpose. 

However, even using KBS/object-ori- 
ented techniques to blend different archi- 
tectures doesn't solve all the integration 
problems, because standards are just be- 
ginning to emerge in the object-oriented 
world. Thus, if you are combining two 
object-based systems, you'll probably still 
encounter differences between the two 
that will complicate the conversion of ob- 
jects. 

Making the Right Choice 

The new combinations of KBSes and other 
technologies are giving computers the in- 
telligence to adapt to work environments, 
access and use vast data banks, and assist 
in performing tasks intelUgently. The chal- 
lenges lie in appropriately applying these 
tools to the most pressing business prob- 
lems. 

"What you need to do is examine each 
problem you want to solve," says Joe Car- 
ter, a partner at Andersen Consulting re- 
sponsible for emerging computing tech- 
nologies. "Given the nature of the problem 
that you're confronted with, which of the 
many techniques available to you is best 
suited to do the job? Don't try to shoehorn 
[it] all into one technique. You have a va- 
riety of tools now. You can choose the 
right set of tools and techniques for each 
application." ■ 



Sara Hedberg is president of Emergent (Issaquah, 
WA), a marketing-services firm specializing in 
emerging software technologies. You can reach 
her on BIX c/o "editors " oron the Internet at hed- 
berg® halcyon.com. 



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JULY 1993 BYTE iia. 



Applications" 



OBJECT 




SHORTENED TIME TO 
MARKET FOR CAMCORDERS 

NEXPERT is the core of Sony's 
simulation system for speeding up 
the design and testing of highly- 
specialized chips used in video 
cameras. The system, called XAS, 
reduced design time by two thirds. 
XAS runs in a local area network of 
Sony NEWS workstations, using X 
Windows, with more than 500 com- 
plex simulation rules distributed 
across 15 NEXPERT knowledge bases.. 




RISK MANAGEMENT 

Chemical Bank uses NEXPERT for 
daily review of over a billion dollars 
in worldwide foreign exchange 
transactions. The Digital VAX-based 
application called Inspector, ties to 
Oracle databases, C programs, and a 
communications network spanning 
23 countries. Given the dollar 
amounts involved in transactions, 
once Inspector identified even one 
fraudulent trade, it paid for itself 
many times over. 



CUSTOMER SERVICE 

BCTel, Canada's second largest 
telephone company, uses NEXPERT 
to streamline business practices and 
help generate, recover, and protect 
revenue. NEXPERT is at the heart 
of several multiplatform applications 
ranging from network overload 
management to customer services 
and billing monitoring. The systems 
run on Sun and Digital UNIX work- 
stations. Digital VAXA'MS systems 
and PCs. 

BUILT ON STANDARDS 

NEXPERT OBJECT is an expert system written in C, that supports 
most windowing and networking standards and runs on more than 35 
platforms from PCs and Macs to UNIX and VAX workstations, to 
IBM mainframes. Additionally, NEXPERT extends beyond other ex- 
pert systems with its unique graphical interface, knowledge acquisi- 
tion tools and forms system, for delivery on character-based terminals. 

With over 16,000 systems in use worldwide and an extensive 
network of solution providers and systems integrators, NEXPERT 
has emerged as the standard for Expert Systems and a proven way 
of enhancing your applications. 

Call us today at 1-800-876-4900 ext. 657 to register for our 
free seminars or to receive additional documentation. 

Cl-ianging t:lie Economics of 
Application □evelopment'" 



IMEUROIM DATA 

Circle 1 20 on Inquiry Card. 



state of the Art 



RollYour Own Hybrids 

Linking knowledge-based systems with otiier technologies, such as neural networks, can enhance 
performance, fault tolerance, and reliability. A hybrid system often gets the job done when a single 
technology can't. The trick is to come up with the right mix of features for the task you're working on. 



JAY LIEBOWITZ 





Stand-alone expert systems are be- 
coming dinosaurs. They are last- 
generation technology. Approaches using 
more reliable KBSes (knowledge-based 
systems) in combination with CBR (case- 
based reasoning), neural networks, or ge- 
netic algorithms have become this gener- 
ation's solution to critical problems in the 
work enviroment. 

Hybrid systems take advantage of each 
technology's best features. For example, 
CBR's case-based foundation and powerful 
search capabilities allow you to prototype 
software rapidly and to create new appli- 
cations, such as text-retrieval and product- 
support systems. CBR technology supple- 
ments the ability of an intelligent system 
(i.e., a system with embedded knowledge 
from human experts or past experience) to 
store and analyze data. A neural network 
adds accuracy and fault tolerance to a KBS, 
and a KBS can explain why a neural net- 
work behaves as it does. KBSes gain better 
search-and-development capabilities when 
merged with genetic algorithms. And mul- 
timedia and virtual reality add sound, ani- 
mation, and 3-D graphics to intelligent sys- 
tems. 

Linking several technologies creates a 
knowledge base that can be used to analyze 
problems in a commonsense manner — 
much as people do. For example, Doug 
Lenat, a principal scientist at Microelec- 
tronics and Computer Technology (Austin, 
TX), developed Cyc (an encyclopedic 
knowledge base), which combines spe- 
cialized KBS processes (e.g., inferencing 
procedures and a natural language inter- 
face). Cyc leverages knowledge across do- 
mains, so knowledge in one field can be 
applied to decision making in another. 

Nowadays many people in the AI world 
believe that it's critical to integrate intel- 
ligent systems with such techniques as 

JULY 1993 BYTE 113 



state of the Art 



Roll Your Own Hybrids 



By the mid-1990s, it's highly 
likely that object-oriented 
languages, development tools, 
knowledge-system shells, and 
current CASE tools will mer^e 
into a single product 



simulation and opti- 
mization, interactive 
multimedia, neural 
networks, and genet- 
ic algorithms. Exp)er- 
iments have shown 
that ase of these com- 
binations can keep 
firms competitive by 
enabling them to 
bring products to 
market rapidly and 
cost-effectively. Also, 
many hybrid sys- 
tems allow you to re- 
duce the time it takes to 
perform routine business operations. 



Brainy Networks 

Used alone, KBSes are powerful, yet they 
have limitations. They can't always handle 
large applications. Their reasoning isn't 
adaptive. And their performance doesn't 
increase with experience. In addition, they 
require too much human input and long, 
expensive development. But for some ap- 
plications, these hurdles can be overcome 
by coupling KBSes with complementary 
approaches, such as neural networks and 
genetic algorithms. 

Neural networks consist of parallel net- 
works, or groups, of simple, highly inter- 
connected processing units. They are well 
suited for pattern recognition, foreign lan- 
guage translation, process control, and par- 
allel implementations of routine processing 
tasks. 

But neural-network technology is evolv- 
ing, and there are still shortcomings. For 
instance, neural networks require the in- 
put of large numbers of test cases to obtain 
accurate results, and even then, the results 
are difficult to explain. Some of the tech- 
nology continues to demand that a net- 
work undergo extensive training. And the 
number of neurons in a neural network 
limits the network's storage capacity. 

Even so, the logical, cognitive, and me- 
chanical nature of a KBS complements 
the numeric, associative, self-learning, and 
biological nature of neural networks. Larry 
Medsker, a professor of computer science 
at American University (Washington, DC), 
says that combining neural networks and 
KBSes provides system improvements in 
many areas, including graceful system 
degradation, generalization, explicit and 
implicit reasoning, incremental learning, 
reliability, and flexibility. 

To gain the advantages that these hybrid 
approaches offer, you need an integration 



— Kevin IHurphy 
James Martin & Company 
(Reston, VA) 



Hierarchy of Hybtid Systems 



ES 



architecture. One such 
architecture, called the 
loose-coupling model, 
uses an expert system 
and a neural network as 
stand-alone modules 
that communicate via 
data files. 

Scientists at Com- 
puter Sciences (Belts- 
ville, MD), a firm that 
provides computer pro- 
grams to NASA, have 
used this architecture 
at the Goddard Space 
night Center (Greenbelt, MD). The process 
uses neural networks to filter out poor- 
quality data transmitted from satellites. 
The resultant data is then sent to a KBS 
for classification. 

Another architecture is the tight-cou- 
pling model. In this approach, an expert 
system and a neural network are also sep- 
arate, independent modules, but they com- 
municate via para- 
meter or data passing. 

Using the tight- 
coupling architec- 
ture at Loral Aero- 
space (Houston, TX), 
Matthew Hanson, 
manager of software 
engineering and de- 
velopment, and Rob- 
ert Brekke, manager 
of integration, verifi- 
cation, and testing, 
developed WMES 
(workload manage- 
ment expert system). 
The system uses a 
neural network to de- 
termine staffing needs 
based on such factors 
as staff availability, 
workers' skill, and 
project start dates. An 
expert system inter- 
acts with the neural 
network to estimate 
what resources will 
be required. 

A third architec- 
ture is the fully inte- 
grated model, which 
uses a shared data 
structure and knowledge representation 
(i.e., a neural-network node can represent 
part of a rule). Connectionist systems, or 
parallel distributed-processing systems, can 
use this architecture. 



NN 



Fully integrated 



ES 



Tight coupling 



ES 



ES 



Loose coupling 
NN I ES 



At the bottom of the hierarchy, the stand- 
alone and transformational models are separate 
modules of a hybrid system, with no 
communication passing between them. Higher 
in the hierarchy, as communication via data 
files and parameter passing is added, a hybrid 
system becomes more complex and easier to 
develop into a more useful system. In the loose- 
coupling architecture, the ellipse represents 
files being transferred between the two elements 
of the system; the straight line indicates direct 
communication. The fully integrated model is 
so unified that the distinction between the 
modules is blurred. 



Coupling neural networks with KBSes 
has limitations, though. Their develop- 
ment complexity and maintenance require 
an experienced staff and established guide- 
lines. And even though the market offers 
good hybrid tools, such as Nuex Shell from 
Charles River Analytics (Cambridge, MA), 
there just aren't enough of them. Finally, 
you need a multiprocessor system to achieve 
acceptable run-time performance. 



CBR to the Rescue 

CBR enables a system to store past expe- 
riences or situations as cases, analyze and 
process the data, and suggest ways of re- 
sponding to a problem. A CBR system has 
two primary components: a case base and 
a problem solver. 

A case base contains descriptions of pre- 
viously solved and unsolved problems. A 
problem solver consists of a case retriever 
and a case reasoner. The case retriever iden- 
tifies data (either by using a nearest-neigh- 
bor search or by using indexes or other tech- 
niques) in the case 
base that most appro- 
priately fits the situa- 
tion and presents it to 
the case reasoner. The 
case reasoner exam- 
ines the cases and, 
with the aid of do- 
main knowledge, per- 
forms adaptation, syn- 
thesis, or prediction. 

Organizations like 
DEC (Maynaid, MA), 
Compaq Computer 
(Houston, TX), and 
Canada's Toronto 
Stock Exchange are 
using CBR and intel- 
ligent systems to- 
gether. The applica- 
tions take the form of 
field service, software 
reuse, project costing, 
product/order config- 
uration, text retrieval, 
and database mining. 

One reason for the 
increasing interest in 
developing CBR ap- 
plications is the in- 
creasing availability 
of CBR tools, says 
Ralph Barletta, vice president of software 
technology at Cognitive Systems (Boston, 
MA), a software development company. 
One such package is Archie, a CBR tool 
developed by Janet Kolodner, Ashok Goel, 



NN 



NN 



NN 



Stand-alone Transformational 

ES = expert system NN = neural nefwori< 



114 BYXE JULY 1993 



state of the Alt 



Roll Your Own Hybrids 




Courthouse #2 — First Floor 



System 



Eric Domeshek, and their colleagues 
at the Georgia Institute of Technol- 
ogy (Atlanta) to help architects han- 
dle conceptual design problems. Re- 
Mind from Cognitive Systems, CBR g| S 
Express from Inference (El Segundo, ~ 
CA), and Esteem from Esteem Soft- 
ware (Indianapolis, IN) are a few 
other packages that are now avail- 
able. 

CBR and rule-based reasoning 
complement one another, says Steve 
Mott, president of Cognitive Sys- 
tems. Rules handle big chunks of 
problem domains well, but they are 
less useful or cost effective in the 
boundary areas where subtle con- 
texts tend to exist. Cases, on the oth- 
er hand, can model entire domains 
if you assemble enough cases to cov- 
er every problem area in the domain. 

Why build an expansive case base 
if much of the domain can be cov- 
ered by rules? A good approach for 
solving problems is to "model the do- 
main with rules as far as you can, then ap- 
ply CBR to handle the boundary region ex- 
ceptions," Barletta says. 



The is no propai 
r«c«pt1on or 
put! I i c ant rv to 





e*al Sac 
VIcwpalBI Sac 



r Waiting Area for Judoes' Lobby 



asm 



Attorneys, salennen, and other people often have to reach 
Judges or others in the stalT area. However, the 
separation of the private circulation from public 
circulation makes this difTicult. No formal reception area 
or public entry to the staff area Is provided, and as a 
result visitors either find their way tttrougb unlocked 
courtrooms, breaching security, or bother clerical staff to 
let them in through staff entrances. 



Entrjrio*t> J 



"nSoFl 



Stakeholder 



Lp public Cin 




The public should be able lo visit the judge's private 
ofllce only by pdsslne through « security checkpsini and 
then enteilne the private corridor. 

The judEe's private oflice should be adjacent to his 
secretary's office. The secretary is resFonsiUe for 
screeEuns visitors, so there should be a waiting aiea for 
those persons wishing to see the Judge. An adjoining 
reception/pubUc waiting area of approximately 40-60 sg. ft. 
should be directly located outside the judge's office. It 
should seat 2-4 visitors and be fiirnished with coirfcrtable 



Archie is a tool consisting ofKBS and CBR technology that provides architectural design support. 
Here, the system is responding to a request for previous cases pertaining to secure ways of placing 
people in a courtroom. The floor plan provides two options: a rule is displayed on the bottom right. 



Survival of the Fittest 

Another enabling and emerging AI tech- 
nology is genetic algorithms. These are 
adaptive, general-purpose search tech- 
niques that are based on the principles of 
population genetics. A genetic algorithm 
maintains a list of fxjssible solutions to the 
problem at hand. Based 
on whether or not the 
previous solutions were 
successful, the fittest 
solutions not only sur- 
vive but also exchange 
information with other 
candidates to form new 
solutions. 

The U.S. Navy's Sys- 
tem Integration Test 
Station laboratory at 
Point Mugu Naval Air- 
base (Point Mugu, CA) 
has implemented genet- 
ic algorithms in sched- 
uling applications. You 
can also use genetic al- 
gorithms to train a neur- 
al network. The Navy 
Center for Applied Re- 
search in Artificial In- 
telligence at the Naval 
Research Laboratory 
(Washington, DC) has 



been using genetic algorithms to help ro- 
bots develop leaming and adaptation capa- 
bilities. 

You can integrate genetic algorithms 
with rule-based methods to develop sys- 
tems that generate new rules. Genetic al- 
gorithms are useful for inductive leaming, 
conflict resolution, and classification. 



Hybrids Enhance Performance 



Pattern recognition 
and analysis 

Neural networks provide pattem-recognitioii 
functionality, and KBSes perform analysis. 

Interface issues 

User-machine interactions are improved 
when the KBS can explain to users how 
a neural network arrived at a solution 
to a problem. 

Training neural networks 

KBSes can help train neural networks 
by providing intelligence to create the 
training sets and test sets. 

Knowledge acquisition 
and engineering 

Neural networks develop implicK knowledge 
that supplements KBSes' explicH rule-based 
knowledge. 



Objectively Speaking 

OOP (object-oriented 
programming) can also 
play an important role 
in hybrid systems. Ob- 
jects are data structures 
that contain both data 
and procedures. You 
can use objects to rep- 
resent knowledge with 
class hierarchies, slots, 
methods, and instances. 
Objects can also be 
used to create inter- 
faces and GUIs with 
windows, icons, im- 
ages, and dynamic im- 
ages (e.g., graphics or 
mouse-sensitive areas). 

Pattern-matching 
rules emanate from the 
combination of object 
processing and infer- 
encing. These rules are 



more efficient and easier to read when the 
system is processing large amounts of data, 
says Jan Aikins, vice president of tech- 
nology at Trinzic (Palo Alto, CA), a firm 
that provides advanced applications de- 
velopment tools for business automation. 

The benefits of combining object pro- 
cessing and inferencing were demonstrat- 
ed by Aion's Extruder system. This appli- 
cation schedules work orders for producing 
plastic tubing on machines called extrud- 
ers. Using an OOP/rule-based hybrid ap- 
proach, Aion reduces the time required to 
schedule orders from 1 1.8 seconds to 3.6 
seconds. 

What lies ahead for hybrid KBSes? In 
the next three to five years, knowledge- 
representation technology will increas- 
ingly use rules, objects, cases, genetic 
algorithms, and neural networks. The in- 
tegration of two or more of these ap- 
proaches will be important in a number of 
environments, such as simulation and 
process control, where knowledge cannot 
be fully portrayed by a single representa- 
tion scheme. ■ 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 

My thanks to Larry Medsker for his help with 
this article. 



Jay Liebowitz is a professor of management sci- 
ence at George Washington University. You can 
reach him on BIX do "editors." 



JULY 1993 It V 1 1<; lis 



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state of the Art 



See, Hear, Learn 

Combining the audiovisual environments of multimedia and virtual realHy with knowledge-based systems 
will create fascinating applications. This technology could change the way you deal with information. 



SARA HEDBERG 




ultimedia and virtual reality are 
exciting technologies by them- 
selves, but by adding intelligence to them, 
researchers are creating some intriguing 
possibilities. These new hybrid KBSes 
(knowledge-based systems) are still in the 
experimental stage — most are at least a 
year away from commercial use — but they 
will provide the tools that will change the 
workplace in the years to come. 

To multimedia, KBSes bring intelli- 
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tribution. In the world of virtual reality, 
a KBS provides the technology to create 
intelligent agents — virtual Cheshire cats 
to answer your questions and direct you 
to shortcuts. 

Intelligent Navigation 

Imagine the day when you have access to 
vast libraries of video clips on almost any 
topic and intelligent assistants that help 
you retrieve information and explore areas 
of interest. This is exactly the kind of ex- 
perimental work under way at Northwest- 
em University's ILS (Institute of the Learn- 
ing Sciences, Evanston, IL), led by Roger 
Schank. 

Schank's group has developed a "smart" 
object-oriented/CBR (case-based reason- 
ing)/multimedia navigation tool. Called 
Ask, it intelligently indexes and retrieves 
short video clips (i.e., 1 to 2 minutes) and 
text. Ask creates knowledge bases about 
the clips and indexes them by content. The 
user can navigate through the stored videos 
and retrieve footage interactively through 
conversational-style queries regarding the 
context of the clips. 

For example, if you want to leam about 
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system questions, and it will provide you 
with video clips and text on the relevant 
subjects. If you become interested in, say, 
the location of an incident in mythology, 
you can quickly get a map of Bali followed 

JULY 1993 BYTE 119 



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Andersen Consulting's TIM uses CBR to analyze previous situations that are similar to the loan 
request being considered. Inference's Art* Enterprise , a knowledge-based development package, 
provides the case-based analysis. 



by a video clip of the crater or beach of 
interest. And if you're lured by the beauty 
of the beach, you can branch off and learn 
about travel to Bali. 

Schank's group worked with the trans- 
portation command of Operation Desert 
Storm to film the experts who managed 
the monumental task of moving the equip- 
ment, troops, and materiel to Saudi Arabia. 
The expertise gained from the experience 
is now indexed and available through the 
Ask system. 

The concepts that ILS is pioneering can 
easily be transferred to other areas of our 
lives. For the business world, Schank's 
group has built applications using Ask that 
range from trust bank consulting and tax 
accounting services to corporate manage- 
ment. 

ILS is also working in a Hispanic area 
of Chicago on a project called Commu- 
nity Ask, which is intended to enable cit- 
izens to ask questions of local officials 
and professionals via TV. The project pres- 
ages better things to come. With the estab- 
lishment of a high-speed, fiber-optic data 



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state of the Art 



See, Hear, Learn 



highway, very much like the one being 
discussed by the CHnton administration, 
Schank envisions being able to deliver in- 
telligent multimedia applications right into 
your home. 

Another ILS system, called Creanimate, 
teaches students biology by allowing them 
to create their own animals. Creanimate 
uses intelligently linked videos to teach 
about the relationship between survival in 
the wild and the physical attributes of an- 
imals. 

Experiments applying KBSes to multi- 
media are springing up elsewhere. For ex- 
ample, a major U.S. manufacturer is in- 
vestigating KBS-multimedia systems as a 
form of technical memory and advice. Us- 
ing such a system, a design engineer could 
simultaneously bring up an analysis of a 
competitor's product and the design-for- 
manufacturability requirements. The com- 
pany has developed prototypes in this area 
using industry standards (e.g., personal 
computer platforms and video peripher- 
als). Such systems might someday be ac- 
cessed across distributed networks, bring- 



ing KBS-multimedia tools to the problems 
of enterprise coordination. 

Metaphor Interfaces 

Andersen Consulting (Chicago, IL) has 
long been an innovator in applying KBS 
technologies, and it's currently working 
on a support system that 
will help commercial loan 
officers make calls, struc- 
ture deals, and maintain 
client relationships. The 
application, called TIM 
(Total Information Man- 
agement), is the focal point 
for a number of emerging 
technologies, integrating 
KBS, CBR, multimedia, 
and voice synthesis. 

At the heart of this hy- 
brid KBS sits Art*Enter- 
prise from Inference (El 
Segundo, CA). The ob- 
ject-oriented Art*Enterprise makes the 
integration of KBS and multimedia tech- 



tung, a manager in Andersen Consulting's 
hypermedia group. 

"We bury muhimedia in an object," ex- 
plams Orttung. "For example, the object is 
a story from another lender. The attributes 
of that object would include the features of 
the story, when the story is relevant, plus a 
pointer to the actual video." 
When a message is sent to 
the video attribute, the film 
is called and played through 
MCI (media control inter- 
face) control strings, the 
standard to control multi- 
media within Microsoft 
Windows. 

TIM's video component 
resides on a 66-MHz 486 
with two special boards: 
Speech Commander for 
voice recognition, which is 
available from Verbex Voice 
Systems (Edison, NJ), and 
ActionMedia II for video acceleration and 
compression, which is sold by both Intel 
nologies natural and easy, says Mark Ort- (Santa Clara, CA) and IBM (Armonk, 



Applications in the Works 



video-library navigation 
training 
education 

community services 
liome sliopping 
simulation 
banking 
troubleshooting 
tax accounting 
management advice 
product design 



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JULY 1993 BYTE i23 



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state of the Art 



See, Hear, Learn 



NY). The TIM video is filmed with a cam- 
era, digitally captured, and stored directly on 
a hard disk. Andersen Consulting uses a 
special tool from Protocomm (Trevose, 
PA), called Videocomm, to store video on 
a server and play it on a client. 

The KBS component of TIM stores 
knowledge, automates decision making, 
and filters news feeds. Various types of 
advice are available through KBS rules. 
For example, if a banker must deal with 
an overdraft, he or she asks TTM to suggest 
a course of action. Behind the scenes, the 
KBS is invoked, and TIM presents the 
banker with three possible solutions, a rec- 
ommendation on the one most likely to 
succeed, and an explanation of why it 
made the recommendation. In addition, 
instead of taking a rule-based approach, 
TIM can provide anecdotal information 
through muhimedia. 

TIM also uses the CBR techniques in- 
tegrated into Art*Enterprise. For instance, 
TIM can compare a customer's needs to 
the products that are currently available 
on the market, because these are match- 



We can make a computer look 
like a magazine, a classroom, 
a shopping mall, a cockpit — 
virtually any familiar metaphor. 
This turns the computer into 
a chameleon. 

— Joe Carter 
Andersen Consulting 




(Chicago, ID 



ing problems well suited to CBR. 

"The problem with an application like 
this," says Joe Carter, Andersen Consult- 



ing's partner responsible for emerging 
technologies, "is that the amount of capa- 
bility and functionality is so enormous that 
it's easy to get lost. You almost need a 
college degree to navigate through it." 

According to Carter, the solution is to 
organize such systems around a metaphor. 
"Using such an organizing metaphor cuts 
down on the training requirements to use 
the system, because people are already fa- 
miliar with the interface." 

In the case of TIM, the interface that a 
commercial lender sees on his or her com- 
puter looks much like a desk with files, 
notepads, and calendars. All the underlying 
computing is transparent, whether it's a 
call across a network to a video server for 
a piece of film or the use of rules to solve 
a problem. 

TIM integrates a number of off-the-shelf 
products, such as Microsoft Mail, Excel, 
and Word. The API of each is wrapped in 
an object in TIM to integrate the applica- 
tions. "Each type of application is different 
to wrap in an object," says Orttung. "An 
Excel spreadsheet, for example, is easier. 



For The Third Year In A Row, 

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JULY 1993 BYTE 125 



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state of the Art 



See, Hear, Learn 



because it is structured in 
discrete pieces, as op- 
posed to a Word docu- 
ment, which is one big 
chunk." 

TIM's client machine 
enables a commercial 
lender to view informa- 
tion at a high level, such 
as a summary of all 
loans. It also enables the 
user to scan relevant 
news or dive into the de- 
tails of a specific loan. 
The entire complex ap- 
plication is glued togeth- 
er with the KBS's object- 
oriented representation 
capabilities, as embodied 
in Art*Enterprise. 



Welcome to Your 
Personal Menu Planner and Shopper 




Virtual Knowledge 

Andersen Consulting is 
working on a virtual reality-like system 
using hypermedia to design an electronic 
shopping mall. You "walk" through the 



This electronic shopping mall application uses virtual reality techniques to create a 
metaphor interface. Each person on the screen is an agent with a knowledge base from 
which the agent formulates answers to your queries. 



Stores in 3-D space using a mouse or joy- 
stick. Intelligent agents advise you on, say, 
buying a business suit. One agent might 



tell you about the latest 
fashion trends. Anoth- 
er might act as a tailor. 
And another might be a 
confidante, frankly tell- 
ing you how you look 
in an outfit. 

The equipment need- 
ed to create the maU will 
be set up in your home, 
and it will include a per- 
sonal computer, a con- 
verter that sits atop your 
TV, a CD-ROM multi- 
player, and a port con- 
nected to your telephone 
or cable box. The sys- 
tem will be tested next 
year. 

The biggest obstacle 
is bandwidth: The high- 
est rate at which stan- 
dard copper phone lines 
transmit data is 19.2 Mbps. This rate sim- 
ply isn't adequate for the data traffic of 
the system. It will require fiber-optic lines 



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A NASA Ames researcher uses a Boom to 

look at data on computational fluid dynamics. 
Simulation software created on a Cray 
supercomputer by NASA processes the math. 
You can explore the data produced by the Cray 
by running Fakespace 's interaclive-virtual- 
environment application on a Silicon Graphics 
workstation. 

that are capable of transmitting up to 40 
Mbps, which many telephone and cable 
companies are now installing at a rapid 
pace. 

John Laird, an associate professor of 
electrical engineering and computer sci- 
ence at the University of Michigan (Ann 
Arbor), is exploring the nascent area of in- 
tegrating KBSes and virtual reality. The 
work is part of an initiative funded by the 
U.S. Department of Defense to use virtual 
reality in the training of tank personnel. 
Laird is developing intelligent agents who 
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only virtual ammunition. 

At Fakespace (Menlo Park, CA), clients 
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with robots. Cameras mounted on a robot 
look at the real world. A KBS captures the 
data relayed by the robot and checks it 
against its model. If there are discrepan- 
cies, the KBS determines the cause. For ex- 
ample, if radioactive material has been re- 
leased in the atmosphere and there is mist in 
the air, a computer can diagnose the cause 
and recommend or initiate action. 

Even though the integration of KBSes 
with multimedia and virtual reality tech- 
nology is experimental today, the impli- 
cations of adding intelligent storage, ac- 
cess, analysis, and problem solving to such 
systems are tremendous. You may feel like 
you're stepping into your favorite science 
fiction book. Perhaps you are. ■ 



Sara Hedberg is president of Emergent (Issaquah. 
WA), a marketing-services firm specializing in 
emerging .software technologies. You can reach 
her on BIX c/o "editors " or on the Internet at hed- 
berg@ halcyon.com. 



128 BVXE JULY 1993 



Circle 75 on Inquiry Card. 



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Circle 74 on Inquiry Card. 



Advice. 





HAVE SOME QUESTIONS 
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2 


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107 


214 


340 


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drive (MB) 










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Reviews 



Roundup 



Applying the Power of the Pen 

Nine pen-centric applications, f^rom spreadsKeets to note-takers, 
cliallen^e tlie notion that pens are just for vertical markets 




HOWARD EGLOWSTEIN 

espite the hype, pen-based com- 
I puters are nothing new — it's 
been over 25 years since a CRT 
and a light pen first made interaction be- 
tween system and stylus possible. But 
though we've cleared many technical hur- 
dles since those early days, pen computing 
remains an exotic niche. What's recently 
kept pen systems relegated to such a small 
chunk of the personal computer market 
can be summed up in one word: software. 
Well, actually in two words: no software. 

With the advent of lightweight, tablet- 
like machines and sophisticated digitiz- 
ers, pen hardware has clearly improved. 
And pen-based operating systems like Go 
Corp.'s PenPoint and Microsoft's Win- 
dows for Pen Computing have laid the 
groundwork for general-purpose applica- 
tions that can make pen computers main- 
stream. 

Traditionally, the developers of pen ap- 
plications targeted vertical markets that 
had the greatest requirement for pen in- 
put, such as delivery services, insurance 
agencies, hospitals, and police depart- 
ments. However, pens potentially provide 
a more natural working environment for 
a broader audience using more general- 
purpose tools, such as spreadsheets, word 
processors, and PIMs (personal informa- 
tion managers). 

In this article, I'll review nine of these 
general-purpose applications. I'll try to 
give an idea of what it's like to use each 
package and point out some of the unique 
features that a pen interface can provide. 



Schedulers and PIMs 



Pen-based PIMs look remarkably like 
their paper counterparts, consisting 
primarily of day/month calendars and ad- 
dress books. You'll usually spend more 
time looking through your schedule than 
entering items or revising them. A pen is 
ideal for flipping through pages and se- 
lecting items. Working with a pen to con- 
trol your scheduling software uses the pen 
to its best advantage: navigating quickly 
through existing information. 



Pensofl's Perspective 

is a set of PenPoint 
applications for 
iiribrmation organization 
— including day and 
month planners, address 
book, to-do list, and note- 
taker — also bundled 
imder a Day-Timer 
interface. Perspective can 
convert ink entries to text. 




Slate's Day-Timer Pen Scheduler (PenPoint version 
shown, although it runs on both platforms) presents 
an interface based on the familiar paper Day-Timer. 
The scheduler works with ink only and doesn't 
provkle a searchable database. 



PenWare's PenCell — 
is a spreadsheet for 
Windows for Pen 
Computing. It 
presents a familiar 
spreadsheet grid 
with pen 

enhancements like 
gestures and ink 
capture for note- 
taking, plus 
unlimited undo. 







' Perspectii^ Day Planner ► Advanced FhkJ 




30 


Rnd: ► Appointmeni 






where: ► Description 






> coinains 






Restit: Shiwing ' of 1 in flocumerri, 













I File EiiH Sketch Dimcitsion Constram View 



jCoiisistently Dimensioned] 



Saltire's 

SketchRight, a 
drawing package 
for Windows for 
Pen Computing, 
tunis rough 
sketches into 
finished, properly 
dimensioned 
drawings. 
SketchRight uses a 
geometry engine to 
convert 
approximate 
shapes into 
geometric objects 
and calculate 
measurements 
based on those 
objects. 



Slate's At-Hand, a PenPoint spreadsheet that counts 
Dan Bricklin among its designers, has a strong 
gesture orientation and more bells and whistles (like 
15 chart types) than PenCell. 




i^'jiaj^i Saiu^t S^;Gra(*i2 



□ □ □ DO 

^l^aier&piBss Hasten Pei^peclive Paspecbve Tuional Numco Stsbonwy Noiefaook 



e Seflifigs Conntcfcons StaKnery AooeiSores Keyboard Irtas OulbcK ^ 



132 BVTE: JULY 1993 



Y !f*Ware NoleT«t:er < S > 

Documenl Edil Options Tools, 

Wort; .{jt^ft iu^ t+j ''3'^ 

youTtext looks like » 

lanSoM 



Slate Corp.'s Day-Timer Pen Scheduler 

PenPoint I*^,^ H^'^^'r""" 

Scheduler looks exactly 
like the standard Day- 
Timer notebook from which it is licensed. 
You can view schedules by day (broken 
down to the nearest half hour), by month. 




- Ink Devetopment's InkWare's NoteTaker is an 
electronic scratchpad for PenPoint, more akin to a 
paint program than to a word processor. It lets you 
take notes using a variety of pen styles and converts 
ink fragments to text as you go along. 



■ Slate's Grid 
Pen Essentia Is 
could be all you 
need in your pen 
PC lineup, if you 
have a Grid 
Convertible. This 
bundle of 
applications (for 
Windows for Pen 
Computing) 
includes a Day- 
Timer Pen 
Scheduler, a note- 
taking application 
called LooseLeaf, 
a fHe reader, and 
Oelrina's WinFax. 



y-r- PenMagic's 

LetterExpress is an 
application for 
cranking out business 
correspondence. This 
PenPoint program 
ships with 72 standard 
templates for business 
tetters; as you provide 
the specifics, 
LetterExpress builds a 
! formatted letter. 



• SunSelect's 
PenCentral is a 
communications 
utility thai :M 
connects your " 
PenPoint system 
to a desktop- 
boond iiest (and 
its network 
resources). 
PenCentral 
provides desktops 
with the ability to 
host PenTOPS 
clients, which 
include all 
PenPoint systems. 



PenMa^c calls Numero a "Financial Work 
Processor," but this PenPoint application 
resembles a spreadsheet more than It does any 
other traditional application. Its free-form 
organization and gestures bring Numero close to 
realizing the pen-centric goal of "smart paper." 



or by year. Tapping on a month or day 
brings up an enlarged view, where you can 
read, write, and edit your entries. Tapping 
on arrows lets you scroll from one day or 
month to another. Day-Timer also keeps 
track of your to-do lists and addresses. 

Anything you write on the schedule 
page or in a to-do list is stored as a graph- 
ical image ("ink" in pen jargon). The to-do 
list appears as a series of rectangular image 
blocks. When you finish with an item, you 
delete it by writing an X in its deletion 
box. Because the items are stored as im- 
ages, you can't search your to-do lists. The 
address book functions similarly, although 
you can search through address entries, 
since Day-Timer converts these to text. 
An alphabetic index at the bottom of the 
screen lets you move directly to any ad- 
dress book entry. 

Pensoft's Perspective 

PenPoint Perspective is a PIMsim- 

liar to Day-Timer but 

with additional features. 
Its interface also mimics a standard paper 
schedule. One fundamental difference be- 
tween Pensoft's and Slate's implementa- 
tions is that Perspective can convert most 
of your input to text, although you choose 
whether to leave your entries as ink or con- 
vert them. Converting them allows you to 
search for specific events. If, for example, 
you only vaguely remember an appoint- 
ment with your accountant, you can find 
the entry quickly by tapping on Find and 
writing in accountant. 

Switching from a day view to a month 
view is more difficult in Perspective than 
in Pen Scheduler. This is because Per- 
spective uses separate applications to han- 
dle the different views. However, Pensoft 
does a better job of capitalizing on Pen- 
Point, letting you use Perspective's ad- 
dress book as the underlying contact data- 
base for all your PenPoint applications. 
Perspective also includes a note-taking 
module. 

Of the two, Day-Timer is more practical. 
The integration of daily, monthly, and an- 
nual views is a definite plus, and I don't 
find much call for search capability on an 
appointment schedule. 



Spreadsheets 



If you've ever used Excel on an airplane, 
you've probably found yourself strug- 
gling to use a mouse in close quarters, even 
just to review information. Spreadsheets 
designed for a pen interface can make 



JULY 1993 BYTE X33 



Reviews 



Applying the Power of the Pen 



manipulating data easier. In addition, the 
pen's character recognition lets you make 
limited data entry and perform simple cal- 
culations. However, I generally found the 
spreadsheet applications frustrating. The 
recognition errors made entering infor- 
mation tedious, especially in Windows, 
where I spent more time correcting my en- 
tries than entering data. You might find 
these useful for reviewing your spread- 
sheets on the plane, but certainly not for 
data entry. For the moment, pen-based 
spreadsheets just aren't as powerful as their 
keyboard counterparts. 

PenWare's PenCell Spreadsheet 

^ff As spreadsheets go, PenCell 
t;jMMB is simple and has relatively 
••^^^^V few features. It's well suited 
^NH^aq for quick calculations, but it 
^ doesn't have all the bells and 

whistles you might expect. For example, 
you can select a range of values and dis- 
play charts, but you're limited to bar, line, 
and pie charts. I would not recommend 
PenCell for creating graphical presenta- 
tions, although you might find it handy 



for checking data while traveling, to save 
in Excel or Lotus format for further polish 
later. 

Here's an example of where PenCell 
comes in handiest: Say you've put together 
a proposal for a new building. While en 
route, you think of a way to save cost on 
some part of the design. PenCell can whip 
up some quick graphs of overall cost, let 
you change a few figures, and then graph- 
ically show you what you've saved. Later, 
you can use that information as a basis for 
a more refined presentation you develop in 
Lotus 1-2-3 or Excel. 

Slate's At-Hand 

l'\iILt''oillt •^^"^^'^ "^^^ ^ standard 
X-Y grid of cells you fill 
"""^^^^^^ with numbers and labels. 
Like PenCell, it's a basic spreadsheet with 
very few frills. However, At-Hand's set 
of chart types is substantially richer than 
PenCell's; it includes a variety of 3-D 
charts and a basic set of 2-D types. 

There are some nice pen-centric inno- 
vations: To add a range of cells, you high- 
light the range and write a "+" in the result 



cell. There are a number of other small 
improvements delivered by At-Hand's pen 
design. However, the shortcut gestures for 
moving around require some mighty fancy 
pen motions. The worst of these is the 
quadruple flick, a motion with four quick 
swipes across the screen. If done correct- 
ly, this scrolls any column or row to the 
edge of the screen, but it takes practice. 

PenMagic's Numero 

Feill'omt Numero is a unique 

. spreadsheet. Rather than 

launching you into a 
blank cell grid, it starts you in a blank page. 
To create cells and thereby design the page, 
you select areas and write in them. Alter- 
natively, you can choose from among a 
half dozen or so predesigned paper types, 
such as checks, timesheets, or expense re- 
ports. 

Gestures form a key element in Nu- 
mero's design. If you draw a line under 
a column, it totals the column. To con- 
vert your writing to text, you double-tap 
on a cell. Unfortunately, Numero is very 
finicky with its gesture recognition. I had 



Windows for Pen Computing vs. PenPoint 

One thing I learned when designing pen-input hardware seven years ago: For a pen application to be effective, it has to treat the screen 
like an intelligent piece of paper. It's the application's responsibility to figure out what the user wants; the user should not have to tell 
the computer what the pen input means. 

Windows falls short of the mark (and casts a shadow over all the Windows applications) by requiring users to move the pen to the 
menu bar to make selections (thus saying, "Computer, treat this input as a menu choice"). Windows is just not the way to use a pen. 

PenPoint does a better job, but you still have to tell the operating system what application to use when creating a new page or chang- 
ing input modes in some of the applications. Ideally, when you create a page, the operating system should see what you enter and then 
launch the appropriate application. 



MICROSOFT WINDOWS FOR PEN COMPUTING 

Windows for Pen Computing is an MS-DOS environment based on Windows 3i with a se- 
ries of pen extensions. Hie pen is enabled as the Windows pointing device; installed li- 
braries provide gesture and handwriting recognition as an alternative to keyboard input, 
or you can add sections of pen input as objects into any standard Windows program. 
Windows has an advantage over other pen environments in that thousands of applica- 
tions already exist that can use a pen. Run any Windows application under Windows for 
Pen Computing and the pen supports it 

However, a pen application should take special advantage of pens. Windows applica- 
tions typically don't. Moving the cursor to the upper left of a window to grab the menu is 
cumbersome with a mouse; It's downright annoying with a pen. On top of that, the hand- 
writing and gesture recognition that ships with Windows is less than 95 percent accu- 
rate. For every 100 characters or gestures I drew, I had to correct five. 

A Windows for Pen Computing application comes to bat with h«o strikes against it: 
poor recognition and poor control mechanism. Recognition will improve over time and 
through third-party recognizers; hopehilly, control mechanisms will as well. 



GO CORP.'S PENPOINT 

Go's PenPoint Is built from the ground up for pen computing. It's based on a notebook 
metaphor; a collection of files becomes a group of pages in a notebook. The directory 
becomes a tabbed index at the front of the notebook. To go to a specific document, 
you simply touch the page in the index. PenPoint switches to that page and opens the 
appropriate application for you. 

tike Windows for Pen Computing, PenPoint comes equipped with gesture and 
handwriting recognition. The recognition engine In PenPoint Is more accurate than the 
one in the Windows version. Input is also more efficient. In Windows for Pen Comput- 
ing, since the pen replaces the mouse, many operations still require a three-step op- 
eration (highlight, tap, and press a key). In PenPoint, you simply write over a word or 
section of text to manipulate it. This pen orientation, combined with the more accu- 
rate recognition engine, gives PenPoint the edge over Windows for Pen Computing. Al- 
though you won't find a great quantity or assortment of shrink-wrapped PenPoint ap- 
plications, PenPoint provides a more productive platfomi for all the applications 
reviewed here. 



134 BYTE JULY 1993 



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Reviews 



Applying the Power of tlie Pen 




Pen Hardware 



Grid Convertible 

CPU: Intel 2S-MHZ386SI 
RAM: 4 MB 
Hard drive: 125 MB 
Modem: internal 2400-bps fax 
Operating system: Microsoft Windows for Pen 
Computii^ 

We^6lbs.,lL5DZ. 
Removable external floppy drive 
Attached keyboard 
Price: $2799 as tested 




Toshiba TIOOX Dynapad 

CPU: AMD 25-MHz 3$6$XL 
RAM: S MB 
Hard drive: 40 MB 
Modem: 2400-bps Data/Fax PCMCIA 
Operating system: PenPoint and Microsoft Windows 
for Pen Computing 
Weight 4 lbs., 7 oz. 
Removable external floppy drive 
Port for attaching external keyboard 
Price: $4397 as tested 



To test these pen applications, we used a Grid Convertible tmiag Microsoft Windows for Pen Computii^ and a Toshiba 
nOOX Dynapad running PenPoint These configurations reflect tiie systems as tested. We measured "ta-avellng" 
we^ — witii power supplies but wttiiout tiie external floppy drives. 

The TlOOX's pen uses 13M batteries, commonly used In hearing aids and available in pharmacies. The Grid Convert- 
ible has a pop-up screen exposii^ a notebook-size keyboard undemeatti tiie tablet Its pen uses standard 393 alkaline 
batteries. Botii systems are expandable to 20 MB of RAM. 



no trouble using the demonstration spread- 
sheets and some of the standard layouts, 
but because of the difficulty in working 
with gestures, I never got very far into cus- 
tomization. Eventually, I just put Numero 
away in frustration. 

Despite the nice concept and a complete 
and thorough manual, I never got the hang 
of making this product work well. I simply 
couldn't get Numero to recognize my com- 
mands in a usable way. The limitations of 
the digitizer (on the Toshiba TIOOX) and 
PenPoint's recognition made this product 
difficult to manage. 



Word Processing 



The word processing applications I re- 
viewed represent two types. The first 
is a simple ink-capture program for scrib- 
bling quick notes to yourself. The second 
is a combination word processor/form let- 
ter application. Word processing seems 
the most natural application for pen com- 
puters; after all, a pen is first and foremost 
a tool for writing. 

However, while a pen interface gives a 
word processor a real advantage for editing 
(with gestures), it severely detracts from 
the software's ability to handle bulk text 
entry. Unfortunately, the hand-printing 
recognition offered by today's operating 
systems makes writing entire paragraphs 



(or even sentences) impractical. 

These two applications put a new spin 
on word processing by eliminating the re- 
quirement for heavy text entry. LetterEx- 
press provides letter templates, while Note- 
Taker deals mostly with unconverted ink. 

The advantage of ink capture over text 
recognition is that it's fast and accurate. 
Everything you do with the pen is cap- 
tured as ink; it's up to you to figure out 
what it means later. If the application ap- 
plies recognition to your input, you may be 
able to search and edit it later. 

Ink Development's InkWare Notelaker 

PfenPoijlt ^^^^^^^ NoteTaker is a 
simple ink-capture appli- 
cation that captures what- 
ever you do with the pen and saves it on a 
page. It's more like a paint program than a 
word processor. In fact, if you were using 
Windows instead of PenPoint, you could 
achieve most of the same effects using 
Windows Paint. 

In NoteTaker, you have at your pentop 
the following tools: a pen, a fat pen, a high- 
lighter, text, an eraser, and scissors. The 
pens and highlighter are specific instances 
of custom pens. Any pen can have a num- 
ber of attributes, such as size, color, and 
transparency. If you create a custom pen, 
you can name it anything you like. 

The text tool is where recognition comes 
in — it converts your input to text and 



stores it on the page as a text object. You 
can select and move the text, but if you 
stop writing for more than a second, Note- 
Taker converts what you have written so 
far and starts a new object. The end result 
is a collection of fragmented text objects 
that bear no relation to each other. What's 
worse, the original input is not stored as ink 
but thrown away. If you're writing quick- 
ly, you'll probably have recognition er- 
rors, and without the original input for ref- 
erence, you may lose valuable information. 

PenMagic's LetterExpress 

PfenPoillt '-^'^^''^xpress is a fill-in- 

the-blank application that 

lets you produce business 
documents quickly, without a lot of writ- 
ing. The bulk of your letter is already writ- 
ten; LetterExpress ships with 72 standard 
business letters. All you do is select a tem- 
plate and answer the questions. The end 
result is a formatted business letter ready 
for printing. 

Highlighting and pen tools let you circle 
important parts, scribble notes in the mar- 
gin, add keywords for searching, or mark 
up the document in just about any way 
you like. 

The LetterExpress address book stores 
address and contact information you can 
Include in your letters. Like Pensoft's Per- 
spective, it also supports standard Pen- 
Point address books, so you can incorpo- 
rate addresses from other applications. 

LetterExpress helps solve one of pen 
computing's fundamental problems. Pen 
input is the slowest way to construct a let- 
ter from scratch. LetterExpress does most 
of the work — you just personalize the let- 
ter and fill in the details. All in all, it's a 
good compromise that takes advantage of 
the pen computer's portability while min- 
imizing slow, imprecise text input. 



Other Applications 



The following products represent an 
assortment of CAD, networking, and 
integrated "works" applications. Now that 
pen computing is growing up, you can find 
most types of applications in pen form. 

CAD lends itself well to pen input. We 
are accustomed to drawing with a pen, so 
CAD is a natural application. Networking 
and communications are of course critical 
for all systems, and pen computers are no 
exception. Finally, an integrated package 
can make transitions between applications 
(both pen-centric and non-pen-centric) a 
lot easier. continued 



136 



BYTE JULY 1993 



Discover how easy it is to break the 640K DOS barrier with 

Phar Lap's 286IDOS-E!den(k'" 




Try out Extended-DOS 

programming — 

286 1 DOS-Extender Lite. 

Here's some great news for DOS 
developers: every copy of Microsoft's 
new Visual C++ " 
Professional Edition 
includes a FREE 
trial-sized Phar Lap® 
DOS extender! Phar 
Lap's 286IDOS- 
Extender" lite is a 
special version of 
Phar Lap's award-winning 286IDOS- 
Extender. With 286IDOS-Extender Lite, 
you can write DOS programs that break 
the 640K barrier, access up to 2 MB of 
memory, and run under DOS, 
DESQview", Windows'" and OS/2®. It's 
the easiest introduction youll find to 
Extended-DOS programming. 

Build multi-megabyte, 
full-featured DOS 
programs — 286 1 DOS- 
Extender SDK. 

Professional developers can 
purchase Phar Lap's full- 
feahired 286IDOS-Extender 
SDK for $495. With the 
286IDOS-Extender SDK, you 
can access up to 16 MB of 
memory — with the standard 
Microsoft or Borland tools 
you already use! The new 
Version 3.0 of286IDOS 
Extender now supports 
Visual C++ as well as 
Microsoft C/C++, Borland® 
C++ and Microsoft Fortran. 
You can even use Microsoft's 
CodeView® or Borland's 
Turbo Debugger* to debug 
your Extended-DOS 
programs. 286IDOS-Extender 





LANGUAGE 




programs will run on any DOS-based 
80286, 386, 486 or Pentium PC. There's 
no special programming required to use 
a Phar Lap DOS extender; your program 
can access extended memory just as if it 
were conventional (below 640K) 
memory. 

2861 DOS-Extender is one of the most 
widely used 16-bit DOS extenders 
available. If you'd like to know why, take 
a look at what our customers and other 
industry experts have to say about the 
286IDOS-Extender SDK . Then find out 
for yourself by trying the free 286IDOS- 
Extender Lite — or get started right 
away on your multi-megabyte DOS 
applications with the professional 
286IDOS-Extender SDK! 

What the experts say 
about Phar Lap's 
286ID0S-Extender SDK: 

"Great tools for Visual C++ 
programmers who need 
more memory" 

- Denis Gilbert, Microsoft Corp. 

"A no-compromise solution 
for Borland C++ developers" 

- Paul Gross, Borland International 

"An excellent product 
technically" 

- Glenn Axworthy, Brederbund Software 

"Gives our customers the 
memory they need" 

- Bert Love, Galacticomm, Inc. 

"A superb way of utilizing all 
available memory" 

- Dave Jewell, Program NOW, August 1991 




New virtual memory 
support. 

In addition to Visual 
C++ support, 
286IDOS-Extender, 
Version 3.0 now 
includes Phar Lap's 
286IVMM virtual 
memory manager. , 
286IVMM is 

completely integrated into 
286IDOS-Extender (you invoke 
286IVMM with a command-line switch) 
and enables you to transparently access 
more memory than is physically available 
in your computer. 286IVMM can improve 
the performance of applications that 
previously relied on loading and 
unloading dynamic link libraries (DLLs). 
And it's fully DPMI-compatible, so 
programs running under Windows 
automatically use the virtual memory 
provided by Windows. 

386 1 DOS-Extender - 
Your 32-bit DOS 
development solution. 

If you want 32-bit speed and power, as 
well as megabytes of memory for your 
DOS applications, Phar Lap's award- 
winning 386IDOS-Extender™ is your 
solution. With 386IDOS-Extender, your 
programs can access all available 
memory and run in a workstation-like, 
unsegmented 32-bit address space. 
386IDOS-Extender programs will run 
on any DOS-based 80386, 486 or 
Pentium PC. 386IDOS-Extender 
supports a wide range of 32-bit 
compilers, including Microsoft's 32-bit 
Windows NT" C/C++ compiler. It runs 
the NT compiler under DOS (no NT 
system required) to build 32-bit 
Extended-DOS programs — the only 
32-bit Microsoft DOS development 
solution available. 



Phar Lap Software, Inc. 

60 Aberdeen Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138 617-661-1510 FAX 617-876-2972 

286IDOS-Extender and 386IDOS-Extender are trademarks and Phar Lap is a registered trademark of Phar Lap Software. Inc. Borland and Turbo Debugger are regislered trademarks of Borland InlemationaL Visual C-H- .Windows 
and Windows NT are trademarks and CodeView and Microsoft are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corp. Other product and company names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. 




Circle 128 on Inquiry Card. 



Reviews 



Applying the Power of the Pen 




Saltire'sSketchRight 

Saltire designed Sketch- 
Right for people who need 
:iS^^W^ geometric measurements 
from field data. It takes your 
pen sketches and turns them 
into precision drawings. Saltire's geome- 
try engine underlies the interface, allowing 
SketchRight to calculate unknown mea- 
surements given sufficient information. 
SketchRight connects lines and adjusts ob- 
ject sizes to reflect the newly computed 
dimensions. It's not really CAD, it's not a 
paint package, it's something else — like 
an artist or engineer looking over your 
shoulder. 

The dimensioning is all-or-nothing; 
SketchRight puts dimensions on every- 
thing it considers critical. If you leave stray 
marks on the drawing or leave an object 
drawn incorrectly on-screen, SketchRight 
insists on filling the screen with meaning- 
less and confusing dimensions. Remov- 
ing these or correcting the errors takes a lot 
of practice. Personally, I'd prefer having 
control over which objects were critical 
and which were dependent. I was also 



unimpressed with the selection mecha- 
nism. A short up-down flick gesture is the 
command to add an object to a selected 
group, but it doesn't work consistently. 
Since I was using a Grid Convertible (with 
a keyboard), I finally resorted to using the 
Shift key to select objects. 

SketchRight is an interesting applica- 
tion. I didn't master it after several weeks' 
use, but it uses the pen well — letting you 
sketch a quick graphic and make simple 
modifications. If you need finer control, 
you can export the file to your CAD pack- 
age for finishing. 

SunSelect's PenCentral 

JrfelxPoillt P^'iC^f"''^' epitomizes 
SunSelect's effort to sup- 
ply networking to and 
from all computers, regardless of config- 
uration or platform. A version of the pop- 
ular TOPS networking environment (the 
PenTOPS client) comes bundled with 
every PenPoint operating system. All you 
need to connect your PenPoint machine 
to a network is a TOPS server. 

That's what PenCentral provides. 



through your desktop computer. PenCen- 
tral is different from the other applications 
here in that it doesn't actually run on a 
pen-based system: PenCentral is a DOS 
application. 

To connect a PenPoint machine to a 
PC, Novell, or LAN Manager network, 
you simply install the DOS PenCentral 
server software and connect the pen sys- 
tem to the server via a serial or parallel 
cable. A few seconds later, the desktop 
system recognizes the pen computer and 
establishes the link. From that point on, 
the floppy drives, hard drives, network 
drives, and printers available to your desk- 
top machine are also available to your pen 
system. 

To use PenTOPS through PenCentral, 
you simply tap on the Connections icon 
on the PenPoint screen and then select Net- 
work View and the drive or printer you 
need to access. PenCentral takes care of 
everything else. To set up a remote con- 
nection for copying files to or from your 
office later, you simply set the PenCen- 
tral server to provide a modem connec- 
tion and put the modem on auto-answer. 

continued 



Your Choice of Keyboard Mon itor Switches 



Access multiple computers with a single keyboard and monitor 
to cut equipment costs, save valuable space, and end clutter 



Simple pushbutton operation for quicl< selection 
Four, eight, or twelve ports per unit 
Daisy-chaining connects unlimited number of CPUs 
Compatible with EGA, VGA, Macintosh, Sun, and others 
Optional keyboard booting for 286, 386, and 486 
Optional RS232 or PS/2 mouse interface 
PCB construction for high reliability and low crosstalk 
Rack mount, matrix, and customized units available 




Manually controlled unit 



Switch by keystroke, from front panel, or RS232port 
Two or four ports per unit 
Cascade units to support up to 255 CPUs 
Supports monochrome, EGA, and VGA 
Includes keyboard booting for 286, 386, and 486 
Includes RS232 and PS/2 mouse interface 
LEDs display selected CPU and CPU power-on 
Scan function switches among CPUs automatically 





Keyboard controlled unit 



Call toll-free now 
for your copy of our 
Switching and Sharing 
Solutions catalog. 

other Rose products: Print servers, printer stiaring units, 
print butlers, Ireyboarij monitor extenders, video splitters. 
Alt Hose products are US-made and have at -year warranty. 



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10850 Wllcrest Drive • Houston, Texas 77099 • Phone (713)933-7673 • Fax (713)933-0044 



ELECTRONICS 

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X3S 15 V I !•: JULY 1993 



Circle 139 on Inquiry Card. 



Availability 
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Fujitau Keybeanis 

lOUkey enhanced keyboard 
Part no.: 7B17128 
Product no.: FKB4700 
$79.95 



Jameco Adapters 

DE9 female to DB25 
male serial adapter 
Part no.: 7B10305 
Product no.: AD925 

$4.95 




Memory 

Part no.: 7B41769 
Product no.: 421000A9B-80 
SIMM Module 
Function: 1MB 80ns 

$47.95 



Supplies 

150 watt 8088 
Part no.; 7B 19465 
Product no.:JE1030 

$69.95 



Jameco Itesktop 
Slide Case with 200 
Watt Power Supply 

Part no.: 7B20503 
Product no.: IE2020 

$149.95 




Tesliiba Floppy 
Disk Drives 

1.44MB 3.5" Inrernal 
Floppy Disk Drive 
Part no.: 7B40774 
Product no.: 356KU 

$99.95 



Metex Digital 
Multimeters 

4.5 digit w/frequency & 
capacitance & data hold switch 
Part no.: 7B27158 
Product.: M4650 
$99.95 



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Reviews 



Applying the Power of the Pen 




SunSelect's PenCentral works well and 
couldn't be easier to use. 

Slate's Grid PenEssentials 

Specifically for the Grid 
Convertible (and now bun- 
dled with the computer when 
you buy it), Grid PenEssen- 
tials is a bundle of four Slate 
applications: the Day-Timer Pen Sched- 
uler, the LooseLeaf NoteTaker, the Pen- 
Book Electronic Book, and Dehina's Win- 
Fax Pen software. In addition, you receive 
a custom nylon carrying case for the com- 
puter and a spare pen. 

The Day-Timer application is the same 
as the PenPoint version reviewed above. 
LooseLeaf is an ink-capturing note appli- 
cation similar to Ink Ware NoteTaker (but 
without the text conversion). As ink-cap- 
ture applications go, LooseLeaf is per- 
fectly adequate. It doesn't have all the bells 
and whistles of NoteTaker, but then it 
doesn't really need them. 

PenBook is an application that displays 
files stored in Slate's BookFile format, 
created in PenBook Author. The last piece 
of software is the pen version of Delrina's 
WinFax. WinFax lets you create an out- 
put document and transmit it through the 
Grid's internal modem. Once you create 
your fax with text and graphical elements, 
WinFax takes care of dialing through the 
fax modem and establishing your connec- 
tion. It works much like WinFax does un- 
der Windows. 

As a group of applications, the Grid 



PenEssentials collection is fairly effective. 
It isn't an integrated package in the con- 
ventional sense; the packages don't work 
together under a single shell. What holds 
them together is a single philosophy of 
presentation and style. Sometimes it makes 
sense to use a group of simple, related ap- 
plications rather than a single monolithic 
one. That's espe- ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

true a 
pen-computing 
environment, 
where you don't 
usually have the 
luxury of a key- 
board or a sec- 
ond mouse but- 
ton for control. 

If you con- 
sider the price 
($349), PenEs- 
sentials is worth 



handwriting recognition, pens are not yet 
efficient for entering data or taking notes. 
They are better at selection, thumbing 
through documents, highlighting, or oth- 
erwise annotating text. These current prob- 
lems don't dampen my enthusiasm for 
pens; hand-held PDAs (Personal Digital 
Assistants) with the capabilities of these 
machines will be 



The PenEssentials 
collection is not an 
integrated package in 
the conventional sense. 



it even if you only use one or two of the 
applications. Slate now offers similar bun- 
dles for PenPoint and for pen-based sys- 
tems from other manufacturers. 

As Good as Paper? 

Are pen applications strong enough to 
make pen computing as mainstream as 
other types of portable computing? Not 
yet. Unfortunately, the technology just 
isn't there: All the applications are just too 
slow on the processors in the machines I 
used, and handwriting recognition just isn't 
in acceptable shape. 

Largely because of the problems in 



welcome sys- 
tems. 

Nonetheless, 
the state of the 
technology puts 
a restriction on 
most of these ap- 
plications. Of the 
pen applications 
here, the sched- 
ulers are current- 
ly the most use- 
ful. However, 
scheduling is obviously not pen comput- 
ing's "killer app," and it doesn't provide 
the incentive for buying a $3000 comput- 
er. Although many of these applications 
present innovative interfaces, they are still 
running on top of a foundation — both 
hardware and operating system — that's 
just too shaky to support critical, general- 
purpose applications. ■ 

Howard Eglowstein is a BYTE Lab testing edi- 
tor. Prior to joining BYTE, he was the vice pres- 
ident and cofounder of Hindsight, a design firm 
that specialized in pen-based workstations for 
teaching learning-disabled students. You can reach 
him on BIX as "heglowstein." 



Items Discussed 


Grid Convertible $2799 


LetterExpcess 


$199 


SketchRigM 


$249 


PenCentral $149 


(as tested) 


Numero 


$399 


Saltire Software, Inc. 




SunSelect 


Grid Systems Corp. 


PenMagic Software, Inc. 




P.O. Box 1565 




2060 Challenger Dr. 


7 Village Cir. 


310-260 West Esplanade 




Beaverton, OR 97075 




Alameda. CA 94501 


Westlake, TX 76262 


North Vancouver, B.C., 




(800) 659-1874 




(800) 677-6265 


(800) 934-4743 


Canada V7M 3G7 




fax: (503) 526-0934 




fax: (510) 769-8771 


Circle 1225 on InquiiY Card. 


(604) 988-9982 




Circle 1230 on Inquiiy Card. 




Circle 1232 on Inquiry Card. 




fax: (604) 988-0035 










InkWare NoteTalcer $145 


Circle 1227 on Inquiir Card. 




At-Hand 


$295 


Toshiba TIOOX Dynapad ....$4397 


Ink Development Corp. 




Day-Timer Pen Scheduler . 


..$195 


(as tested) 


1300 South El Camino Real, 


Perspective 


$299 


Grid PenEssentials 


$349 


Toshiba America Information 


Suite 201 


Pensoft Corp. 




Slate Corp. 




Systems, Inc. 


San Mateo, CA 94402 


275 Shoreline Dr., Suite 535 


15035 North 73rd St. 




9740 Irvine Blvd. 


(415) 573-6565 


Redwood City, CA 94065 




Scottsdale, AZ 85260 




Irvine, CA 92718 


fax: (415) 573-5167 


(415) 802-6925 




(602) 443-7322 




(800) 334-3445 


Circle 1226 on Inquiry Card. 


fax: (415) 802-6942 




fax: (602) 443-7325 




fax: (714) 587-6171 




Circle 1228 on Inquiry Card. 




Circle 1231 on Inquiry Card. 




Circle 1233 on Inquiiy Card. 




PenCell Spreadsheet 


$295 










PenWare, Inc. 












845 Page Mil! Rd. 












Palo Alto, CA 94304 












(415) 858-4920 












fax: (415) 858-4929 












Circle 1229 on Inquiiy Card. 











14.0 BYXE JULY 1993 



Reyiews 



i\mim Software 

NetWare Goes Global 



Version 4.0 scales up for serious enterprise networicing, but its new 
directory service doesn't accommodate NetWare 2.x and 3.x servers 



JON UDELL 

At BYTE, like everywhere else, 
networks grow like weeds. Last 
time I checked, we had four in- 
dependent NetWare LANs serving four 
different departments. Of course, BYTE 
is part of a much larger company, Mc- 
Graw-Hill, and in that context our Peter- 
borough, New Hampshire, operation is just 
a drop in the corporate bucket. How can 
PC networks scale up to meet the needs 
of multidepartment divisions like BYTE 
and multidivision companies like Mc- 
Graw-Hill? NetWare 4.0 supplies the cru- 
cial ingredient. 

The X.500-style NDS (NetWare Direc- 
tory Service), a treelike database of users, 
data, software services, and equipment, 
can span all the NetWare 4.0 servers on a 
company's LAN or WAN (wide-area net- 
work). Administrators who tend these trees 
will shape them so that the logical view 
of a network superimposes precisely on 
the organization chart that is the logical 



view of the company served by that net- 
work. Users, as a result, will be able to in- 
teract with the network at appropriate or- 
ganizational levels. 

As a BYTE editor, my workaday con- 
text would be something like Editorial 
.BYTE.McGraw_Hill. But to send a mes- 
sage to David Cohen in BYTE's produc- 
tion department, I'd cross department 
boundaries and address the message to 
dcohen.Pr oduction.BYTE.Mc- 
Graw_Hill. And to communicate with 
Neil Canavan, a Datapro telemarketer, 1 
might cross divisional lines and address a 
message to ncanavan. Sales. Data- 
pro .McGr aw_H ill. 

Among the features new to NetWare 
4.0, NDS rightly gets top billing. A cred- 
ible Novell framework for serious enter- 
prise networking is clearly a landmark 
event. Vines users who have long enjoyed 
global directory services may view it with 
understandable skepticism. In fact, No- 
vell's NDS outdoes Banyan's StreetTalk in 
three ways: It's replicated, it can represent 



complex hierarchy, and it supports user- 
defined object types. On the other hand, 
NDS is today little more than a frame- 
work. NetWare 2.x and 3.x servers don't 
support NDS. Neither does UnixWare, or 
Novell's own E-mail and network man- 
agement products, never mind all the third- 
party VAP (value-added process) and 
NLM (NetWare loadable module) appli- 
cations. 

So while NetWare users wait for the 
world to catch up with the new directory 
service, what other 4.0 features deliver im- 
mediate value today? Notable ones are file 
compression, CD-ROM sharing, NLM 
protection, read-ahead caching and block 
suballocation, smarter memory manage- 
ment and thread scheduling, burst-mode 
packet delivery, large Internet packets, im- 
proved security and auditing, target ser- 
vice agents for workstation backup, data 
migration to optical jukebox, NDIS pro- 
tocol support, a true DOS requester, and a 
host of new and improved server and client 
utilities. File compression alone could tip 



NetWare 



Object View Ofitldns Tools 



I- 



Editorial 



& JON_U 



- 1 THORNTON_SYS 

- ^ Redesign Task Force 

- 1 OURTOWN 

- 1 THORNTON 

- ^ ThorntonPrintServer 

- ^ Thornton Printer 

- ^ ThorntonQueue 

- S Swan 00-AF32 

- 1^ Office Manager 

- ThorntonSys 

- "1 Production 

- iSk Admin 
£p ThorntonSys 



NetWare Directory Service Objects 



rypE 



PURPOSE 




Organization A top-level container for servers, users, organizational units, and other objects. 

Organizational unit A subsidiaiy container for servers, users, and other network objects. 

User A single networkwide store of information about a user, including name, password, 

rights, log-in script, and many other attributes. 

Group A list of users. Note that users sharing a given container implicitly form a group, so 

explicit groups are needed less often in 4.0 than in 2.x and 3.x. 

Stores basic information about the server, such as its network address. 

Can be used to view and modify printer assignments, operators, and users. 

Can be used to view and modify configuration, queue assignments, and notification. 

Can be used to view and modify operators and users. 

Can be used to track owner, serial number, and location. Network management 
software that tracks assets can extend this object by adding other attributes. 

Organizational role Logical name for a user who is the "occupant" of the role. Useful for indirection, 

since it can be referenced in rights assignments instead of a hard-coded user name. 

Directory map Logical name for a path specification. Useful for indirection, since it can be 

referenced in log-in scripts instead of a hard-coded path. 



JULY 1993 BYTE 141 



Reviews 



NetWare Goes Global 



the scales in 4.0's favor. In NetWare 
4.0, compression runs as a low-pri- 
ority bacicground thread, in 32-bit 
mode (like all NetWare tasks), with 
plenty of linear memory to work with. 
The result is that 4.0 really does more 
than double your disk (see the figure 
"NetWare 4.0 vs. DOS 6: Compres- 
sion Ratios"). 



NetWare 4.0 vs. DOS 6: Compression Ratios 



i Worse NetWare 4.0 Better ► 



Smooth Start, Rough Acceleration 

I installed NetWare 4.0 on a Gateway 
66-MHz 486DX2 EISA machine with 
1 6 MB of RAM, an NE3200 network 
card, and an UltraStor Ultra 24F SCSI 
controller cabled to a 525-MB Sea- 
gate ST3600N SCSI drive and a 
Toshiba XM-34G1 CD-ROM drive. 
CD-ROM is the default mode of in- 
stallation for 4.0. If you need floppy 
disks, you'll have to make them your- 
self from the supplied CD-ROM or 
order them separately. (The same pol- 
icy applies to printed documentation.) 
What if you don't have a SCSI CD- 
ROM drive that NetWare supports? 
Not to worry. Installation pulls files 
from a DOS-mounted CD-ROM, so 
while you may or may not succeed 
in sharing discs as read-only NetWare 
volumes, as long as DOS can see your 
drive you'll be able to install NetWare. 

The installer scans the network for an 
existing directory services tree, and if (as 
in my case) that search fails, it will create 
a new one. It prompts for the new serv- 
er's location in the tree — an organization 
and (optionally) an organizational unit. 
After installing the server, you can cut in- 
stallation floppy disks from the CD-ROM 
for DOSAVindows and OS/2 workstations. 
After installing the DOS/Windows client 
software on my Swan 386/25, 1 rebooted 
and tried to log in. I was stumped for a 
while. The privileged user in 4.0 is AD- 
MIN, not SUPERVISOR, but the com- 
mand LOGIN ADMIN, which should have 
granted access to the directory service, 
kept failing, as did the more explicit LOG- 
IN ADMIN.Editorial.BYTE. Eventual- 
ly I figured out why. 

User object ADMIN lived in a top-lev- 
el container (organization BYTE), but 
server object THORNTON lived one lev- 
el down (organizational unit Editorial). 
Attaching to THORNTON, I acquired its 
context. Because the search for an object 
looks downward in the tree, not upward, 
user ADMIN wasn't found. One solution 
was to use the command CX 0=BYTE, 
which set the context appropriately for the 
command LOGIN ADMIN. (Note that AD- 



Bit map 

256color.bmp 

leaves.bmp 

Text 

drwatson.log 
modems.ini 
Summary 






1 i Worse 


DOS 6 


Better ► 



Bit map 

256color.bmp 
leaves.bmp 
Text 

drwatson.log 
modems.ini 
Summary 




0 1 2 3 4 5 6 
Compression ratio 



NetWare 4.0 consistently outcompresses DOS 6 on some file types. Results 
are mixed for bit maps and text files, but on the whole NetWare 4.0 really is 
a disk doubler. The summary figure represents the composite compression 
ratio for all files in the Windows directory. 



MIN can then manage not only the re- 
sources of the Editorial unit but those of 
other units belonging to BYTE.) Another 
was simply to name the correct context 
(i.e., LOGIN ADMIN.BYTE). 

Things were simpler for the new user 
accounts I then created as ADMIN, since 
I put those objects in the same part of the 
tree as the server itself. But for adminis- 
trators, mastery of the nuances of NDS 
will require a major conceptual shift. It's 
worth the trouble. For example, I reflex- 
ively created a group EVERYONE and 
began putting new users into that group. 
Then I discovered that 4.0 obsoletes that 
old habit. Users in a "container" object 
inherit rights and log-in scripts from the 
container, so they are implicitly members 
of a group. The object orientation of NDS 
is powerful, once you learn to let it work 
for you. 

You manage the tree with a pair of 
graphical tools (or their textual equiva- 
lents). The NetWare Administrator navi- 
gates the tree and creates, renames, moves, 
and edits NDS objects. Creators of new 
object classes can extend this tool by writ- 
ing "Snap-in Object DLLs." The Partition 
Manager subdivides the single directory- 
services database created during installa- 
tion into smaller pieces and can replicate 
those pieces to local or remote servers. 



You replicate in order to safe- 
guard directory information and 
ensure speedy access to that infor- 
mation in a WAN environment. If 
you install two servers into a sin- 
gle container, this replication hap- 
pens automatically. You probably 
won't need to replicate manually 
unless you're operating a WAN. 
In that case, since replicas syn- 
chronize continually as changes 
occur, you will have to plan care- 
fully how much directory infor- 
mation to distribute. You cannot 
yet gauge whether the usage of a 
given replica justifies the com- 
munications cost of maintaining 
it, but Novell recognizes the need 
for such a capability and says the 
hooks are in to provide it. 



New DOS and OS/2 Requesters 

I installed the client software on 
a handful of machines running 
DOS/Windows and one running 
the OS/2 2.1 beta. The DOS client 
has changed dramatically. After 
loading the ODI (Open Data-Link 
Interface) .software that talks to the 
network adapter, you run a loader 
called VLM.EXE that pulls in an assort- 
ment of "virtual loadable modules" into 
conventional, expanded, or extended mem- 
ory. Each VLM performs one function — 
DOS redirection, printing, encryption, di- 
rectory services, and so on. 

The redirector reforms NetWare's old 
habit of hooking INT21, although "dirty" 
NetWare applications that rely on that 
hook can still have it. Another module 
binds IPX to the NCP and signals Novell's 
readiness to let NetWare ride on other 
transports. In fact, the NetWare client is 
prepared to run NCP over IP today, and 
once the server can do the same (Novell 
is not saying when), administrators of 
mixed networks who want to standardize 
on a single wire protocol will finally be 
able to do so. 

DOS and OS/2 clients now get both 
NetBIOS and named-pipes drivers and, 
importantly, an NDIS-over-ODI driver 
that enables users to multiplex LAN Man- 
ager (and other NDIS-oriented clients) 
with NetWare over a single adapter. Un- 
fortunately, I found no obvious way to 
substitute the NetWare 4.0 client for the 
NetWare support included with Windows 
for Workgroups. 

The OS/2 requester can virtualize net- 
work support to multiple DOS boxes in 
two ways. One enables a VDM (virtual 



142 15 V I K JULY 1993 




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Reviews 



NetWare Goes Global 



DOS machine) to share the original (pub- 
lic) OS/2 log-in. The other grants a VDM 
its own private log-in. Coupled with asyn- 
chronous host software (e.g., pcAnywhere) 
running in the VDM, this technique can 
make an OS/2 2.x machine into a poor 
man's NetWare Access Server. 

New Server Tricks 

When NetWare 3.0 made its debut, the 
fact that NLMs ran fast and naked at ring 
0 raised a lot of eyebrows. How could 
Novell permit a failing application to take 
out the kernel? That complaint turned out 
to be slightly off target. Software that runs 
with NetWare by definition provides a 
mission-critical service, and it just can't 
afford to fail. The real question should 
have been: How can developers make 
headway in a hair-trigger environment? 

NetWare 4.0's answer is DOMAIN 
.NLM, a tool that can isolate unproven 
NLMs from the kernel. There's an associ- 
ated cost, of course. BYTE's NLM bench- 
mark ran 5 percent slower in the OS_PRO- 
TECTED domain (ring 3) than in the OS 
domain (ring 0). Real applications that ex- 
ercise user code more than kernel code 
will degrade even more. But NLM pro- 
tection doesn't really try to make NetWare 
a protected operating system. It's just a 
way to help get reliable NLMs built quick- 
ly, and developers tell me they're mighty 
grateful for it. 

CDROM.NLM mounts a CD-ROM as a 
read-only NetWare volume. To get it to 
work, you first need to load a driver that 
enables CD-ROM.NLM to speak ASPI 
(advanced SCSI programming interface) 
to your drive. The Adaptec version of that 
driver wasn't happy with the UltraStor 
controller's flavor of ASPI, but the Merid- 
ian Data implementation enabled me to 
mount and share the Toshiba CD-ROM 
drive. Other new server utilities include 
SERVMAN, which you can u.se to observe 
and twiddle various system settings, and 
DSREPAIR, which fixes damaged direc- 
tory-services partitions. 



About the Product 



storage Management 
still Evolving 

NetWare 4.0 provides a trio 
of server-based TSAs (target 
service agents) that ship data 
to backup engines that sup- 
port the SMS protocol. The 
server TSAs handle NetWare 
3. 1 1 and 4.0 file systems, as 
well as the 4.0 directory-ser- 
vices database. I also tested 
the TSAs that SMS engines 



NetWare 4.0 



Prices.- 

Five users, $1395 
100 users, $8795 
1000 users, $47,995 
(other levels available) 



can use to pull data from OS/2 and DOS 
workstations. However, though I estab- 
lished TSA-to-server communication in 
all five cases, I couldn't convince SBACK- 
UP's support driver, TAPEDAI.NLM, to 
use the UltraStor's ASPI driver and so 
couldn't move any data to either my Tec- 
mar or my Archive DAT drives. 

What troubled me more, though, was 
the realization that 4.0's data-migration 
feature has almost nothing to do with SMS. 
For data migration, 4.0 introduces the 
HCSS (high-capacity storage system), part 
of a joint effort with Kodak to enable Net- 
Ware for image processing. 

To u.se HCSS, you buy an MO (mag- 
neto-optical) jukebox (only HP's 10- and 
20-GB models are currently supported) 
and then load the HCSS NLM and point it 
at portions of a NetWare volume. It auto- 
matically migrates files between primary 
magnetic storage and secondary MO stor- 
age according to demand. What's wrong 
with this picture? I thought I'd be able to 
use disk-grooming SMS backup software 
and tape auto-changers this way, but the 
migration hooks that Cheyenne and Palin- 
drome would need aren't in SMS, they're 
in HCSS. Novell is painfully aware that 
tiered storage was the raison d'etre of SMS 
and admits that its unification with HCSS 
is imperative. 

Difficult Choices 

NetWare 3.0's quantum leap in perfor- 
mance and ease of use made the decision to 
upgrade almost a no-brainer for many 2.x 
users. While 4.0 advances the state of Net- 
Ware in an equally profound way, the im- 
mediate gains are harder to quantify. The 
failure of NDS to accommodate 2.x and 
3.x servers rankles. If Banyan can put 
StreetTalk on those platforms (in the form 
of Vines Enterprise Network Services) 
why can't Novell manage the same trick 
with NDS? NetWare servers have an an- 
noying habit of refusing to die, and I worry 
about the drag they'll exert on deployment 

of NDS-aware software. 

Despite these concerns, 
NetWare 4.0 is obviously 
headed in the right direction. 
Its early adopters may suffer 
some growing pains, but 
they'll never look back. ■ 



Novell, Inc. 

122 East 1700 South 
Provo, UT 84606 
(801) 429-7000 
Circle 1224 on Inquiiy Card. 



Jon Udell is a BYTE senior tech- 
nical editor at large. He maintains 
BYTE s PC network. You can 
reach him on BIX as "judell" or 
on the Internet at judell@bytepb 
.bvte.com. 



Reviews 



Software 



Dynamic Documents 

Folio Views lets you manage and distribute large quantities of 
text, numbers, and graphics. Version 3.0 brings Folio's electronic 
publishing tools to Windows. 




ROBERT SCHMIDT 

lectronic publishing has long 
been touted as a revolutionary re- 
placement for paper as a means 
of delivering information. Unfortunately, 
this type of publishing has been the ex- 
clusive province of large publishing, data- 
base, and multimedia companies. Only 
they could support the laborious production 
of books, CDs, and on-line databases. With 
the release of Folio Views 3.0, Folio Corp. 
hopes to make electronic publishing avail- 
able to a mass market. 

New to the Windows platform, Folio 
Views 3.0 ($495) lets you produce, man- 
age, and distribute large bodies of infor- 
mation. It brings editing, publishing, and 
retrieval tools together to automate the in- 
formation life cycle. Its primary market is 
organizations that regularly publish mass- 
es of information on paper. For depart- 
ments and workgroups, the bundling of 
real-time editing and retrieval functions 
will be irresistible: no more corralling an 
undisciplined agglomeration of data in in- 
compatible formats. 

The Folio Infobase 

Folio pioneered the concept of an infobase, 
a dynamic repository of free-format data 
that can hold text, numbers, graphics, and 
sound. Examples include technical docu- 
ments, legal proceedings, parts catalogs, 
and the complete works of Shakespeare. 
Views combines properties of word pro- 
cessing, desktop publishing, database and 
text management, groupware, and multi- 
media. It contains a wealth of functional- 
ity, much of it new to version 3.0. 

New features include an open client/ 
server architecture, concurrent multiuser 
editing with automatic record locking, 
graphics placed directly into an infobase, 
robust filters for WordPerfect and Micro- 
soft Word, and embedded multimedia ob- 
jects such as sound and video files. One 
important element still missing from Views 
is cross-platform support. An infobase 
created in the Windows version can be 
loaded into the DOS version of Views, but 
3.0 includes neither a DOS nor a Mac- 



I File View Search Window Help 



15 ♦ 1604 THE TRAGEDY 



intosh viewer. The 
DOS viewer should 
be available by the 
time you read this; 
the Mac viewer is 
scheduled for later 
this year. 

Although the cur- 
rent release of Views 
doesn't support mul- 
tiple platforms, the 
open client/server 
architecture portends 
a smooth migration 
path. The Views en- 
gine, which is writ- 
ten in C++, is an 
independent execut- 
able handling low- 
level file calls. The 
code can be ported 
by recompiling for different platforms. In 
the near future. Folio plans a Views en- 
gine for Unix and Windows NT servers, 
which you could access from Windows or 
Macintosh clients. The client workstations 
will send out queries to the server, allow- 
ing the server hardware to handle resource- 
intensive tasks, such as searches, updates, 
and builds against the central infobase. 

Unlike file managers such as XTree or 
Magellan, Views doesn't organize direc- 
tories of files. Instead, it manages all in- 
formation under one infobase umbrella. 
Infobases, limited to 2 GB in the previous 
version, may be up to 16 TB in size in 3.0. 
Although Views permits standard and user- 
definable fields, its retrieval capabilities 
are most comparable to those of such full- 
text databases as askSam and Zylndex 
(for a synopsis of products that help orga- 
nize and retrieve documents and files, see 
"Info-Management Tools" on page 148). 
Views indexes every word as it's entered, 
but because of compression, the resulting 
infobase and index combined is often 
smaller than the source file. 

Concurrent Editing and Dynamic Links 

All of Views' viewing and editing features 
are available in a multiuser environment 
(see "Dynamics of an Infobase" on page 



is as the m. invulnerable. ... 
in earth orJR, 

Ham The Qbites shrewdly; it 
and an eager B 

Bring with theegB|from heaven or .. 
scent the morning B( . 

out of the H, my lord? 

ambition of so 00 and light a 
excelleni canopy, the B, look you. this ... 
seem'd i'th'Qto suck 

not sawtheQtoo much with .. 
I eat the Q. promise- cramm'd You cannot .. 
with th' encorporal Q do hold discourse? ... 

hit the woundless 0. come away) . 



out o' th* g( Aside How pregnant 



H Ul-I 






.\*r. 


r«id |Reooid1/21 


|H»r15 


1 Qusv «f* 





Hie Table of Contents view reveals the structure of an infobase, the number of queiy 
hits per level, and the results of a wild-card search in context. Levels expand and 
contract when the plus icon is selected. 



146). Up to 1 25 users can post notes, high- 
Ught text, or add information simultane- 
ously, and an unlimited number can have 
read-only access (a scaled-down version 
of Views, Folio Annotator, costs $195 and 
provides tools for viewing, searching, and 
making personal annotations). Security 
options let you control not only who may ac- 
cess the infobase but what levels or kinds 
of information they can see or alter. With 
the addition of User Groups, 3.0 lets you 
set identical access rights for every mem- 
ber of a defined group. 

Shadow files are also new to Folio 
Views. You can make shadow copies of 
the infobase for your personal use. The 
shadow copy is an exact replica of the file 
that can reside on your local disk. You can 
use the shadow file for reference purposes, 
adding personal notes and your own an- 
notations that will not affect the original 
version. 

Folio Views now supports a number of 
different types of links, including the fol- 
lowing: 

• Popup Links for generating electronic 
"sticky" notes. A Popup may include 
text or graphics. 

• Jump Links for moving from one point 
in the infobase to any other point. You 



JULY 1993 BYTE 145 



Reviews 



Dynamic Documents 



Dynamics of an Infobase 



Unlimited 
read-only 




The current version of Folio Views ships with a Windows viewer; 
DOS and Mac viewers have been announced 



browsing and viewing a 
file. You can click on 
any line (level) of the 
Table of Contents and 
jump to the correspond- 
ing point in the text. You 
can collapse or expand 
the outline by clicking 
on the pluses and mi- 
nuses (see the screen on 
page 145) or display it 
to a certain depth with 
numerical indicators just 
below the menu bar. 



Folio Views creates dynamic, editable electronic documents for shared access on a network. With complete multiuser record locking, Views 
supports up to 125 concurrent users with read/write privileges. An administrator controls access rights. 



can also jump to a different infobase. 

• Object Links for calling graphics, 
sound, or video objects. 

• Program Links for invoking an exter- 
nal application from within Views. 

• Query Links for performing queries. 

Each type of link can have an associat- 
ed style (e.g., green italicized Times Ro- 
man). Clicking on this styled text initiates 
the appropriate action. Object Links give 
you the beginnings of true multimedia by 
linking to other applications through Mi- 
crosoft's OLE. Views acts only as an OLE 
client and includes no native tools for call- 
ing or editing video and sound. But an ob- 
ject dialog box, displaying a list of sup- 
ported OLE objects and offering options 
for previewing objects, makes it easy to 
work with external applications and to em- 
bed multimedia sources. 

Infobase Hierarchy 

I reviewed Folio Views on a 33-MHz 
Compudyne 486 with 4 MB of RAM, 



DOS 5.0. and Windows 3.1. Installation 
was straightforward and took about 15 
minutes. The program occupies 13.7 MB 
of disk space, but most of that is sample in- 
fobases and tutorials that you can erase. 
Without the sample programs but with all 
functions enabled. Views requires a little 
over 2 MB. 

A Views infobase has several structur- 
al levels. Records are the basic structural 
element of an infobase. A record may be a 
line, a paragraph, or another natural unit 
of information. 

Levels provide a hierarchical structure 
for the infobase, just as an outline or table 
of contents does. In a documentation set, 
for example, the levels might be Book, 
Section, and Chapter. While levels impose 
a structure from the top down, fields ag- 
gregate related bits of information from 
the bottom up. You can tag all dates, wher- 
ever they appear, and include them in a 
Date field, or place all personal names in a 
Name field. 

The Table of Contents offers a way of 



Complex Queries 

Folio Views has strong 
searching capabilities. 
You can search an entire 
infobase or define a sjje- 
cific scope. The indexed 
words in that scope ap- 
pear in the Word box. 
You can click on a word 
or type an entry in the 
Query box. This is an in- 
telligent query: As you 
type. Views attempts to 
finish the term for you. 
You can access previous 
searches with the scroll 
bar and apply them 
across multiple info- 
bases. The Results Map 
gives you a running tal- 
ly of the number of hits. 
In the Table of Contents 
view, you can show the outline headings 
with search hits, reveal or hide the search 
results in context, and omit or display the 
number of hits. 

As with most search programs, you can 
hunt for phrases (in quotes) or multiple 
words linked with AND, OR, and NOT. 
You can do wild-card and proximity 
searches, stem searches (e.g., eat% for eat, 
ate, and eating), and even thesaurus search- 
es (e.g., fly$ for soar, glide, flee, and so 
on). Combination searches are possible, 
although they occasionally produce un- 
fathomable results. Also, the Results Map 
does not give a hit count on a complex 
query, and you can't do either case-sensi- 
tive searches or searches that include punc- 
tuation (no sue vs. Sue or us vs. U.S.). 

Building an Infobase 

You can build an infobase from scratch 
with Views' editing tools. But it's more 
likely that you'll develop a document in 
a word processor or other program and 
bring it into Views. Views has filters for 



146 BYTE JULY 1993 



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Reviews 



Dynamic Documents 



INFO-MANAGEMENT TOOLS 

Software supporting electronic information taltes many forms, from simple 
indexers to complex authoring software. The table displays some of the 
various approaches, but the designations are as dynamic as the software: 
Some software packages span categories; others defy them altogether. 



File indexers Zylndex Index a group of files on a network or 

Magellan local drive. Excellent tools for finding and 
ISYS retrieving data but not for creating on-line 

electronic documents. 

Document PC Docs Maintain live documents or images of docu- 

managers SoftSolutions ments. Tools for version tracking. 

KeyFile Best for tracking document work flow 

within an organization. 





Hypertext word 
^^Jll processors 




Ami Pro Provide simple tools for bookmarks and 

WordPerfect links. Support OLE for embedded sound 
MS Word and video. No stand-alone viewers; 

can't track large groups of documents. 



Digital paper Acrobat Produce an electronic copy of any document 

solutions Common through print driver. Anyone can read with 

Ground stand-alone viewer. Styles and formats main- 
tained, but electronic copy is not editable. 

Authoring tools Authorware Produce interactive multimedia applications. 

OWL Guide Sophisticated and powerful programming 

MS Viewer environment. 




B Free-format Folio Views Pull free-fonn data into a targe repository for 

multiuser Lotus Notes multiuser viewing and editing, 

databases askSam 



Microsoft Word, WordPerfect, and ASCII 
that preserve much of the source's for- 
matting. 

When you convert a text file into an in- 
fobase, planning is critical. You'll want 
to consider the background and education 
level of the intended audience, how often 
the infobase will be revised or updated, 
how it will be distributed, and so forth. 
Then you can decide the number of lev- 
els and fields and their styles, the formats 
of paragraph and character styles, the high- 
lighters and linkages that you wish to in- 
clude, and the placement of 
objects, bookmarks, and other 
features. 

You can import raw text 
into Views and apply the 
functionality there, but you'll 
find that many things are eas- 
ier to add in WordPerfect or 
Microsoft Word. Views can 
take a WordPerfect table of 
contents and build levels and 



About the Product 



Folio Views 3.0 



Folio Corp. 

2155 North Freedom Blvd 
Suite 150 
Provo, Utah 84604 
(801) 375 3700 
fax: (801) 374-5753 
Circle 1234 on Inquiry Card. 



a dynamic table of contents for an infobase. 
Footnotes and Endnotes in WordPerfect 
become Note Links in Views. WordPer- 
fect's cross-reference feature creates Jump 
Links. 

A Word document has paragraph marks 
at the end of every line, which makes each 
line a record. To create levels and a dy- 
namic table of contents, you apply Word's 
heading styles at the proper places. Word 
Frames are not supported in Views, so you 
have to place all information in-line. You 
can add two kinds of links in Word. Views 
will derive the first. Popup 
Links, from existing foot- 
notes. For Jump Links, you 
must put a GOTO BUTTON 
command at the launching 
point and a bookmark at the 
destinafion. You can import 
embedded OLE objects from 
Word, but links to the server 
application will be lost. 
You add fields to the in- 



..$495 



fobase after you've created it from a doc- 
ument. You can tag records and place them 
in a field if you want to include entire 
records. However, you can't use Views' 
search-and-replace utility to apply fields 
or styles — a lamentable shortcoming. Your 
best bet in automating field and style des- 
ignations may be to import the file as 
ASCII, because Folio provides coding that 
you can add to a Flat File. 

A Folio Flat File consists of ASCII text 
with embedded codes for generating a 
complex infobase. Although Views does 
not support SGML (Standard Generalized 
Markup Language) or any other standard 
markup language, you can use the search- 
and-replace utility to change any embed- 
ded markup codes to the Folio equivalents. 
Views can then use the resulting Flat File 
to automatically build the infobase. Direct 
support of SGML would be a nice addi- 
tion, but the current conversion process is 
extremely flexible, handling a wide variety 
of generic markup techniques. 

Who Needs Folio Views? 

Users of previous versions of Folio Views 
will find the new program improved al- 
most beyond recognidon. Views' query 
options let you locate items in a multitude 
of ways. Searches may grow unwieldy as 
they increase in complexity, but only the 
most challenging queries will cause trou- 
ble. Browsing the results is easy, espe- 
cially with the Table of Contents. 

Views sparkles with its variety of text 
formatting, methods of organization, and 
links to external objects. For freewheel- 
ing group efforts, its collaborative bene- 
fits are impressive. For more structured 
projects, adding traits throughout an in- 
fobase is a problem. The authoring tools 
are not yet fully developed. 

If all you want is to index static files on 
your hard drive, either a structured text 
management system (such as Zylndex) or 
a free-form one (such as askSam) will suf- 
fice. The extra work of adding levels, 
fields, and so forth will not improve your 
update and retrieval ability substantially. 
But if you want tools for a workgroup, 
document control, links, and other benefits 
of electronic publishing. Folio Views may 
be the answer. ■ 



Robert Schmidt is a freelance writer and consultant 
specializing in information management and tools 
for writers. As system manager for the LA Times 
Editorial Library, he maintained a system for 
creating, manipulating, and storing the full text 
of the LA Times on an electronic database. You 
can contact him on BIX c/o "editors. " 



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Reviews 



Software 



ClarisWorks 2.0 for Macintosh 

The latest version gives you fewer reasons to spend thousands -for a 
suite of Mac applications or dedicate dozens of megabytes of storage 




TOM R. HALFHILL 

ince its debut in 1991, Claris- 
. Works has become the domi- 
nant integrated software pack- 
age for the Macintosh, toppling the 
longtime leader Microsoft Works and over- 
taking two other contenders (WordPerfect 
Works, formerly known as BeagleWorks, 
and Symantec's GreatWorks). With the 
recent release of version 2.0, Claris' s lead- 
ership position is now even stronger. 

It's not hard to see why. ClarisWorks 
is the most smoothly integrated product 
in its class and is a good match for Ap- 
ple's growing line of hot-selling, affordable 
Macs. The most popular Macs are street- 
priced between $800 and $1400, and Ap- 
ple now offers more than half a dozen 
models in that range. The people who are 
buying those machines tend to want soft- 
ware that's priced proportionally, and Clar- 
isWorks offers almost everything they 
need for less than $300. In fact, some buy- 
ers (particularly those who choose Perfor- 
mas, Apple's consumer-oriented Macs) 
will find that ClarisWorks is included 
when they buy their computers — a strate- 
gy that has significantly boosted Claris 's 
market share. 

Hundreds of Enhancements 

ClarisWorks 2.0 offers more than 300 en- 
hancements over version 1.0, including 
three completely new modules. In addi- 
tion to the word processor, spreadsheet, 
flat-file database manager, drawing pro- 
gram, and telecommunications module. 



« File Edit Format Arrange Options Uieiu 




Charts created with the spreadsheet module can be 
pasted into the draw or paint modules for additional 
manipulation. Only in the drawing environment, 
however, does the chart remain linked to the worksheet. 



0 0=: 



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Doorknob-Related Injuries, 1982-1992 



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Source: Doorkfiob Safety Council 



ClarisWorks' spreadsheet/charting module lets you 
turn ordinary bar charts into pictograms by repeating 
a graphical element. The chart remains linked to the 
spreadsheet and mirrors any changes. 

there's now an outliner, a 256-color paint 
program, and a slide-show module that 
lets you chain ClarisWorks screens to- 
gether for business presentations. Every 
module has been upgraded, and a new 
"shortcuts" feature lets you click on a float- 
ing palette of miniature icons to access the 
most commonly used functions. 

In the word processor, you can now de- 
fine custom text styles, set up multiple 
columns with a single click, and flow text 
around graphics. Text wrapping is sup- 
ported within spreadsheet cells, too, and 
the charting features are greatly improved. 
You can easily generate pictograms, like 
the ones popularized by USA Today, with 
stacks of graphical objects instead of plain 
bar charts. The database filer in Claris- 
Works 2.0 can automatically vaUdate fields 
and contains more than 50 predefined for- 
mats for Avery mailing labels. The draw- 
ing module now has 32 black-and-white 
and color gradient fills, plus two new poly- 
gon tools. 

Even more impressive, ClarisWorks 2.0 
delivers all these features (and hundreds 



No Quadra j 
Required Wk 

To judge how well ClarisWorks performs 
on low-end Macs, I tested it on two sys- 
tems: a Mac LCII with 4 MB of RAM, an 
80-MB hard drive, and System 7.0.1; and 
a Mac SE wWi 1 MB of RAM, a 20-MB hard 
drive, and System 6.0.5. The six-year-old 
SE, a 68000-based machine, is close to 
the minimum configuration that will run 
CtarisWorits. Performance was annoyingly 
sluggish, especially in the word processor, 
which failed to keep pace with my typing. 

The 68030-based LCII fared much bet- 
ter, though it still lagged at times, partic- 
ularly when redrawing complex screens. 
The LCII represents the minimum config- 
uration being sold today, delreering about 
the same performance as the Classic II, 
the Color Classic, the Performa 200, and 
the Performa 400. M 



JULY 1993 BYTE 151 



i 



Reviews 



ClarisWorks 2.0 for Macintosh 




ClarisWorks 2.0 lets you transform text in 12 different 
ways, including these perspective effects. 



more) while bucking the trend toward fat- 
ware. At 601 KB, it's hardly larger than 
version 1 .0 and still runs comfortably in 
as little as 1 MB of RAM. Full installa- 
tion — including folders filled with sam- 
ple files, tutorials, file translators, spelling 
dictionaries, and a thesaurus — requires 
less than 5 MB of hard disk space, and 
you can get by with much less. 

A Spreadsheet in Your Word Processor 

Something else that hasn't changed in 2.0 
is its seamless integration, the salient fea- 
ture of ClarisWorks. Instead of simply 
bundling a collection of mini-applications 
that can share files, Claris takes a more 
flexible, frame-based approach to software 
integration. For example, if you want to 
add a table or a chart to a business letter, 
you can simply click on the spreadsheet 
tool, open a spreadsheet frame anywhere in 
the word processing 
document, and either 
start entering num- 
bers manually or 
paste a range of cells 
from an existing 
worksheet. When you 
click outside the 
spreadsheet frame, 
you're back in word 
processor mode. If it 
weren't for the con- 
text-sensitive menus 
and tool palettes, 
you'd never know 
you were switching 
from one application 
to another. Claris- 
Works is like a glimpse of the interopera- 
ble future promised by Apple and Mi- 
crosoft; if operating system and application 
vendors live up to their promises, we'll be 
able to work like this with all applications. 

Of the three new modules in Claris- 
Works 2.0, the paint module plugs the 
most obvious gap. Version 1 .0 had a draw- 



WHAT'S NEW IN CLARISWORKS 2.0 



ing module, but it's often handier to work 
with pixel-based graphics rather than vec- 
tor graphics. Version 2.0 gives you the 
choice of using either, and the frame-based 
integrafion lets you combine both kinds 
of graphics in a single document. The only 
drawback to combining the two is that vec- 
tor frames cease to behave independently 
once you click them into paint graphics. 
In other words, the frame is no longer an 
applicafion module; it is converted into a 
pixel-based image, just like the rest of the 
paint document. 

This brings up a small but important 
point: The integration in Claris- 
Works is often so seamless that it 
leads to momentary confusion. 
Even after extensive experience 
with ClarisWorks, I sometimes 
sfill click on a muUiframe docu- 
ment and lose track of which 
module I've activated. Often 
your only clues are subtle 
changes in the tool palette and 
menu bar. 

The new outliner in Claris- 
Works is integrated with the 
word processor and offers sev- 
eral different formats. In addi- 
tion to the common numeric 
and diamond outlines, you can 
choose from Harvard and legal 
formats and bulleted or checkmarked 
lists, or you can design your own custom 
format. Subtopics can be expanded, col- 
lapsed, and shuffled within the 16-level 
hierarchy. You can 



a phone directory, Kermit file transfers, 
and unlimited scroll-backs through cap- 
tured text, but there's still no scripting lan- 
guage for automating on-line sessions, and 
the macro recorder is no substitute. 

For instance, I spent 3 hours trying to 
record a macro that would simply log on to 
CompuServe, with both ID and password. 
Finally, I gave up and telephoned Claris's 
technical support. I was courteously in- 
formed that a ClarisWorks macro can re- 
spond to only one string of incoming 
text — something not mentioned in the 
manual. That means you have to record a 




The new slide-show module lets you display ClaiisWorlis documents in 
a predetermined sequence for group presentations. 



separate macro for each prompt (User 
ID: , Password: , and so on) and then 
record yet another macro to link all the 
other macros together. 



256-color paint module 
outliner integrated with word processor 
slide shows for presentations 
floating "shortcuts" palette 
text wraps around irregular shapes 
improved spelling checker 
custom text styles 
multiple columns of text 
more flexible chart customization 
polygon and Bezier drawing tools 



define custom styles 
for headings and oth- 
er text, just as you 
can in the word pro- 
cessor. 

The new slide- 
show module is a 
great addition, espe- 
cially for PowerBook 
users. ClarisWorks 
is already an ideal 
PowerBook compan- 
ion, and now, with- 
out buying any extra 
software, you can 
turn your documents 
into slides for pre- 
sentations. You can even create slides that 
play QuickTime movies. 

Failure to Communicate 

Some things in ClarisWorks could stand 
more improvement. The communications 
module, a weak link in 1.0, still suffers 
from major deficiencies. Claris has added 



A Logical Decision 

Despite a few shortcomings, ClarisWorks 
2.0 is a remarkably versatile package 
whose modules compare favorably to some 
stand-alone applications. For home, school, 
and small-business users who are new to 
the Mac, ClarisWorks is the most logical 
first software purchase. 

For many people, ClarisWorks may also 
be the last major application they'll ever 
have to buy. ■ 



Tom R. Halfliill is a BYTE senior news editor and 
a longtime Mac user. You can reach him on BIX 
as "thalfhill. " 



About the Product 



ClarisWorks 2.0 

Claris Corp. 

5201 Patrick Henry Dr. 

Santa Clara, CA 95054 

(408) 987-7000 

Circle 1221 on Inquiiy Card. 



$299 (upgrades, $99) 



a.S2 BYTE JULY 1993 





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More Information. 

If ElheRx sounds like your network solution, 
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[800] 




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trt't A I TECHNOLORv CORPORATION 

The Inside Name in Upgrades 
17600 Newhope Street. Fountain Valley, California 92708 (714) 435-2600 Fax (714) 435-2699 

All Trademarks, Registered Trademarks and Logos are of their respective holders. Retail prices are as of January 1993 Kingston and Kingston Technology are Registered Trademarks of Kingston Technology Corporation. 



Circle 104 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 105). 



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(outside NJ) 

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NEW YORK 



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Knoxville, TN 
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Computers Plus, Inc. 

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WISCONSIN 

Madison, Wl 
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PH: 608-257-3784 

Milwaukee, Wl 
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PH: 415-274-6406 
800-236-7323 
FAX: 414-274-6408 



Reviews 



Software 



PageMaker 5.0 vs. Quark 3.1 

Both compete on Windows and on the IVIac. Both have dedicated 
foiiowings. But in this round, at least, Ra^eMaker has the upper hand. 



G. ARMOUR VAN HORN 

The competition between Page- 
Maker and QuarkXPress lias al- 
ways seemed a religious issue or, 
to some, a holy war. With the release of 
PageMaker 5.0, Aldus has gone on a cru- 
sade to retain its historical market with a 
new level of intensity. Publishers adopt 
reverent feelings toward their page-com- 
position programs because it's where they 
Uve. For subsidiary tasks (e.g., text editing, 
illustration, or image editing), the artist or 
author can choose from a changing set of 
programs — but everything needs to go 
through the layout program. 

In the past, QuarkXPress adherents 
crowed about functions that were stronger 
in their program, stipulating that Page- 
Maker was probably more intuitive for 
less demanding tasks. Times change. 
Where Quark once had measurably finer 
typographic and dimensional control, the 
differences are now 




smaller than the 
finest printable unit 
on a high-resolution 
imagesetter. But now 
that PageMaker has 
controls to match 
Quark's, it also has 
the complexity. (Its 
command to keep 
text locked to the 
baseline grid is five 
dialog boxes deep in 
the Styles menu!) 

In the final analy- 
sis, little can be done 
with one program 
that cannot be done 
with the other. But 
there are differences 
in implementation: 
Some functions are 
supported directly, 
some require plug-in 
modules (i.e.. Quark 
XTensions or Aldus Additions), and some 
depend on other software. Aldus claims — 
and for my requirements I concur — that 
equipping QuarkXPress to match Page- 
Maker's features significantly increases 
its cost. For comparison purposes, I will 



(rile £dit View Style item £age Utilities Window Help 




QuafkXPressS- [tamatketstbytettestqxdj 



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PageMaker 5.0 (above) 
and QuarkXPress 3.1 
share a similar Windoivs 
interface. Both support 
a toolbox, rulers, grids, 
palettes, and a 
dimensions window. Note 
PageMaker's convenient 
page icons at the bottom 
left comer of the screen. 
Both programs could 
skew the images, but 
QuarkXPress could not 
skew the text box, a 
shortcoming addressed 
in the announced 
QuarkXPress 3.2 
upgrade. 



arze Inziages 



limit my evaluation to features included 
in the basic packages. 

In preparing this review, I looked at 
QuarkXPress 3.1 and a beta version of 
PageMaker 5.0 on Macintosh and Win- 
dows platforms. I'll comp^lre each package 



in three broad categories: text handling, 
graphics, and display and print support. 

From Text to DTP 

Both programs can import straight ASCII 
text (with and without style tags), RTF, 



JULY 1993 BYTE 1S7 



Reviews 



PageMaker 5.0 vs. Quark 3.1 



Text Features 


PageMaker 


QuarkXPress 


• 


Supports more formats 


• Automatically generates 




for import/export 


and updates "continued 


• 


Spelling checker shows 


on" and "continued 




words in context 


from" tags 


• 


Faster editing in Story 


• More powerful and 




Editor 


flexible support for drop 


• 


Inexpensive multilingual 


caps 




support 


• Styles can control a 


• 


Generates tables of 


single character 




contents and indexes 


• Stronger support for 
embedded tags 



and documents saved by Microsoft Word 
for Windows, WordPerfect, Windows 
Write, Ami Pro, and XyWrite on the Win- 
dows platform. PageMaicer can also im- 
port text from DEC WPS, Microsoft Word 
for DOS, MultiMate, PC-Write, Samna, 
Wang, WordStar, Ventura Publisher, and 
existing PageMaker documents. Each pro- 
gram can export text from a publication 
for use by most of the same programs that 
it can import from. PageMaker can import 
spreadsheet data from Lotus 1-2-3 and Ex- 
cel, as well as dBase databases. 

Both programs can automatically place 
text on successive columns and pages, as 
well as let you manually extend a chain 
of text from one place to another. Quark 
has chain commands for connecting man- 
ually created text boxes, while PageMak- 
er lets you pick up overflowing text from 
one block and immediately place that text 
in a new block by clicking in an empty 
column or dragging out a marquee in an- 
other location. Quark generates automatic 
"continued on. . ." and "continued from. . .'" 
tags that are updated when pages are in- 
serted or removed between the two blocks. 

Elaborate initial caps have been part of 
publishing since medieval days, but many 
publishers simply embed a larger letter 
(called a drop cap) at the beginning of 
some paragraphs. Both programs support 
this capability, but Quark performs the 
task more gracefully. PageMaker includes 
an Addition that increases the size of the 
first letter and styles it as a subscript, sep- 
arating the balance of the paragraph from 
the drop cap by inserting soft returns and 
tabs. This operation cannot be undone and 
takes time to dismantle. With Quark, you 
can control the number of lines the drop 
cap extends and apply the treatment to the 
first several characters. The drop cap is 
applied to the paragraph style and can be 
undone with a few mouse-clicks. 

Named styles are important in both pro- 
grams, but PageMaker has some signifi- 
cant limitations. PageMaker styles apply 
only to paragraphs, while Quark styles can 



control a single character. Both 
programs can read style tags from 
imported text, but PageMaker can- 
not adopt complex paragraph for- 
matting from imported tags. For 
example, take a fairly complex 
style: Say the first paragraph in a 
selection requires a drop cap with 
no indent, three words in bold 
small caps, and the balance of text 
in the default font; subsequent 
paragraphs then revert to a stan- 
dard style with a 2-pica indent. 
Tags embedded in the imported story can 
control this specification completely in 
Quark. In PageMaker, you could tag the 
opening paragraph to turn off the para- 
graph indent and to set all subsequent 
paragraphs normally, but you would have 
to set the drop cap and small cap attri- 
butes manually. 

Text Tools 

Both programs include spelling checkers 
and allow search-and-replace for both text 
and formatting attributes. Quark performs 
these functions with the document open 
(its only mode). PageMaker performs these 
functions from the Story Editor, a sepa- 
rate window that comes up in front of the 
document view. Both programs can work on 
a single word, a single story, or the entire 
document, although Quark can't search 
both the master pages and the balance of 
the document at the same time. 

PageMaker's spelling checker is very 
similar to a word processor's, stepping 
through the story showing each unknown 
word in context and proposing a list of re- 
placements. Quark also shows replace- 
ments, but it does not show the word in 
context. Theer may be flagged, but there is 
no hint from Quark whether three or there 
was the author's intent. 

Both programs allow typing and edit- 
ing of any visible text in the document, 
but PageMaker's Story Editor enables 
much faster editing, since it displays a 
fixed font and shows only standard, italic, 
and bold typefaces. 

Non-English-language publishers can 
adapt either product, but at dramatically 
different prices. Aldus sells a pack- 
age of 20 dictionaries, including 
legal and medical dictionaries for 
U.S. or U.K. English and 1 1 Eu- 
ropean languages with hyphen- 
ation, for $99. Quark offers a ded- 
icated multilingual version called 
QuarkXPress Passport for $2495 
that handles English and nine Eu- 
ropean languages. 



PageMaker has long had the ability to 
generate tables of contents based on style 
defmitions or user tags, and it can generate 
elaborate indexes from user-inserted tags. 
Quark offers neither of these features. 

A Place for Pictures 

With either program, you can create sim- 
ple graphical elements, including lines, 
boxes, and ovals. Both allow you to draw 
lines in the document and to position the 
lines from the control palette. PageMaker 
lets you draw rectangles (with square or 
round comers) and ovals directly on the 
pasteboard: Quark allows you to apply 
lines and fills to picture boxes, including 
polygon boxes that have no equivalent in 
PageMaker. 

Most publications include some of these 
drawn elements, but a good page-layout 
program must incorporate images from di- 
vergent sources, primarily scanned pho- 
tographs and illustrations in EPS (Encap- 
sulated PostScript). With PageMaker, you 
can import or place these graphics direct- 
ly on the document, while Quark requires 
picture boxes to hold the images. 

Each approach has advantages. To dis- 
play all of a picture in a Quark picture box, 
you must size the box to match the image. 
PageMaker displays the entire image im- 
mediately. On the other hand. Quark lets 
you easily apply borders and fills to picture 
boxes, while PageMaker users must care- 
fully align a new box with the underlying 
image. Unlike earlier versions of Page- 
Maker, version 5.0 can group the image 
and the border into a single element so 
that they remain aligned when moved or 
copied. Quark picture boxes crop whatev- 
er image is placed inside them. With Page- 
Maker, you must select the cropping tool to 
crop an image or to move the image with- 
in the cropping borders. 

PageMaker has much better cross-plat- 
form file support. It automatically con- 
verts Macintosh PICT files to Windows 
metafiles when they are opened on the PC, 
and it accepts compressed TIFF files. 
PageMaker files are compatible across the 
platforms, so documents can be easily 
moved from a Mac to a PC (and back 



Graphics Features 


PageMaker 


QuarkXPress 


• Much stronger cross- 


• Easier to apply image 


platform (Mac/Windows) 


borders and fills 


support 


• Automatic cropping 


• Supports compressed 


within a picture box 


TIFF files 


• Can apply color to line 


• Direct placement of 


art and gray-scale 


images on the page 


pictures 



158 BYTE JULY 1993 



Opeiciting Syst|ms 
Conie in Many Flavors 




But QNX Can Take the Heat. 



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Reviews 



PageMaker 5.0 vs. Quark 3.1 



again) easily. Quark won't sup- 
port bidirectional transfers until 
the next release, but the Windows 
version can open Mac files now. 

Quark picture boxes normally 
repel text at the same point that 
they crop the underlying image. 
Graphics placed in PageMaker can 
have either rectangular or com- 
plex polygonal text-wrap borders 
that can be completely independent of the 
graphic. The steps involved are different, 
but you can accomplish similar results in 
either package. 

When color EPS files are placed in 
PageMaker, the colors are added to the 
color palette and can be used for other el- 
ements, assuring that extra spot-color sep- 
arations won't be created. Quark doesn't 
have this capability. Both programs use 
Pantone, TruMatch, and FocalTone color 
systems and can print separations of 
CMYK files included in documents. 

Display and Print 

Each program supports a toolbox, rulers, 
guides, and a range of palettes including a 
master control palette. PageMaker's con- 
trol palette includes a small "proxy" near 
the left end, so you can select anchor points 
for the selected item. Clicking the point 
at the center of the proxy forces any size 
change or rotation to occur relative to the 
center; if the upper left comer is selected, 
new size information would force the right 
or bottom edges (or both) to move. Basic 
arithmetic is allowed in the numerical 
fields, such as -I-IO after a percentage value 
or 12 after a type size. 

PageMaker includes page icons at the 
bottom left of the screen for quickly mov- 
ing to any spread. Quark requires a Go To 
Page command from the menu or key- 
board, or you can navigate through the 
thumbnail box or with the 
scroll bars. 

Both programs use master 
pages as templates, allowing 
running heads, page numbers, 
borders, or guides to auto- 
matically become part of 
every new page. PageMaker 
allows only one master page 
per document, while Quark 
allows up to 127 different 
master pages in a single doc- 
ument. With PageMaker, you 
can break documents into 
chapter files that are strung 
together via the Book option, 
effectively allowing one mas- 
ter per chapter. 



Display and Print Features 


PageMaker 


QuarkXPress 


• Easier page navigation 


• Tliumbnail and user- 


with icons 


definable views 


• Interruptible screen 


• Multiple master pages 


redraw 


• Traps colors to prevent 


• Prints discontinuous 


printer misregistration 


page ranges 


• Suppresses printout of 


• Saves common settings 


selected items 



About the Products 



PageMaker 5.0 for 
Windows and Macintosh 

$895 

Aldus Corp. 
411 First Ave. S 
Seattle, WA 98104 
(206) 622-5500 
Circle 1222 on Inquiiy Card. 



QuarlOCPress 3.1 for 
Windows and Macintosh 

$895 

Quark, Inc. 
1800 Grant St. 
Denver, CO 80203 
(303) 894-8888 
fax: (303) 894-3399 
Circle 1223 on Inquiiy Card. 



Unlike Quark, PageMaker has neither 
user-definable views nor thumbnail views, 
but it supports one magnification (800 per- 
cent) beyond Quark's maximum of 400 
percent. PageMaker's screen redraw is 
now completely interruptible, so menus 
or keyboard commands can be activated 
without waiting, making the program feel 
more responsive. 

PageMaker and Quark support all Win- 
dows output devices. PageMaker uses the 
same Adobe-specified PPD (PostScript 
Printer Description) files that are used by 
Illustrator, FreeHand, and other programs. 
Quark handles these applications with its 
own printer drivers, but any professional 
service bureau will have appropriate files 
for its output devices. 

PageMaker now prints discontinuous 
ranges of pages, a big time-saver when 
you're proofreading a story that jumps 
from the opening section of a publication 
to the back. PageMaker's rewritten print- 
ing routines for version 5.0 are generally 
quicker than those of either Quark or pre- 
vious versions of PageMaker and can in- 
clude a PostScript error handler for trou- 
bleshooting and cropping images. 

When the Dust Settles 

In many ways, PageMaker has moved past 
QuarkXPress with version 5.0. It's a com- 
plete product, highly capable of publishing 
documents of all kinds. Quark is obvious- 
ly aware of the feature list of 
the latest PageMaker, and 
even though version 3. 1 is no 
slouch, 3.2 will add many 
features that respond to Page- 
Maker's challenge. For now, 
the price /performance ratio 
has tipf)ed in PageMaker's fa- 
vor, but both companies have 
become much more aggres- 
sive competitors. This holy 
war could become a boon for 
us innocent bystanders. ■ 



G. Armour Van Horn is a writer 
and a graphics consultant in Free- 
land, Washington. He can be con- 
tacted on BIX as "vanhorn. " 



160 BY I K JULY 1993 



Reviews 



Software 



One Thumb Up, One Thumb Down 

Lotus Notes release 3 is the Cadillac of cross-plat'Form E-mail and 
conferencing, but for work-flow automation, it's still a Model T 




JON UDELL 

0 other product offers Notes' 
unique blend of E-mail, confer- 
encing, and client/server data- 
base technology. Amazingly, release 3 
comes to market facing no serious head-to- 
head competitor. The windmills at which 
it tilts are entirely of Lotus's own making. 
The $495-per-seat price makes it a tough 
sell. The difficulty of defining just what 
problems Notes solves, and ex- 
actly how it solves them, makes 
things even tougher. 

In a recent speech, Lotus pres- 
ident Jim Manzi suggested that 
Notes, as a refiner of informa- 
tion and an organizer of work, 
can have "infinite" value to a 
company. Since my duties in- 
clude evaluating and imple- 
menting BYTE's own E-mail, 
conferencing, and database ser- 
vices, I was highly motivated to 
learn how release 3 redraws the 
boundary between Notes myth 
and Notes reality. 

Release 3 broadens the Notes 
client base with Macintosh sup- 
port. It also adds features that 
will appeal to users (e.g., full- 
text indexing and background 
replication) and developers (e.g., 
new macro functions and design 
templates). Regrettably, Notes 
still has some significant prob- 
lems. Chief among these are its 
Byzantine security administra- 
tion and a programming model 
that's inadequate for the kinds of group- 
ware applications Lotus wants developers 
to create for Notes. 



Peeling the Security Onion 

Release 3 introduces a Windows 3.1 serv- 
er to complement the familiar OS/2 1.x 
version. I tested the OS/2 server only. I 
began installing it on the 16-MB IBM PS/2 
Model 90 I'm using to test the beta of OS/2 
2.1. Because the PS/2 connects to BYTE's 
LAN by way of the NetWare requester for 
OS/2, that configuration would have ex- 
ercised Notes' new ability to use IPX/SPX, 
as well as its traditional NetBIOS and 



(right) provides neariy all 
the features of the Windows 
client. The most noticeable 
omission is local full-text 
indexing. However, the 
Notes Mac client (under 
System 7) has its own 
unique strengths, such as 
the ability to make Mac- 
published edttion files 
visible to Windows and PM 
Notes clients. 



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EleplMnI Inc. 

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04/28/93 07 01 PM Gteshom George 
Platypus Technologies 

04/28/93 07:00 PM Jones . Maiy 
Janet Barron 

Platypus Technologies 

04/28/93 07:02 PM Jones . Maiy 
Jon Udell 

IZIephont Inr. 

04/28/93 0&:S2 PM Smith . Jim 



new fisc chip 
version 2 release 

neura! nettec:hno!ogy 

new memory subsystem 



version 2 release 



asynchronous protocols. 

I shortly discovered, however, diat using 
OS/2 2. 1 would have prevented me from 
testing another new protocol, AppleTalk. 
At least initially, release 3's Mac support 
will require an OS/2 1.x server. So I 
switched horses and installed OS/2 1 .3 on 
an 8-MB Advanced Logic Research Flyer 
(a 66-MHz 486DX2) and then, lacking the 
1.3 NetWare requester, opted for a Net- 
BIOS setup after all: LAN Manager 2.2 
for the Notes server and Presentation Man- 
ager client, and Windows for Workgroups 
for the Windows client. Dropping back to 
OS/2 1.3 was not the hardship it might 



seem, though, since in release 3 
the Notes server remains a 16- 
bit OS/2 application. 

Notes' security, which em- 
ploys both passwords and phys- 
ical tokens called ID files, makes 
installation an elaborate ritual. 
First, you create a master ID file 
called the certifier ID. Then you 
use the certifier ID to stamp a 
certificate on each ID that you 
create on behalf of a server or a 
user. Veteran Notes administra- 
tors will like the fact that release 
3 can register users in batches. 

A user (or server) can com- 
municate with another server 
only when both hold a common 
certificate. Release 3 adds a new 
wrinkle: hierarchical certifica- 
tion. This X.500-inspired tech- 
nique, which is optional, permits you to 
create and manage a tree-like namespace 
that reflects your company's organiza- 
tional structure. It simplifies the exchange 
of Notes' data within and between orga- 
nizations. However, it does not eliminate 
one disadvantage of Notes' reliance on 
physical IDs: You can't grant temporary 
access, or set up a one-time data transfer, 
with just a phone call. An exchange of IDs 
must precede any exchange of data. 

Notes release 3 uses public-key en- 
cryption technology to authenticate users 
and to affix digital signatures to mail mes- 
sages. Notes' application builders can also 



JULY 1993 BYTE 161 



Reviews 



Lotus Notes 3 



create and distribute ad hoc keys that aug- 
ment the server-, database-, document-, 
and section-level access controls with field- 
level encryption. It's a formidable securi- 
ty system, but one that's massively com- 
plex and difficult to apply. To protect a 
section of a document (i.e., a cluster of 
fields), you manipulate an access control 
list just as you would to protect a whole 
document or database. But to hide an in- 
dividual field, you designate it encrypt- 
able, create a key, and then mail that key to 
the users you trust to access the field. They, 
in turn, must incorporate the key into their 
user IDs. Still another procedure governs 
regulation of access by roles, which are 
per-database groups of users that override 
public groups on an ad hoc basis. 

This abundance of procedures may re- 
main the Achilles' heel of Notes' security. 
Experience with Notes 2.1 demonstrates 
how even vigilant administrators can get 



tangled in the web of Notes' security man- 
agement. One Notes administrator told me 
that when he moved from company A to 
company B, he found A's databases listed 
in B's catalog. The database catalog kept 
on each Notes server does not store docu- 
ments belonging to databases it lists but 
does store metadata, including the policy 
document that describes the contents and 
intended use of each database. My source 
was shocked to discover A's policy docu- 
ments — which themselves contained sen- 
sitive information — on B's server. He sus- 
pects that A and B accidentally replicated 
catalogs through contact with a server at 
company C. How could this happen? 

A Lotus representafive explained that 
prior to release 3, a newly installed server's 
catalog defaulted to a universal replica- 
fion ID, so that catalogs would replicate 
freely among servers within a company. 
However, if you planned to let your servers 




ENHANCEMENTS 

• New Client and Server Platforms 

Windows, Macintosh, and dial-in users get power- 
ful, and remarkably similar, client interfaces. Re- 
lease 3 adds a Windows 3.1 server. 

• Hierarchical Certification 

This administrative enhancement lets you man- 
age a hierarchical tree that represents your orga- 
nizational structure. 

• Background Replication 

Workstations can run replication as a background 
task, allowing you to synchronize databases even 
while sending and receiving mail. 

• Verity Text Engine 

The integration of the Verity text engine adds im- 
pressive search capabilities to indexed Notes 
databases. 

> Column Picklists 

Notes' new SDccolumn function delivers relation- 
al capabilities with the ability to generate pick- 
lists for forms from data in table columns. 

• Mail Automation 

The @Mailsend function gives programmatic con- 
trol over Notes' mail functions, including 
attachments and links. 



DEFICIENCIES 

•32-bit OS/2 Server 

Release 3's server is a 16-bit OS/2 application. 

• Manageable Security 

Security features have been enhanced, but the 
procedures required to maintain security remain 
so complex that it's easy to overlook significant 
leaks. 

> Character-Based Client 

There is no character-mode client for existing low- 
end PCs and laptops not equipped to run Windows. 

• Database Import Features 

There is no .DBF or comma-delimited ASCII im- 
port. Even when data is in acceptable format, 
Notes' import is slow. 

• Intelligent Lookups 

Table lookups return an entire result set to the 
client instead of buffering parts of the query re- 
sults on the server. 

> Interactive Design Tools 

There are no Immediate windows for testing macros 
under development and no debugging facilities. 

• High-level Application Builder 

The programming model for Notes still relies on 
macros, which (lacking even callable functions) 
are inadequate for work-flow applications. 



talk to another company's servers, you had 
to throw away the default catalog and cre- 
ate a new one from the supplied template 
so its replication ID would be uniquely 
yours. Although security-conscious, com- 
panies A, B, and C apparently failed to 
notice and follow that procedure. 

Does release 3 plug this hole? Yes, but 
getting that question answered took two 
Lotus support technicians more than a 
week and left me with serious concerns 
about the administrative burden of Notes' 
security. 

Cross-Platform Client/Server Made Easy 

I set up the Notes server to run three pro- 
tocols: NetBIOS, AppleTalk, and Lotus' 
own dial-up protocol, XPC. (Other options 
now include IPX/SPX and, at extra cost, 
TCP/IP and X.25.) Then I installed the 
client software on a handful of Windows 
and Mac machines and used them to access 
the server locally through BYTE's 
Ethernet LAN as well as remotely 
by dialing the server's SupraFax 
modem. 

The reliable sameness of Notes 
in all these configurations is a 
stunning technical achievement. 
Offsetting the few features not 
supported in the Mac version, such 
as local full-text indexing, is the 
remarkable capability for a Sys- 
tem 7 Mac client to subscribe from 
within a shared Notes database to 
an edition published by a System 7 
Mac. This arrangement, I discov- 
ered, makes the Mac-based edi- 
tion visible not only to other Mac 
Notes clients, but to Windows and 
PM Notes clients as well. 

Dial-up connections worked 
flawlessly. A 9600-bps link is 
clearly preferable, but you can ac- 
comphsh useful work even at 2400 
bps. The client/server architecture 
of Notes has always accommo- 
dated remote access nicely, and 
release 3 further improves matters 
by enabling workstations to run 
replication as a background task. 
Most E-mail and conferencing sys- 
tems require special logic to sup- 
port off-line reading and compo- 
sition. Notes handles that scenario 
effortlessly. Mail and conference 
messages live in databases that 
replicate just like all other Notes 
databases. If I replicate an order- 
entry database from a server to my 
laptop and then hit the road and 
add some orders to the replicant, I 



162 BYTE JULY 1993 



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Circle 79 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 80). 



Reviews 



Lotus Notes 3 



can synchronize it with the master data- 
base the next time I dial the server (even as 
I'm simultaneously sending and receiving 
mail). 

What about multiple updates? Release 3 
supports two flavors of version control, 
and the database designer can opt to record 
a complete change history for each docu- 
ment. One method makes the update sub- 
ordinate to the original document; the other 
does the reverse. You can also now repli- 
cate selectively, regulating the bidirec- 
tional exchange with the same kind of for- 
mula you use to select the contents of a 
view. That's a boon, although in practice it 
may be difficult or impossible to write a 
formula that says, "Get the documents I 
might need while I'm off-line." 

Finding the Needle in the Haystacl( 

The integration of the Verity text engine 
with Notes is superbly done. If you have an 
unindexed database, the Find command 
leads to an ordinary text-search dialog box. 
On an indexed database. Find attaches a 
panoply of full-text search paraphernalia to 
the window in which you view the data- 
base. You can create and execute complex 



queries that use wild cards. Boolean and 
proximity operators, and value-based ex- 
pressions like Severity >= 5; save these 
queries for later use; and schedule them 
for automatic execution. You can order 
search results by relevance or by date, or 
distribute the hits throughout the current 
database view as disjoint selections. 

The same forms through which you en- 
ter data into the views of a database serve 
double duty as query-by-example tem- 
plates. You can also use these forms to 
specify updates to the result set. If you 
search across multiple Notes databases, 
however, you'll probably want to revert 
to the generic query builder, since one 
database's forms likely won't mean any- 
thing in the context of another database. 

Indexing is impressively simple, and 
very fast. The 486DX2/66-equipped ALR 
Flyer built a 1 .2-MB index from a 6-MB 
database in under 3 minutes. Workstations 
index local databases in the foreground. 
Any user with appropriate access can also 
initiate indexing of a server-resident data- 
base, and this occurs in the background 
on the OS/2 server. You update local in- 
dexes manually. Shared databases support 



incremental reindexing that you can sched- 
ule to occur immediately upon change, or 
at hourly, daily, or other intervals. 

Building Notes Applications 

Release 3 instantly establishes Notes as 
the premier cross-platform E-mail/con- 
ferencing system for Windows, PM, and 
Macintosh clients. (Lotus is also develop- 
ing a Motif client for Unix, but not, sadly, 
a character-based version for the hordes 
of low-end PCs and laptops that could 
profitably use it.) Conferencing is the cru- 
cial ingredient. Too many otherwise-wor- 
thy E-mail programs support it feebly or 
not at all. People who wax ecstatic over 
the benefits of electronic conferencing are 
not exaggerating. There is no more effec- 
tive medium for day-to-day corporate com- 
munication, and a Notes discussion data- 
base — with full-text search, expandable 
categories, ordered views, rich text, tables, 
attachments, and links — represents the 
Cadillac of conferencing technology. 

Notes will not remain unchallenged on 
the E-mail/conferencing front, however. 
SoftArc's FirstClass and Grapevine by Of- 
fice Express are two strong contenders that 



• IN 

O 
OT 

• 

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o 

CO 



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Essential Development Tools 
At Your Fingertips. 

MKS Tbolkit — AU the Tools of the Ti-ade for Professional 
Programmers and Application Developers. 

MKS Toolkit puts a powerful suite of easy-to-use development utilities within your 
grasp. Developers working on DOS can now get the extraordinary power of 
tools that were once available only on UNIX, and still switch cjuickly back 
to DOS applications. For multi-platform environments, MKS Toolkit is 
fully compatible with UNIX systems, and tracks both POSIX and x/Open standards. 

Start shaping the applications of the future! Call now to order your copy 
of MKS Toolkit 



Some of the 180* utilities in MKS Toolkit 4.1: 



' A new, easy-to-use, efficient UUCP 
communications package. * 

• MKS AWK, the fast prototyping language 
now with a new AWK compiler. 

> MKS KomShell, the full-featured 
programming language. 

• MKS Make, the software constmction 
utility. 



• MKS Vi, the full-screen editor. 

• New Windows icons. 

• Full on-line reference manual. 

• Interoperability with Open VMS, CTOS 
and MPE/iX. 

• A full array of commands for profiling, 
compression, archiving, file processing 
and customizing your PC environment. 



MKS 



Price: $299, Upgrade $99. Call for multi-user pricing. 
30 day money back guarantee. 

For information on liow to order, call MKS at: 

1-800-265-2797 (I'S and Canada) or (519) 884-2251 • Fax (519) 884-8861 



3S King St. V. Waterloo. ON, Canada N2J 2W9 

* MKS UUCP not available on NT and OS/2. 

.ms and MKS Toolkit, MKS KomShell, MKS AWK. MKS Make, MKS UUCP and MKS Vi are trademarks of Mortice Kern Systems, Inc., 



UMX is a registered trademark of UNIX System Laboratories, Inc. All other trademarks are acknowledged. 

NT • OS/2 • DOS • NT • OS/2 • DOS • NT • DOS • NT • OS/2 



DOS 




CM 
CO 

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OS/2 • DOS 



164 BYTE JULY 1993 



Circle 1 1 7 on Inquiry Card. 




Now Windows users are opening 
a new world of possibilities. 



The new Bernoulli" 150. The standard in removable storage. 




Ah, the things you can 
do with software these 
days. Amazing, isn't it? 

That's why we creat- 
ed the new BemoulU 
150 removable drive. 
So you can get more out 
of your storage than 
ever before — -more free- 
dom. More excitement. And frankly, more storage. 

With the new BernoulU, you can explore new ideas 
without running out of space. You just add inexpen- 
sive disks in the sizes and prices you need — 150, 105, 
90, 65 & .35MB. That's what we call MultiDiskT 



The Bemoulll 150 Is a MultiDlsk drive. 
So it not only reads/writes 150MB 
disks, but 35, 65,90 and 105MB disks, 
too. It even reads our 44MB disks. 



a feature you can only get with the BemouUi 150. 

Wliat's more, you can take youi" data where you 
need it, when you need it. Free from worry. 

And since no one has time to sit on their hands, 
we offer a very quick 18-msec effective access tinie. 

As you might have guessed, only award-winning 
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CorelDRAW bundle offer. Call 1-800-283-7608. 

Sound good? Give us a call today for more informa- 
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©1993 Iomega Corp. The Iomega logo and Bernoulli are registered trademarl^s. and MultiDlsk is a trademark of Iomega Corp. All other products are trademarks of their respective holders. For customer 
service in U.S.A. and Canada, call 1-800-456-5522. In Europe, call 49-76145040. For worldwide customer service, call 1-801-778-3000. For accessory items, call lOMART at 1-800-723-3770. 



Circle 101 on Inquiry Card. 



Reviews 



Lotus Notes 3 



already support Windows and the Mac, 
and a Windows version of Pacer's Mac- 
based PacerForum is forthcoming. Lotus's 
ambitions for Notes, though, are grander. 
The company wants to position it as a gen- 
eral-purpose platform for applications that 
collect, organize, and distribute "semi- 
structured" information, route documents, 
and manage work flow. In support of that 
goal, release 3 gives database designers 
new tools to process data and messages. 

For my first experiment, I converted a 
contact manager that I'd written in Fox- 
Pro into a Notes application. Why? FoxPro 
today delivers neither the cross-platform 
support nor the remote-access capability 
that I'm keen to provide. Moreover, Notes 
encourages an appealing model in which 
free-form discussion can decorate a trellis 
of structured data. Notes' forte admittedly 
is not structured data, but I thought 5000 
company and contact records would be a 
reasonable load, and I was willing to trade 
speed for other benefits. 

You build a Notes application — which 
is to say a heavily customized Notes data- 
base — around a set of forms and views. 
A form defines the fields that make up a 



document (i.e., a record) in a Notes data- 
base, and it handles data entry and queries. 
A view presents a selected subset of the 
documents in that database, typically sort- 
ed and often grouped by expandable cate- 
gories. Although the documentation does 
not explain how, you can easily achieve 
relational effects by treating several views 
as tables related by a common key. 

Once I realized this, 1 built the forms 
and views needed to relate companies to 
contacts and imported my FoxPro data. 
Unfortunately, that was easier said than 
done. Notes offers a weak list of import 
formats. There's no .DBF format, never 
mind the nearly universal comma-delim- 
ited ASCII, so I had to write a FoxPro re- 
port to render my data as files of field- 
name:value pairs that Notes could import 
as structured text. It did so, but slowly — 8 
minutes for one 3000-record import file 
on the 486DX2/66 server, and a half-hour 
for the same file on a 386/25 workstation. 

Picklists and Menus 

Next, I explored the new ODbColumn 
function, which enhances Notes' relation- 
al capabilities by picklisting a field using 



the contents of one column of a view. My 
FoxPro application uses this technique to 
enforce relational integrity, and ©DbCol- 
umn at first looked like the right solution 
for the Notes implementation. However, 
a 5-second delay on first use of the picklist 
made me suspect that @DbColumn was, 
disastrously, reading the whole list into 
workstation memory. My suspicion was 
confirmed when, as I dialed into the serv- 
er from home, the 5-second delay became 
10 minutes. Clearly, that's an unworkable 
solution for all but the most trivial lookups. 
When Lotus adds foreign database sup- 
port to SDbColumn, an intelligent scheme 
for buffering the returned data will be- 
come even more imperative. 

Searching for a way to work around 
@DbColumn, I tried exploiting a form's 
ability to inherit field values from the ac- 
tive view. If a user has the Contacts view 
open and has selected a Lotus contact, the 
Compose Contact form can inherit the 
company name without requiring picklist 
selection. That worked, but only when the 
user's current view was one that could 
supply a company name. Unfortunately, 
you can't programmatically disable the 



BYTE 


BACK 


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The above prices include postage in the US. European customers 
please refer to Back Issue order form in the International 
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BYTE Back Issues, One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, N.H. 


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i66 BYTE JULY 1993 




•7 



A 





SHOWN ACTUAL SIZE 




Jf I I I iMi/ J-ll r 

1 / 11, ri I HL >j'j7 pj 

i!ai'J2-3!J-!)3 rlL'.: 0iia3-2-'j2-1 



A chain is 
as strong 
as its 
wealcest 
iinlf. 



Picture your Hardlock™ key as a bike lock, and 
the accompanying software routines used to 
implement the copy protection as the chain. 
You can own the best lock that money can buy, 
but that lock is useless if the chain is weak. 

Introducing HL-Crypt, a major breakthrough 
in copy protection. HL-Crypt is not just a shell 
or simple conditional response checker. Using 
our proprietary Patcher Technology, HL-Crypt 
encrypts and binds the application to your 
Hardlock™ device. HL-Crypt features many 
protection modules that secure the application 
against piracy, reverse engineering, and 
debugging, to name a few. 

Picture HL-Crypt as an ironclad chain. The only 
ironclad chain in the industry today. For more 
information, call 

1-800-562-2543 




HL-Crypt 

The Fortified Protection Linicer 

for Hardiocic 



al information circle 89, For Domestic information circle 90 on Inquli 



Reviews 



Lotus Notes 3 



Compose Contact menu item, so I couldn't 
guarantee that the Compose Contact form 
would always present a valid company 
name. With DBMS software, you can tai- 
lor menus to meet this requirement; with 
Notes, you can't. 

Tackling Work-Flow Programming 

With some release 3 experience under my 
belt, I moved on to build a new application 
to route manuscripts through BYTE's ed- 
itorial pipeline. The key enabling feature, 
new to release 3, is the @MailSend func- 
tion, which automates use of the Notes 
mail system. Of special importance is 
iMailSend's ability not only to attach 
copies of documents to messages but also 
to include doclinks that point to shared 
documents. In the approval cycle for a 
manuscript, for example, you might want 
a technical editor, then a copy editor, and 
then the managing editor to review the live 
manuscript (not a copy!), each in turn. 
Notes release 3 makes it possible to build 
such an application. But it doesn't make 
the job easy. 

One obstacle is the development envi- 
ronment itself. Notes needs a BASIC-style 



immediate window in which to try out 
user-written macros. Lacking that, you end 
up drilling down through several layers of 
dialog boxes to get to the place where you 
can write a snippet of code, then backing 
out to test it, and then drilling down again 
when you find you've botched the syntax. 
Better up-front syntax-checking would also 
help, as would a rudimentary debugger. 

A larger problem is that functions like 
OMailSend are, in effect, just the assem- 
bly language of work-flow programming. 
To route a document through an approval 
cycle requires sophisticated state transi- 
tion and tracking logic, not 
just the ability to pipe data 
from one user to another. 
The Notes macro language, 
which does not even permit 
you to write callable func- 
tions, is a clumsy way to 
express that logic. And 
while the templates sup- 
plied with release 3 illus- 
trate the basic techniques 
you'll need, they're not 
reusable in any meaningful 
way. 



Lotus Notes release 3 



starter Pack 
(Windows server) 

User license 

Five users 

100 users 

1000 users 



Companies serious about creating busi- 
ness-process applications in Notes will 
need better tools. Lotus and Action Tech- 
nologies are. in fact, working on an appli- 
cation builder that will let you describe 
work flow abstractly and will then gener- 
ate the code to implement it. It won't be 
available until the year's end, and it isn't 
scheduled to become a standard feature of 
Notes. I hope Lotus rethinks that plan. Re- 
lease 3 delivers all the raw materials to 
create work-flow systems. But if those sys- 
tems are to succeed in the real world, you'll 
need faster, easier, and more productive 
ways to build them. 

My recommendation? 
U.se Notes for its deluxe E- 
mail and conferencing, if 
you can afford to. But don't 
plan to use it to reengineer 
your business. ■ 



$995 

$495 

$1395 

$8795 

..$47,995 



(other levels available) 

Lotus Development Corp. 
55 Cambridge Pkwy. 
Cambridge, MA 02142 
(617) 577-8500 
Circle 1235 on Inquiry Card. 



Jon Udell is a BYTE senior 
technical editor who manages 
BYTE's PC network. You can 
contact him on BIX as "jiidelt" 
or on the Internet as judelt@ 
bytepb.byle.com. 



KONEX 




Connect Your Modem To 
PBX and Digital Telephones. 




THE KONEXX KONNECTOR • MODEL 112 

Connect your modem into the handset jack of any PBX, digital, 
multiline, business, or hotel telephone. The compact Model 7 12 works 
at all baud rates and operates from the supplied AC adapter or 
internal 9-volt battery, making it Ideal for field or office use. Plus, 
automatic Voice/Data switching lets you dial with contact 
management and autodialing software. Don't install a ^^^{JLQ 
dedicated phone line, install the KONEXX Konnector! 

KONEXX products work with all FAX Modems and FAX boards. 



THE KONEXX KOUPLER • MODEL 203 The KONEXX Koupler was designed with the 
traveling commun/cator in mind. Acoustically couple your modem to any telephone; including public pay phones, 
cellular phones, and overseas telephones, and transmit data at speeds up to 9600 baud. $ 149 

THE KONEXX KIT Included are all the necejsary connection tools for efficient connection and 
communication over all types of telephones. The KONEXX Kit contains: the KONEXX Koupler Model 203 high 
speed acoustic coupler, a combination screwdriver, duplex adapter, alligator clip adapter, Merlin phone 
adapter, spare 9-volt battery, 7 ft. modem cable and custom carrying case. S"f 




CALL 

1'800'275'6354 

for more information or local dealer 



^UNLIMITED 

SYSTEMS 

UNLIMITED SYSTEMS CORPORATION INC. 

85SB Miramar Place • San Diego, CA 921 21 
Phone B1 9-622-1 400 • Fax B1 9-550-7330 



leS BYTE JULY 1993 



Circle 151 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 152). 



The best sound is not in tlie cards. 




member of the 



Perk up your 
presentations. IVIake 
training more effective. 
And, put some guts 
into your gaming 
pastimes. Anytime. 
Anywfiere. In fact, if you 
are not a card carrying 
i\ set, you have to hear 
PORT-ABLE Sound Pius from Digispeech. You 
know, those real smart people who make simple 
sound solutions. 

PORT-ABLE Sound Plus is the first portable 
external sound peripheral to deliver 16 Bit CD 
guality music with stereo audio capabilities. 
And, since you just plug into your IBM PC or 
compatible, desktop or laptop parallel port, you 
do not need an engineering degree or even a 
screwdriver. 

When you compare 
PORT- ABLE Sound Plus to 
any other external sound 
peripherals, you will see 
why anything else is just 
noise. PORT-ABLE Sound 
Plus is based on advanced 
Digital Signal Processing 
technology, so you 
will enjoy the greatest 




compression capability with the highest quality 
sounds. Here is something else that will tie music 
to your ears. PORT-ABLE Sound Pius comes 
complete with everything you need including a 
high fidelity speaker and built-in microphone. 
There is an "Audio-in" for a CD or tape player 
and a "Line-out" for external powered stereo 
speakers. Even a built-in smart parallel port pass 
through so you can keep printing. 

Whether you take your work across the hall 
or across the country, with PORT-ABLE Sound 
Plus, you have all the cards you need to play 
right in your hip pocket. The hinged design lets 
you flip up the unit if you are short on desk space 
or lap space. And, the power will always be with 
your whether you use rechargeable or non- 
rechargeable AA batteries. PORT-ABLE Sound 
Plus also comes equipped with an AC/DC power 
converter. 

As a bonus, you will get 
all the software you need to 
communicate. Like Lotus 
Sound'" an OLE server for 
Windows 3.1. WinReader for 
Windows 3.1, a handy text- 
to-speech utility. Digispeech's 
DOSTalkand DOSReader 
text-to-speech applications. 
Show & Tell For Kids'" for 




PORT' ABLE Sound Plus is a trademark ol Digispeech, Inc All other product 
names are trademarks or registered trademarks ol ttieir respective owners. 

Circle 1 75 on Inquiry Card. 



Windows - an easy to use MultiMedia Authoring 
program. It is also Sound Blaster and AdLib 
compatible. 

Why compromise on quality, portability, 
compatibility or affordability? When all the cards 
are on the table, PORT-ABLE Sound Plus from 
Digispeech, Inc. is your ace in the hole. 
Suggested retail is only $198.95. 




To order or obtain more information dUuut 
PORT-ABLE Sound Plus, write or call Digispeech, 
or, contact your local dealer. 

Sales Office: 550 Main Street, Suite J, Placerville, 
Califomia 95667. Telephone: (91 6) 621 -1 787. 
Fax (916) 621-2093. 




Introducing PC To 
Just think of it 



[1] 

Organize and 
simplify your work. 

Our unique MultiDesk desktop manager lets you put related 
applications, folders and files into their own separate desktops. 
Set up as many desktops as you like, then switch between them 
instantly. It all adds up to a less cluttered, more productive 
Windows environment that works like you do. 



[2] 

Improve the speed and 
efficiency of common tasks. 

Our integrated File Manager has advanced drag-and-drop 
capabilities that let you quickly locate, view, copy and print files. 
With over 75 viewers, you can scan files (including compressed 
PKZIP data) without having to open their applications first. Hate 
to turn off your PC because you don't want to set everything up 
again? Our DeskSaver feature solves that problem too. 



El 



PC Toolt for Windows 



Desfctop: Budgets 



WnjilPcrlect 



am F 



Layout 



graphics Window 



BOB'S BIKES 



'c*3^ ntei ijfv; AivoMc^ dtMtffMtil^ 
Sir ttrek • fxt '■♦j' n mUT Ac liA 'e 

n* utiftft m tie /tvrt-fmi/r^ ai rinr 




PC TfKil* fof Wmdovn 



Doug's Ottfce 



Desktop: [File 



File Disk Tree yiew Qptions Window tjelp 



Expand 



Emypt 



Ptogranw 



'C3docs 
Olias 
B otdsM) afc 
CDpioiects 



(iflffig 



Si excel, xls 

□ tolos123t*3 
D M_«e M 
fS wmwoid doc 



67.350 itt»iloc» 
13,016 lirpio* 
19.836 Stored 

2 460 Implode 
154,064 Implode 

11.351 InipWe 



iE 





CENTRAL POINT 

PC TOOLS 



Windows® is a great product And some- 
day, it'll be even better. But why wait? 

New PC Tools'" for Windows® is 
here right now. It saves you time, 
reduces clutter and gives you easy 
access to all the functions and files 
you use most often. In fact, PC Tools for Windows is 
so innovative that after reviewing it, the editors of 




PC/Computing asked, "Who needs Macs?" 

For starters, there's our unique MultiDesk " desktop. 
MultiDesk is an intuitive desktop manager that lets you 
organize your work by creating as many desktops as you 
need for your projects, tasks, or clients. So, if you spend 
the day switching between many different projects, you 
won't lose anything in the clutter. 

Ever misplaced a file or couldn't remember its 



*OuT lawyers said we could run this headUne if we. make the following absolutely clear: Windows ts a trademarit of Microsoft Cmporation. PC Tools for Windows is the soU product of Central Point Software, Inc. Microsoft and 

Central Point* PC Tools;- MultiDesk" WinShuld" Speed Keys,- System Consultant - and Diskfix* are trademarks of Central Point Software. 



ols for Windows: 
as Windows 4.O.* 



PC TooU fof Windowj 



Desktop: | Pert oimance 



m 




cS 










Systwn 


Hsdware 


DOS 


Windows 


NetWare 


Recommend 





System Recommendations 




System Consultant 



Hardware QOS V^indows NetWare Benchmarks Qptions Help 



Add No£MMDitvw=On to SYSTEM INI File 
Increase Value at DMABuHetSce in SYSTEM INI Pie 



I Remove Desktop W^>ape( to Save Memory 



Your system is ustng a temporaty swap lie to provide virtual memory Switching to a petmarierrf swap tde may 
permit taster opeialiOTi Tlvs can be done by changing the Virtual Memwy settings. vAvcb appear m the 
Condd PaneTs 3^ Ef^hanced section. 



Performance 



TTB 



PC Tools 



) Vntuai memocy is used to extend the rrtemoiy address space a ciDmpi^ef using a 

ifd disk to si^ipiefner^ its physic^ memoty You can use virtual mtmcny in 'Wmdoim by tettrig 




Topic marked lor piintir^ Detafc 




Doug's OHice Oe^tofK |PC Tools 



FAT Integrity OK 
P Diiecloiy Stfut^e 
Cross -tink.ed FHes 
Lost Qustef s 



Che<:king f« iVegal dHM^toiy entries. cfoss-iinh.s. srui but dustet chams 



Central Point 

DiskFix 



[3] 

Enhance your 
system's performance. 

System Consultant'" performs over 400 system checks and 
provides recommendations for improving your PC's perfor- 
mance. Our Disk Optimizer can automatically defragment 
your hard disk at prescheduled intervals, or on command. 



[4] 

Automatically 
protect your data. 

We've included new 'Windows versions of Backup, Undelete, 
Anti-Virus and DiskFix.* They're all integrated in WinShield," 
an automatic data-protection system that results in worry-free 
computing. Our Emergency Disk builds a bootable recovery 
disk to help get a crashed system up and running fast. 



name? Our File Manager lets you quickly view files with- 
out having to load the program first. Tired of cryptic, 
abbreviated file names? Now you can attach long file 
names to your data to keep things clear and simple. 

We also created Speed Keys™so you can take short- 
cuts through Windows, and System Consultant that 
gives you specific tips for improving system performance. 

PC Tools for Windows is at your nearest dealer. 



For more information, a free demo disk, or to upgrade 
from PC Tools for DOS, call us at 1-800-967-9251. Your 
purchase is backed by our 60-day guarantee. 

Find out for yourself why the editors are already 
heralding PC Tools for Windows as "The ultimate 
desktop." It may just be the best thing since, well. . .Windows. 

CeriimlFbint Software. 



Central Point Software did not coUaborate on this product, and this ad is not in any way sponsored by Microsoft. PC Tools for Windows does not replace Microsoft Windows or any fitture version thereof; it simply complements it. 
Names of other products mentioned herein are used for identiftcaiion purposes ottly and merf be trademarks of their respective companies. 



Circle 68 on Inquiry Card. 



HANDS-ON TESTING 



V.32 OR BETTER: 

Line-impairment and data tinroughput tests measure 

the efficiency of 9600-bps and faster modems 

JIM HURD 

First, the good news: We subjected 69 modems to some of the most sophisticated tests ever conducted 
by a magazine's testing lab and found that modems are faster, more reliable, less expensive, and 
smaller than ever. The bad news is that you won't find all of these improvements in any one 
package. 
If you want to push the envelope on transmission speed, you'll have to pay: The fastest modem 
in our test, the Motorola Codex 3260 Fast, costs an eye-popping $1395. Nevertheless, it ran our data 
throughput tests at an impressive 53.4 Kbps, 29 Kbps faster than today's mainstream V.32bis modems. 
You'll also have to trade off low cost to get the ultimate in portability, because most of the portable modems 
we tested cost a few hundred dollars more than their desktop-bound equivalents. 

If you have less exotic requirements and are simply searching for an all-around desktop modem, you'll find 
plenty of choices nearer the middle of the speed curve. V.32bis modems reign as the best price/performance 
buys today and remain the fastest modems that support a standard modulation scheme. Of the 49 V.32bis 
modems we tested, 21 had list prices of under $400, putting them squarely in competition with the last gen- 
eration of V.32 (9600-bps) modems. 

We ran the 69 modems, each capable of at least 9600-bps transmission, through speed and impaired-line 
tests. Our line-impairment tests create 25 telephone-line conditions that simulate everythmg from satellite trans- 
missions to poor connections to telephone-company switching stations. These conditions, generated by a TAS 
(Telecom Analysis Systems) line simulator and representing most conditions of the U.S. telephone network, 
showed that the modems were remarkably robust: We found 13 modems that could run at their top speeds across 
all the impaired lines. See "How We Tested" on page 176 for details of our tests and test methodology. 



How to use this guide 



To find the right modem for your application, choose the 
category that most closely matches your requirements from 
among the four main topics (Ail-Around Communications, 
Portables, High Speed, and Data Only). In each category, we 
select one modem as Best Overall; this is the modem we 



recommend for most jobs related to that category. If you have 
more specialized requirements, look to the other selections; 
for example, if your communications require full-duplex 
operation, consider modems listed under "Two-Way 
Communications." 



l-WAY THROUGHPUT (KBPS) 
The maximum throughput for each 
modem during one-way (half-duplex) 
communication, as determined by lab 
testing. It represents the maximum rate 
at which the modem was able to receive 
data from a computer. 











'J d :M 1 ■ Boca Research 14.4 BocaModem 


IS topnolch: II 




Fw general-c>iii|i06e communiCdlion5 to txjlleun boanSs _____|_ 
ana laiing. you can l Oo Miter Wan Ute BocaMoclem. ^H^^^^^ 

IS oneway Wiougtiput lied lot first place arnong ^BStSSSB 
modems m Itiis caiegcuy, arxl its impaired lin« Kore H»u^^H 
was tt>e riignest possible. The BocaModem's la> support ^^^^^^H 




aHeis Class I arx) Class 2 compliance, as well as V.I7 ^H^HH 
mlation was excellent, and the modem's complete set ol slalus lignts made 


11 very easy W U9e. 




ma iminmtan i-wivamtmm ■nbmji 


-m mm tarn 




■ ^ (MR) (OR) (IWIMNI 


WIT) 




AcRIBtoUMHii S49S 3S.0 26.0 1.00 


57600 14400 




nCUcPMIMnniilT S299 31.3 ^ 20.1 ^0.95 


57600 14400 ^ 



2-WAY THROUGHPUT {KBPS) 
The maximum throughput for full-duplex communication, as " 
measured in our lab. This is more important than the 1-Way 
Throughput rating only if you use full-duplex protocols. 



DTE RATE (KBPS) 

The DTE (data terminal equipment) rate is 
the maximum rate at which the modem can 
receive data from a computer. 

- DCE RATE (KBPS) 
The DCE (data communications equipment) 
rate is the maximum modem-to-modem speed 
that the modem can reach. It's dependent on 
the modulation standard (e.g.. V.32, V.32bis). 



IMPAIRED-LINE TEST (% OF THROUGHPUT) 

A composite score, based on testing 25 separate line conditions, which represents 
the percentage of normal throughput the modem attained over telephone lines that 
simulate difficult communication conditions (e.g., satellite delay). 



172 



BYTE/NSTL LAB REPORT JULY 1993 



PHOTOGRAPHY: STEVE BELKOWITZ © 1993 



BVTE 



69 MODEMS 



BEST 



Critical Communication Components 



SERIAL PORT 

The fastest modems accept data at 
115.2 Kbps (DTE speed). Be sure 
ydur modem can accept data at 
rates at least four times faster than 
its line rate (DCE speed): 57.6 Kbps 
for a V;32bis modem and 38.4 Kbps 
for a modem. 




CPU 

Pocket modems generally use 
slower CPUs to process 
commands ahd compress data; 
this can hurt their overall 
performance, especially when 
transferring data in both 
directions. Slow contniand 
processing can also 
occasionally cause 
compatibility problems with 
software. The CPU has much 
less to do when faxing, 
because the host computer 
generally handles fax 
compression and 
decompression. 



DATA PUIHP 

The data pump converts between digital information and 
analog transmissions, and it determines how well the 
modem can handle impaired lines. Traditional designs use 
specially designed chips, but designs based on general- 
purpose DSPs [digital signal processors) have come on 
strong. A DSP-based modem, such as the AT&T Paradyne 
Comsphere 3830, can offer the flexibility of adding 
modulation schemes through software upgrades. 



EPROM 

The modem software is stored in 
EPROM. Generally, you only need to 
worry about the EPROM when bug 
fixes are required, but some vendors, 
such as Zyxel, routinely offer modem 
upgrades via EPROM replacement. 
AT&T Paradyne uses an EEPROM in 
the Comsphere; we were able to 
accelerate our Comsphere from 14.4 
Kbps to 19.2 Kbps by downloading 
some new software. 



RAM 

RAM can be more 
important than CPU 
speed to overall data 
throughput. The 
amount of RAM is a 
limiting factor in the 
amount of 

compression that the 
modem can reach. 
Modems typically use 
eHher 2 KB or 4 KB 
for data dictionaries. 
RAM size is not 
generally a 
performance factor 
when faxing, but a 
buffer that is too 
small can cause 
headaches for fax 
software. 




ALL-AROUND 
COMMUNICATIONS 

Boca Research 14.4K 
External BocaModem 

Whether you're sending E-mail, 
communicating by fax. or 
hooking into bulletin boards, 
the BocaModem is an out- 
standing choice. Most notable 
was its perfect score on our 
impaired-line performance 
tests. Besides excellent speed 
and reliability for data 
communications, the 
BocaModem offers Class 1 
and Class 2 fax compliance. 
PAGE 174. 



PORTABLES 

Practical Peripherals 
PM14400FXPKT 

Not much bigger than a deck 
of cards, the PM14400FX PKT 
packs a lot of modem into a 
small package. It supports 
V.32bis (14.4-Kbps) data 
transmission speed and 14.4- 
Kbps (V.17) fax. Despite its 
size, it doesn't skip usability 
features, such as a good 
speaker and status display. 
PAGE 180. 



i 



HIGH SPEED 

Motorola Codex 3260 Fast 

This is the fastest modem on 
the market today. Its 
nonstandard modulation 
allows it to reach 24 Kbps 
when communicating with 
other Codex Fast modems. Our 
tests confirmed this speed: 
The modem simply blew away 
all other contenders on our 
one-way transmission tests. 
The 3260 Fast also handled 
impaired lines well, although it 
rarely managed to hit peak 
performance under less-than- 
perfect conditions. PAGE 186. 



DATA ONLY 

AT&T Paradyne 
Comsphere 3830 



If you don't need fax support 
but want fast data 
communication with standard 
protocols, choose the 
Comsphere 3830. Its ability to 
handle DTE rates of up to 
115.2 Kbps gives it a 
performance edge over other 
high-speed V.32bis modems. 
This DSP-based modem is also 
easy to upgrade. PAGE 189. 



ILLUSTRATION: BRUCE SANDERS ©1993 



JULY 1993 BYXE/NSTL LAB REPORT 173 



IVIODEIVIS FOR 



ALL-AROUND COMMUNICATIONS 



COMMUNICATION 
SOFTWARE 



PC SPEED 



PC SERIAL PORT 



For all-around communication tasks, 
the best choice today is a 14.4-Kbps, 
V.32bis desktop modem with good 
fax capabilities. Whether you're set- 
ting up E-mail links, connecting to bulletin 
boards, or performing almost any general 
communications task, V.32bis modems are 
data communications workhorses. 

Performance and price are the biggest 
advantages of 14.4-Kbps modems. They 
cost only slightly more (as little as $50 in 
some cases) than 9600-bps devices, which 
run at only two-thirds the speed. Some 
V.32bis modems, like the Practical Periph- 
erals PM14400FXMT, list for less than 
$300. 

In fact, when all the testing was done and 
prices and features compared, not a single 
V.32 modem made it onto the Best Overall 
list, or even onto the list of low-cost 
modems we recommend. The performance 
difference simply outweighs the minor cost 
differential, even when price is a major fac- 
tor. 

Our Best Overall selections highlight the 
fastest modems for one-way communica- 
tions. These are most suitable for users who 
connect to bulletin boards, send E-mail, log 
onto electronic services like CompuServe, 
and send data files with communications 
software (e.g., Procomm Plus) that supports 
ZMODEM, XMODEM, and YMODEM 
protocols. We also considered fax to be es- 
sential for a general-purpose modem and 
made that one of our selection criteria. 

Because two-way communications can 
be essential for users of RELAY and 
BLAST communications packages, we also 
identified the leading modems for this ap- 
plication. RELAY and BLAST use soft- 
ware protocols that handle full-duplex communication, al- 
though most communication software does not. 

We judged the best modems based on their throughput 
speeds for one-way and two-way communication, as appro- 
priate. Throughput speed represents two-thirds of each mo- 
dem's total score. 

Our second most important criterion was the modem's per- 
formance in our impaired-line tests, which measured how 
well each modem maintained its top speeds when faced with 
noisy telephone-line transmissions. The score is based on the 
average performance on impaired lines, measured as a per- 
centage of maximum performance. A modem scored 100 per- 
cent if it ran at top speed over all 25 of our simulated lines. 
Most modems dropped back on the line that simulated satel- 
lite transmission with long delays. Scores below 95 percent on 
this test indicate potential problems when making long-dis- 



SQUEEZE MORE SPEED FROM YOUR MODEM 



CABU 




Communication software must be fast enough to keep up with the modem 
and smart enough to use file transfer protocols that can tolerate the latency 
of error-correcting modems. Of the popular protocols, ZMODEM Is the best 
choice, followed by sliding-window Kermit and YMODEM-G. Proprietaf) 
protocols like BLAST can squeeze more performance out of many modems by 
transferring data in both directions simultaneously. 

A PC UART (universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter) can buffer only one 
to 16 characters; the PC must be able to read the UART constantly to prevent 
It from overflowing. Graphical operating systems like the Mac and, especially, 
protected-mode Windows can slow the computer to the point where It can't 
read the UART fast enough to prevent overflow. You may need a serial 
coprocessor card to achieve maximum speed with high-end modems in these 
environments. 

Fast modems need buffered UARTs In the computer for maximum 
effectiveness. A 16550 UART buffers up to 16 characters 
— enough to provide reliable operation at 115.2 Kbps. 
But some 16550s have bugs (fixed In the 16550A) that 
prevent their reliable use above 57.6 Kbps. Ail Macs have a UART with a 
three-character buffer — plenty for reliable 57.6-Kbps communication. 

The main consideration for a modem cable is that It wire the hardware 
handshaking lines (pins 4 and 5), carrier detect (pin 8), and DTR (Data 
Terminal Ready; pin 20), in addition to the required data lines (pins 2, 3, and 
7). For best results, keep the cable length down to 6 feet or less. Don't 
assume that your modem will come with the cable you need; most do, but 
some don't 



tance connections, especially internationally. 

Finally, because these modems are called upon to perform 
a variety of tasks for people who aren't necessarily commu- 
nications experts, we evaluated them for features and ease of 
use, considering the quality of their documentation, whether 
status lights or LCD panels were infomiative, and the ease with 
which we could change default settings. 

We found price to be only a small differentiator: Although 
some good modems in this category sell for as much as $989 
(the Zyxel U-1496Plus), the top five modems in this class all 
sell for between $300 and $600. 

All the modems listed under Best Overall support the V. 1 7 
standard for fax speeds up to 14.4 Kbps. In general, avoid 
fax modems that don't fax at this rate, or you'll waste a lot of 
time faxing documents as V.17-compliant fax machines and 
fax modems proliferate. V.17 support doesn't cost extra: Even 



1T4 BYTE/NSTL LAB REPORT JULY 1993 



the least expensive modems 
have it. 

At $699 and $799, the two 
Multi-Tech modems that 
ranked in our Best Overall 
class are pricey compared to 
the $395 BocaModem, but 
Unix users can consider either 
Multi-Tech as a reasonable re- 
placement for a $949 Telebit 
T3000. Like the T3000, the 
Multi-Tech MT1432BA sup- 
ports spoofing, which makes it 
an excellent choice if you use 
UUCP's g-protocol. (See 
"Spoofing: Serious Speed Ben- 
efits" on page 186). 

The three Zyxel modems we 
tested scored a three-way tie 
for best two-way communica- 
tions modems. The $469 Zyx- 
el U-1496E is a real bargain — 
it performs just as well as the 
higher-priced Zyxels when 
used at V.32bis speeds, and it 
offers an attractive array of fea- 
tures, including caller ID, dis- 
tinctive ringing, and voice 
recognition. In addition, the U- 
1496E achieves 16.8-Kbps 
communication speeds when 
used with other Zyxel modems. 
(For this application, we con- 
sidered test results at 14.4 
Kbps; see "High-Speed Com- 
munications" on page 186 for 
the Zyxels' high-speed scores.) 
Unfortunately, the Zyxel mo- 
dems don't support Class 1 fax, 
the current standard. 

Many of the low-cost mo- 
dems, especially the Practical 
Peripherals PM14400FXMT 
and USRobotics Sportster, per- 
formed admirably in our speed 
and reliability tests, and we can 
recommend them without 
reservation. These modems are 
especially attractive if you 
don't need high-speed bidirec- 
tional throughput. For exam- 
ple, if you dial into bulletin 
boards and download informa- 
tion, a PM14400FXMT will 
perform at nearly the level of 
the Zyxel modems for a much 
lower price. The PM 14400- 
FXMT has an excellent feature 
set, including Class 1 , Class 2, 
and V.17 fax. Pick the PM- 
14400FXMT for one-way ap- 
plications. If you use BLAST 
or RELAY, choose the Sport- 
ster; it's the best two-way com- 
municator among low-cost 
modems. 



BYTE BEST 



ALL-AROUND COMMUNICATIONS 



Need speed and -flexibili'ty? 



BEST OVERALL 



Boca Research 14.4K External BocaModem 



For general-purpose communications to bulletin boards and faxing, 
you can't do better than the BocaModem. Its one-way throughput 
tied for first place among modems in this category, and its 
^^^p^ impaired-line score was the highest possible. The BocaModem's 

fax support is top-notch: It offers Class 1 and Class 2 compliance, as well as V.17 speed. 
Documentation was excellent, and the modem's complete set of status lights made it very easy to use. 








PRICE 


1-WAV THROUGHPUT 


2-WAY THROUGHPUT IMPAIRED-LINE TEST 


DTE RATE 


DOE RAH 








(KBPS) 


(KBPS) 


(7. OF THROUGHPUT) 


(KBPS) 


(KBPS) 


BEST 


Boca Research 14,4K External BocaModem 


$395 


32.0 


26.0 


100 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


Practical Peripherals PM14400FXMT 


$299 


31.3 


20.1 


95 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


Zoom Telephonies VFXV32bis 


$349 


31.7 


22.0 


97 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


Practical Peripherals PM14400FX PKT 


$499 


31.3 


20.3 


95 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


Practical Peripherals PM14400FXSA 


$549 


31.4 


24.1 


95 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


Multi-Tech UT1432MU 


$699 


31.4 


21.4 


99 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


Multi-Tech UT1432BA 


$799 


31.4 


21.4 


99 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


Zyxel U-1496PIUS 


$989 


32.0 


31.3 


99 


76.8 


19.2' 



Do you use RELAY or BLAST? 



TWO WAY 



Zyxel U-1496E 



The Zyxel U-1496E's performance in two-way communication was top-notch: The 
modem tied for first place on speed and scored an impressive 99 percent on 
the line-impairment tests. What's more, the U-1496E's feature list is among the 
most comprehensive for general use: The modem supports fax, voice, DTMF 
decoding, caller ID, distinctive dialing, and fax/voice switching. Zyxel actively 
upgrades modems in the field by sending new EPROMs to users as additional features become available. Zyxel 
does not license the Hayes guard-band patent or use TIES (Time Independent Escape Sequence), but we had no 
problem with false escapes. 








PRICE 


1-WAV THROUGHPUT 


2-WAY THROUGHPUT 


IMPAIRED-UNETIST 


DTIRATE 


DCERATE 








(KBPS) 


(KBPS) 


(% OF THROUGHPUT) 


(KBPS) 


(KBPS) 


BEST 


Zyxel U-1496E 


$469 


31.8 


31.2 


99 


76.8 


16.8' 


RUNNER-UP 


Zyxel U-1496EPIUS 


$649 


31.8 


31.2 


99 


76.8 


19.2' 


RUNNER-UP 


Zyxel U-1496PIUS 


$989 


32.0 


31.3 


99 


76.8 


19.2' 


RUNNER-UP 


AMT Star 14421 


$399 


31.7 


30.5 


100 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


GVC FM144/144V 


$399 


31.7 


30.6 


99 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


The Complete PC Tuito Modem Plus 


$399 


31.7 


30.6 


99 


57.6 


14.4 



Looking for low cost? 



LOW COST 



Practical Peripherals PM14400FXIV1T 



The 14400FXMT's one-way throughput score was just a hair behind that of 
the fastest performer, the BocaModem. Its one shortcoming was its 
impaired-line score of 95 percent, resulting from its failure on the two 
simulated satellite lines. If your communications don't travel through 
satellite links, the PM14400FXMT is comparable to the BocaModem and 
sells for nearly $100 less. The PM14400FXMT also doesn't compromise on 
features or ease of use: It offers Class 1 and Class 2 fax support, and its documentation is clear and informative. 
It's also one of the few modems that supports caller ID. 








PRICE 


l-WAV THROUGHPUT 


2-WAy THROUGHPUT 


IMPAIRED-LINE TEST 


DTE RAH 


DCERATI 








(KBPS) 


(KBPS) 


(% OF THROUGHPUT) 


(KBPS) 


(KBPS) 


BEST 


Practical Peripherals PM14400FXMT 


$299 


31.3 


20.1 


95 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


Cambridge Telecom 1414XE 


$269 


29.4 


16.4 


97 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


USRobotics Sportslerl 4400 Fax 


$299 


30.3 


25.5 


99 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


Zoltrix 144/144e 


$239 


31.7 


22.1 


85 


57.6 


14.4 



' Maximum DCE rate; test scores reflect modem's performance at 14.4 Kbps. 



JULY 1993 BYTE/NSTL LAB REPORT 175 



HowWe Tested 



Our modem performance tests 
subjected the modems to 25 
telephone-line conditions and 
eight kinds of data transfer 
tasks using as many as four different 
modulation types. We used DOS, Win- 
dows, and Macintosh platforms to drive 
the data through the modems. 

Ours are among the first published 
tests using line-impairment conditions 
specifically designed to mirror real- 
world conditions. The impairment com- 
binations we used are based on the 
working papers of the EIA/TIA's (Elec- 
tronic Industries Association/Telecom- 
munications Industry Association) TR- 
30.3 committee, which was consulted 
for the tests. Our test conditions cover a 
major subset of the lines discussed in 
TR-30.3's PN-3064 draft recommenda- 
tion for network simulation for modem 
testing. 

These test lines are based on a com- 
prehensive survey of the U.S. Although 
they are therefore reflective of the state 
of the telephone network in the U.S. 
only, they include impairments (e.g., 
satellite delays) that are also found in 
non-U.S. locales. 

THROUGHPUT TESTS 

Our unimpaired-line throughput tests 
are also unique. Many modem tests fo- 
cus on the ability to transmit data in one 
direction, but modems are often called 
on to perform two-way transmissions. 
The tests we ran show how well 
modems can simultaneously transmit 
and receive files. 

Our throughput tests rate a modem's 
ability to send data as quickly as possi- 
ble over an unimpaired line using stan- 
dard data-compression and error-cor- 
rection techniques. Throughput tests 
measure the performance of the data- 
compression and error-correction en- 
gines in each modem. All the tested 
modems support V.42 error correction 
and V.42bis data compression. 

We connected like pairs of modems 
via a PBX and ran the throughput tests 
from a Mac. We used four different files: 
a compressed file, a graphics file, a text 
file, and a database file. These files have 
potential V.42bis compression ratios of 
1 to 1, 2 to 1, 3 to 1, and 4 to 1. Data 
files were developed at NSTL. 

For testing modems with a 57.6-Kbps 



DTE rate, we used Creative 
Solutions' coprocessed Hur- 
dler boards in a Quadra 950. 
By using coprocessors for 
each serial card (and a pow- 
erful computer), we ensured 
that modems would be sent 
data as fast as they could 
handle it. For modems rated 
at 115.2-Kbps DTE speed, 
we tested using a program 
called HowFast by Softart. 
HowFast requires dual 
16550 UARTs and a 486 
computer: We used a Hayes 
ESP board in a Compaq 
486/33. 

We ran each modem pair 
using factory default set- 
tings, with the following ex- 
cepfions: Modems were con- 
figured to receive data from the 
computer at the fastest rates they sup- 
ported (up to 115.2 Kbps); modems 
were configured to use V.42bis data 
compression and V.42 error correction, 
even if the default settings specified 
MNP protocols; and all modems were 
configured to use RTS/CTS (hardware) 
flow control instead of XON/XOFF. 

For data-compression and error-cor- 
rection parameters, we chose defaults 
for dictionary and window sizes. We 
chose default sizes even if a modem sup- 
ported larger-than-default dictionary 
sizes for unidirectional transmissions 
(we assumed that users are unlikely to 
reconfigure the modem each time they 
conduct bidirectional transmissions). 

Once we got them configured, we set 
the modems to transfer the four types 
of files, ranging from 32 KB to 48 KB in 
length, at the fastest possible rates. We 
measured throughput for one-way and 
two-way transmissions. With a one-way 
test, modem A transmits each type of 
file four or more times to modem B; 
there is no transmission from modem B 
to modem A. For two-way tests, mo- 
dem A transmits each type of file four or 
more times to modem B, while modem 
B simultaneously transmits a different 
type of file to modem A. 

LI N E-l IVI P AIRM ENT 

TESTS 

The heart of our line-impairment testing 
was a TAS Series II modem tester. This 




Hie TAS (Telecom Analysis Systems) Seiies II modem tester enabled us to 
reKieate 25 telephone-line inpaainents; this heliied us ju^^ 
modem worlted under real-worid conditions. 

advanced telephone-line simulator can 
re-create almost any line condition that 
you may encounter anywhere in the 
world, even if you're sending data over 
satellite networks. This latest genera- 
tion of TAS equipment is more sophis- 
ticated than ever: It allowed us to ex- 
actly simulate the standard local-loop 
impairments in addition to usual central 
office impairments. Our 25 test lines 
simulate combinations of a variety of 
impairments: long satellite delays, phase 
roll, and noise, to name a few. 

The line-impairment conditions were 
developed by the EIA/TIA TR-30.3 
committee, which also developed the 
TSB (Technical Systems Bullefin) 37 
line conditions for testing V.32 modems. 
The 25 line conditions are not part of 
an official standard, but were developed 
to test modems that conform to the 
emerging CCITT V.Fast specificafion 
for high-speed modems. According to 
the developers, the 25 line-impairment 
conditions conform closely to the actu- 
al telephone network in the U.S. 

For our line-impairment tests, we con- 
nected like pairs of modems to the TAS 
system, which simulated a trunk line 
and local loops at both ends of the con- 
nection. We configured the modems to 
factory defaults, with the exceptions not- 
ed previously. Each modem transmit- 
ted a 32-KBps compressed file over a 
given simulated line at least four fimes. 



a.T6 BYTE/NSTL LAB REPORT JULY 1993 



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HowWe Tested 



[continued) 



We recorded throughput times and av- 
eraged the results. We measured 
throughput rather than performing a 
BERT (bit-error rate test) because most 
users will take advantage of error cor- 
rection. 

Line-impairment scores are given as 
a percentage of best-case throughput 
(determined by the throughput tests), 
and we present an average across all im- 
paired lines. There is a 1 percent margin 
of error on these scores (i.e., consider a 
score of 99 percent to be statistically 
equivalent to 100 percent). 

Approximately one third of the 
modems negotiated all the lines with- 
out any problem. Of the rest, most ran 
aground on the satellite Unes, but several 
modems had difficulty with long local 
loops. Satellite delays of the magnitude 
we tested are virtually nonexistent with- 
in the U.S. network, but they can be en- 
countered in other locations. Long lo- 



cal loops do exist within 
the U.S. network, and if 
you have one, you have 
few options short of mov- 
ing. (The local loop is the 
connection from your 
phone to the local phone 
company's switch). All the 
modems handled the most 
common lines well; it is 
the difficult Unes that show 
differences in the modem 
architectures. 

High-speed modems 
can "drop back" and pick a 
slower-than-maximum 
data speed when they encounter an im- 
paired line. The faster the modem, the 
more likely it is to need to drop back. 
While most 9600-bps modems were able 
to use their top speed on all impaired 
lines, the Motorola Codex 3260 Fast 
kept maximum performance only on 




SIMULATING REAL-WORLD IMPERFECTIONS 

Our impaimient tests were created by combining the following four different tnink-line 
types and seven different local loops. 

TRUNK LINES 

Digital lines have few impairments, but the typical PCM (pulse-coded modulation) that con- 

verts the analog signal generated by a modem to digital can cause quantization distortion. Ihis 
Is a particular problem for those who use their modems for long-distance calls, because most 
loi^-distance circuits today are digital. (R^nal telephone companies are in the process of 
digitizing their networks, but some are not as far along as long-distance canierj). 

D^l with Simulates the "worst case" scenario wHh digital bies: The d^ transmission passes through 
multiple a region with analog switches. This means that modems can be "hit" three times wKh PCM con- 
convenions version, and the associated difficulties. 

Anah^ Anah« ines typicaly present more impasments than digital faies. Even the best analog fines 
present some impainnents to modems. Callers in the U.S. typically encounter an analog line on 
a can that goes through a r^nal netwoii that hasn't completed the tiansfonnation to digital. 



Satellite Important for those making transcontinental calls. Problems occur when a delayed echo inter- 
feres with the transmitted signal. Echoes occur during the conversion between four-wire and 
two-wire transmission at the far end of the connections; sateffite delays arise during the time it 
takes the signal to travel to the satelite and back. Some modems can "cancel" the echo using 
DSP (digita signal processing) techniques. Those that can't do so won't be able to connect 
This was one of the most common faihires for modems that received a score of 95 percent or 
less in our tests. Our tests simulated a delay of 700 milliseconds, which was severe enough to 
stress-test today's modems, but also representative of what can occur in the real world. 

LOCAL LOOPS 

Our seven local-loop shmdations raided from a short, 2000-foot loop to 7000- 15,000-foot 
loops with and without bridge taps, to 30,000-foot loops with four or five kiading cods (which 
modify the frequency response of loops). 



Testing tem (dodmise from left): Alan lodi, Helefl HoUuw, Siva Ifajmar, 
anUiiiHird. 

mildly impaired lines. Modems like the 
Codex 3260 Fast are designed to take 
maximum advantage of every connec- 
tion, whereas previous generations of 
modems were more conservatively de- 
signed to deliver full speed even on the 
worst lines. Since most connections on 
the U.S. network are virtually unim- 
paired, the Codex approach makes a lot 
of sense. Even averaging 90 percent of 
its top speed, as it did on our tests, the 
Codex 3260 Fast is still the fastest mo- 
dem on the market. 

Modems don't only drop back; they 
also "fall forward" — that is, they can 
increase speed as the quality of connec- 
tion improves. Picking the right rate is 
tricky, and modem vendors employ dif- 
ferent strategies. The trick is to maxi- 
mize throughput by balancing higher 
speeds against increased risk of errors. 
We solicited input from all the vendors 
regarding the best configuration for each 
company's modem. 

Contributors 

Helen Holzbaur, Consultant/NSTL. worked as a 
network manager and systems administrator for 
Temple University for JO years. 

Jim Hunt , Vice President of Research and 
Development/NSTL, has tested scores of modems, 
as well as applications software and operating 
systems, during the last 10 years at NSTL 

Alan Joch, Senior Editor/BYTE, coordinates the 
combined testing between the BYTE Lab and 
NSTL. 

Siva Kumar, Technical Analyst/NSTL, specializes 
in hardware and network-operating-system 
testing. 



The Lab Report is an ongoing collaborative project 
between BYTE Magazine and National Software Testing 
Laboratories (NSTL). BYTE Magajne ami NSTL are both 
operating units of McGraw-Hill, Inc. 



178 BYTE/NSTL LAB REPORX JULY 1993 



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Circle 77 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 78). 



n/IODEMS FOR 



PORTABILIIY 



DATA 



Portable modems are essential if you 
need to access company data, run ap- 
plications remotely, or fax from the 
road. They can also do double duty 
by serving your desktop computer when 
you're back at the office. If you go that route, 
however, you'll have to accept a slight per- 
formance penalty. Our tests showed that, on 
average, desktop modems outperformed 
portables by a margin of about 300 bps. Porta- 
bility also adds to cost: The portable modems 
we tested cost an average of 40 percent more 
than their desktop counterparts. 

Pocket modems can run on either AC or 
battery power. The smallest modems, like 
the Practical Peripherals PM14400FX PKT 
and the Hayes Optima 144 Pocket, use ex- 
ternal batteries. Slightly larger modems, like 
the USRobotics WorldPort 14400 Fax, the 
Multi-Tech MT1432MU, and the Megahertz 
P2I44, incorporate batteries inside the mo- 
dem case. The E-Tech modems and the Twin- 
com Voyager are almost as large as desktop 
modems, but they weigh less and include a 
battery. 

We chose our Best Overall modem based 
on its one-way data throughput score, its per- 
formance on difficult lines, the range of its 
features, and its ease of use. We selected two- 
way communications winners by ranking per- 
formance on two-way throughput tests. Be- 
cause portable modems might be called on 
to handle a more diverse range of line con- 
ditions than their desktop counterparts, we 
weighted the line-impairment scores second 
to throughput; the higher the percentages, the 
more likely the modem can handle whatever 
types of lines you encounter on the road. 

Overall, the performance scores of portable 
modems were closely matched, and we found 
features and ease of use to be the real differ- 
entiators between the winners and the run- 
ners-up. A clear, easily understandable status 
display, like the Practical Peripherals 
PM14400FX PKT's, is essential and can 
avoid frustration when you're trying to trou- 
bleshoot a modem in your hotel room. 

The cream of the portable modem crop are 
the Practical Peripherals PM14400FX PKT 
and the Multi-Tech MT1432MU. The set of 
indicator lights on each is easy to read, and both modems 
performed well in our speed tests. The PM14400FX PKT 
gets our vote for Best Overall based on its fast one-way 



SPEED LIMITS 



Don't assume that the fastest modem is always the best: 
You can never communicate faster than the slower mo- 
dem in any connection. For example, if all you use a modem 
for is to connect to CompuServe, the fastest data speed 
you'll achieve is 9600 bps. If you pay $800 to $1400 for one of the high- 
speed modems, such as the AT&T Paradyne Comsphere 3830 or the Mo- 
torola Codex 3260 Fast, your data transfer speed won't be any faster 
than if you use a $249 Practical Peripherals PM9600FXMT, a 9600-bps 
modem. 

CompuServe isn't unique. Most public on-line services offer 9600-bps 
access. Bulletin boards generally offer 14.4-Kbps V.32bis, and a good 
number of them offer 16.8-Kbps USRobotics HST. Public-access Unix 
hosts generally offer V.32bis, and many offer PEP and Turbo PEP at 
speeds of up to 23 Kbps. AT&T Mail supports 19.2-Kbps V.32terbo. 

K you control the modem on both sides of your communications link, 
you have many more options. You can take advantage of speeds above 
14.4 Kbps. Telebit offers excellent unkiirectional throughput with Turbo 
PEP. Bidirectional throughput with PEP is limited because PEP is asym- 
metric; it is optimized for data flowing primarily in one direction. US- 
Robotics HST is also asymmetric, but HST is not as fast or as flexible as 
PEP. PEP uses a multicarrier approach that alkws it to balance the speed 
of the two channels, as well as to fall back in very small increments in 
the face of line impaimients. HST uses two fixed-speed channels and sim- 
ply changes directions as necessary. 

Both of these asymmetric modulations are generally outperformed by 
AT&Ts V.32tertx) and Zyxel's proprietary 19.2-Kbps modulation, and Mo- 
torola Codex's 24-Kbps modulation. 



FAX 



Most fax communication follows the V.29 standard, which 
specifies a maximum speed of 9600 bps. V.17-compliant 
modems (half of those in this review) can send faxes at 
speeds of up to 14.4 Kbps. V.17 includes other perfor- 
mance optimizations, including more fall-back speeds and optional 
fast connections. Sixty of the 69 modems tested support V.29; 37 sup- 
port V.17. 

V.17 support aside, fax modems have little effect on fax speed, be- 
cause most of the fax processing is done in the computer. Fax p%e data 
is typically not error corrected, and the computer must compress the 
data before sending it to the modem. Since eirors are not corrected, data 
transmission errors show up as errors in the final document. Modems 
that score well on the BYTE line-impairment tests will give you better 
overall fax quality. 



throughput and because it supports both Class 1 and Class 2 
fax. Practical Peripherals' portable modem is also $200 cheap- 
er than Multi-Tech's. 



ISO BYTE/NSTL LAB REPORT JULY 1993 



However, the Practical Pe- 
ripherals pocket modem fails 
to connect in error-correction 
mode on the two lines simulat- 
ing long satellite delays. That is 
not to say that it can't be used 
on satellite connections — our 
delay of 700 ms is longer than 
most you'll encounter. 

The Multi-Tech MT1432- 
MU also supports spoofing of 
the most popular file transfer 
protocols. If you are forced to 
use a nonwindowing protocol 
like XMODEM or UUCP, a 
pair of Multi-Tech modems 
can put your old software into 
high gear. Although several 
other pocket modems were 
faster for full-duplex transmis- 
sion, none had the features of 
the PM14400FX PKT or the 
MT1432MU. 

The Megahertz P2144 is an 
alternative to the Practical Pe- 
ripherals modem, and it has the 
same price. The P2144 was the 
fastest pocket modem for one- 
way transfers, and it supports 
Class 1 and Class 2 fax. How- 
ever, it's not an easy modem 
to use: It holds the distinction 
of being the only modem we 
tested that had no status dis- 
play whatsoever. 

The Hayes Optima 144 
Pocket is a good-looking new 
addition to the pocket market- 
place, but it is slower than the 
top two modems. It also has a 
problem with long satellite de- 
lays. 

E-Tech's UFOMate P1414- 
MX and USRobotics' World- 
Port 14,400 Fax are the fastest 
pocket modems for two-way 
data transfer. The E-Tech mo- 
dem takes the top spot on the 
basis of its lower price. 

The two modems have dif- 
ferent strengths. The P1414MX 
has a slightly better perfor- 
mance and has features that are 
unique among the pocket mo- 
dems we tested — caller ID and 
distinctive ringing. But the off- 
the-shelf WorldPort performed 
our tests flawlessly, while the 
P1414MX, the lower-rated E- 
Tech UFOMate P1496MX, 
and their Twincom Voyager 
twin required patches to their 
EPROMs in order to complete 
our tests. The WorldPort also 
did better on the impaired-line 
tests. 



BYTE BESX 



PORTABLE MODEMS 



Need desk-top performance -for -the road? 



BEST OVERALL 



Practical Peripherals PM14400FX PKT 



^jjjpm^j^ Practical Peripherals' pocket modem is nearly as fast as 
CHU^^l the fastest pocket modem on half-duplex tests, and it's a 
t^ Sjj^Sft pocket modem without compromises: It has an excellent 
^^^^^ status display, which can help you quickly configure the 
modem when you're on the road. Other important ease- 
of-use features are a small form factor, a good-quality speaker, and 
excellent documentation and support. Class 1, Class 2, and V.17 fax 
also adds up to top-notch fax support. 








PMCE 


l-WAyTHMIUGNPUT 


2-WAV THROUGHPUT 


IMPAIRED-LINE TEST 


DTE RATI 


DCERATE 








(KBPS) 


(KBPS) 


(% OF THROUGHPUT) 


(KBPS) 


(KBPS) 


BESt 


Practical Peripherals PM14400FX PKT 


$499 


31.3 


20.3 


95 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


Mulli-TechMT1432MU 


$699 


31.4 


21.4 


99 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


Megahertz P2144 


$499 


32.0 


26.1 


97 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


Hayes Optima 144 Pocket 


$599 


31.2 


18.3 


95 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


E-Tecli UFOMate P1414MX 


$429 


30.8 


29.0 


95 


115.2 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


USRolxjtics WoridPort14,40O Fax 


$649 


30.1 


28.0 


98 


57.6 


14.4 



le fastest in -full-duplex? 



TWO WAY 



E-Tech UFOMate P1414IVIX 




With a leading score of 29 Kbps in the two-way throughput test, the 
E-Tech UFOMate P1414MX packed the most power for demanding two- 
way applications. In addition, its one-way throughput and impaired-line 
scores were competitive with the other contenders in this category. The 
P1414MX's rich feature set helped it to pull ahead of the pack to be- 
come the best two-way choice; it is the only pocket modem with caller 
ID and support for distinctive ringing. Unlike its lower-rated 
lookalike.the E-Tech UFOMate P1496MX, the P1414MX supports V.17 
fax speeds. Negatives include uninformative status lights and the lack 
of Class 1 fax support. The Megahertz P2144 is a strong contender 
here, but it suffers from its lack of a status-light display. 







PRKE 


1-WAYTHROUGHPUT 


2-WAV THROUGHPUT 


IMPAIRED-UNETtST 


DTI RATE 


DC! RATI 








(KBPS) 


(KBPS) 


(% OF THROUGHPUT) 


(KBPS) 


(KBPS) 


BEST 


E-Tech UFOMate P1414MX 


$429 


30.8 


29.0 


95 


115.2 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


USRobotics WondPort14,400 Fax 


$649 


30.1 


28.0 


98 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


Megahertz P2144 


$499 


32.0 


26.1 


97 


57.6 


14.4 



Cost-conscious? 



E-Tech UFOMate P1414MX 




The P1414MX supports 14.4-Kbps data and 14.4-Kbps fax, and it was the 
second fastest portable modem on two-way data transmission. But its most 
outstanding feature is its price: At $429, its price is $160 lower than the 
average price of the pocket modems given consideration for Best Overall. 
There are trade-offs, of course: The P1414MX is almost as big as a desktop 
modem (though lighter), and we had some initial data-loss problems (which 
were solved by an upgrade from E-Tech). Beware if you must communicate 
via satellite: The E-Tech modems were unable to connect over lines with long 
satellite delays. 



PRICE 1-WAV THROUGHPUT 2-WAV THROUGHPUT IMPAIRED-UNETEST DIE RATE DCERATE 

(KBPS) (KBPS) (%OFTHROUGHPtfT) (KBPS) (KBPS) 

BEST E-Tech UFOMate P1414MX $429 30.8 29.0 95 115.2 14.4 

RUNNER-UP E-Tech UFOMate P1496MX $379 30.8 29.1 95 57.6 14.4 



JULY 199.S BVTE/NSTL LAB REPORX 181 



How Modems Connect 



Pitfalls, Near ana Far 



SATELLITE CONNECTION 
Satellite connections are essentially a 
thing of the past in the U£. telephone 
system, but they are still very much a 
part of the international network. 
Satellite calls are notable for their 
long delays, often accompanied by an 
audible echo effect. 




MODULATION STANDARDS 

VJ2 (9600 bps). Largely made obsolete by V.32bis tech- 
nology, V.32 modems can still offer inexpensive access 
to on-line services like CompuServe and Prodigy. Most 
on-line services do not yet offer V.32bis speeds, so for 
this application exclusively, paying more for the extra 
speed of V.32bis may not make sense. 

VJ2Ihs (14.4 Kbps). The current standard for corporate dial- 
up modems. Most bulletin boards and public- 
access Unix systems offer this speed. The typical 50 
percent speed boost over V.32 modems comes at only 
an incremental price premium. 

VJast {28iKbps). V.Fast modems should hit the market 
late this year or early next year. These modems will 
probably command a high price premium over V.32bis 
modems, so expect both to coexist for a long time. The 
standard is stilt changing, so regard claims of "V.Fast 
upgradable" with caution. 

V32teflM {]B2 Kbps). A new "standard" offered by a coali- 
tion of modem vendors including AT&T, Penril, and Data 
Race. V.32terbo modems exist today and often cost 
only a little more than V.32bis modems. V.32tert)o 
looks like a good bet to supplant V.32bis, but many 
modem vendors are resisting it. 



DATA SPEEDS DEFINED 



PROPRIETARY P ROTOO O l_S 

H$T{16.8 Kbps). A proprietary speed offered by USRobotics. 
The company's Courier modems with HST are popular with 
PC bulletin board operators. If you make a lot of long- 
distance connections to a variety of bulletin boards, HST 
can mean cost savings on your phone bills. HST is asym- 
metric; it is effective only for one-way data transfer. 

Zyxd (16.8 Kbps). The Zyxel modems offer a proprietary 16.8- 
Kbps symmetric mode (i.e., in both directions simultane- 
ously). This capability gives Zyxel's low-cost modems an 
edge over V.32bis modems while providing its high-end 
modems with a good fall-back speed. 

Zyxd (197 Kbps). Zyxel modems running at proprietary 19.2- 
Kbps speeds produced some of the fastest times of the 
modems we tested, especially for bidirectional transfer. 
One drawback was that the Zyxel high-speed handshake 
confused some V.32bis modems, so they couldn't link up 
with the Zyxel modems at V.32bis speeds. (The work- 
around is simply to set the Zyxel modem to do a standard 
handshake.) 

PEP/TurtoPtP(23Kbps). PEP is a popular high-speed modula- 
tion that predates the V.32bis standard. It is mainly found 
in Unix environments; Telebit modems have become the 
standard Unix modem on the strength of PEP and their in- 
novation in areas such as UUCP spoofing. PEP never 



caught on with other modem vendors. Turbo PEP is the 
new update of PEP, with speeds up to 23 Kbps. Like 
PEP, Turbo PEP is based on multiple can-iers, giving it 
the ability to adjust to line conditions in increments 
much smaller than those of other modulation schemes. 
And like PEP, Turtx) PEP is asymmetric — bidirectional 
throughput suffers. 

Codex V.Fast (24 Kbps). Motorola Codex raised the ire of 
many modem vendors when it adopted the name 
"V.Fast" for its top-of-the-line dial-up modems. Motorola 
Codex claims modems supporting its proprietary 24- 
Kbps modulation will be upgradable to V.Fast, but no 
one will know until the standard is complete. While the 
company's scheme may not be V.Fast. it certainly is 
very fast— the Codex modem was clearly the fastest for 
one-way transfers. 

FAX SPEEDS 

V.27ter (4800 bps). Offers fax speeds of up to 4800 bps. 

Vi9 (9600 bps). Offers fax speeds of up to 9600 bps. All 
60 modems that supported fax supported this speed. 

VJ7 (14.4 Kbps). Much of the world fax "network" is still 
9600 bps or slower, but V.17 speeds are gaining popu- 
larity as prices tumble. V.17 also supports more incre- 
mental fall-back speeds and short retraining sequences. 



182 BYTE/NSTL LAB REPORT JULY 1993 



Links you anywtiere, anytime 

AT&T's new PCMCIA KeepInTouch™ modem 



No more missed opportunities! AT&T's new 
KeepInTouch modem lets you transfer data and faxes- 
directly from your PCMCIA portable computer-via the 
cellular or standard telephone networks. 

So even on the golf course, you can link to infor- 
mation services, download files, receive sales inquiries, 
and send proposals. 

And only the high-speed 14.4 Kbps KeepInTouch 
Card has AT&T's new Enhanced Throughput Cellular 
(ETC) Protocol* to ensure superior cellular perfor- 
mance. You get the job done quickly and successfully 



while reducing transmission costs. Plus AT&T's 
award-winning, software- 
defined technology lets you 
easily download new 
modem enhancements to 
protect your investment. 

So why tie yourself to 
a desk? With AT&T's new 
KeepInTouch Card, you're 
always in the right place at 
the right time! 




,Si'j/<( ivccitv data and faxes 
ria wireless or wired networks! 



For the name of the dealer nearest you, 
or to Older direct, caU us at 1 800 554-4996 ext 9697 



ATbT 



© AT&T 1993 Keq)InT()uch is a trademark of AT&T. Ail other procluas or seri ices mentioned arc the trademarks, ser^ ice marks, registered trademarks of iheir respective oftTicrs. 
• AT&T patent pending 

Circle 1 70 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 1 71 ). 



10 Tips for Buying Modems 



Buy a modem with a DTE speed at least 
four times greater than the DCE rate: 
for example, 38.4 Kbps for a 9600-bps 
modem and 57.6 Kbps for a 14.4-Kbps 
modem. Lower DTE speeds can leave 
your modem starving for data as the data 
pump and compression engine run faster 
than the incoming data. 

Don't pay a premium to get 1 15.2-Kbps 
DTE speed on a V.32bis modem. If your 
environment is Macintosh or 
Windows, you probably won't be 
able to use that speed anyway. 
Without a serial coprocessor, few 
systems are fast enough to main- 
tain 1 15.2 Kbps under the over- 
head of a multitasking operating 
system. 

Don't buy a pocket modem to be 
a desktop modem. The pocket 
modems are considerably more 
expensive (and somewhat slower) 
than their desktop counterparts. 

Be wary of software bundles. 
Many offer excellent values, but 
others are simply collections of 
obsolete software that are not 
worth your time and energy to 
learn. For example, most of the 
Macintosh bundles include Mi- 
crophone 1.7. Ironically, this old- 
er version of Microphone does 
not support high-speed protocols; 
it supports only XMODEM and 
YMODEM. 

Be wary of compression claims. 
Use the modulation names such 
as V.32, V.32bis, and V.32terbo 
to guide you. 

Get a modem that will support 
V.17 (14.4 Kbps) fax speeds. 
V.17 fax is proliferating, and you 
can save yourself time and mon- 
ey by using the higher speed. 
Don't assume that your 14.4- 
Kbps data modem can fax at that 
speed: Many V.32bis modems 
(13, including the Telebit T3000) 
do not support V.17 and will fax 
only at 9600 bps. 

Get a modem that supports the 
Class 1 fax command set. Class 1 
is an established standard that 



practically all fax software supports. 
Class 2 is not yet a standard, and the 
modems we tested all support an older 
(now incompatible) draft of the proposed 
standard. 

The exception to Tip 7 comes if you 
ever plan to write your own software to 
send faxes. Writing software to support 
Class 1 modems is painstaking and dif- 
ficult; Class 2 support is trivial. 



For bidirectional applications like net- 
work bridges, get a symmetric modem. 
If you have an asymmetric modem, con- 
figure it for V.32bis. 

Find out what recourse you'll have for 
bugs. We encountered bugs in modems 
ranging from inexpensive E-Techs to 
expensive UDS FasTalks. Vendors can 
usually fix bugs with new EPROMs, but 
ask how your dealer would handle them. 



ESCAPE SEQUENCES 



An escape sequence is the way a computer signals the modem to switch from trans- 
mission mode to command mode, it signals that the next segment of data coming 
down the data stream is to be interpreted as a command rather than transmitted. 
The simplest and safest way to put the modem into command mode is to configure the 
modem to enter command mode when the computer drops the RS-232-defined DTR (Data 
Terminal Ready) signal. Because this happens on a wire thaf s never transmitting 
data, the modem ahways knows that DTR transitions are signals. This is called out-of- 
band signaling. 

Since not every RS-232 connection has a line readily available to use to signal com- 
mand mode {e.g., those in Macs), modem vendors have developed different methods 
of in-band signaling. The problem in in-band si£pialing is distinguishing modem com- 
mands from normal data. 
Fax protocols use the ASCII code DLE for this purpose. But a OLE can appear in a real 
data stream. The computer then must do "byte stuffing" as it sends 



DLE DLE 



data to the modem: It has to replace each DUE with the sequence DLE DLE, 
to keep subsequent data from being interpreted as commands. 
Hayes introduced a different method of in-band signaling using guard bands. Hayes 
modems time-stamp characters as they arrive and use this time stamp as an additional 
data channel. A Hayes escape sequence is a pause fblhiwed by 
three escape characters folknved by another pause. (The defouH 



[pause] + + + [pause] 



escape character is ahways "+," aHhough the length of the 
pause and the escape character are user definable). The pause prevents the modem 
from mistaking escape characters found in a data stream for a command signal. 

Hayes ignited the fury of the rest of the modem industry when it received a patent 
for guard-band signaling and began to extract royalties for its use. 

Vendors not wanting to pay royalties have had to substitute other methods. A coali- 
tion of modem vendors, including Multi-Tech, TwinCom, Digicom, and others, adopted 
the TIES (Time Independent Escape Sequence) approach. TIES modems check to see 
if data after the escape sequence represents a valid AT command folhiwed by a return. 
Hayes responded with advertisements that portrayed the TIES approach as a bomb wait- 
ing to explode (taking your data with it). That led to lawsuits, and an out-of-court set- 
tiement between Multi-Tech and Hayes. 

Multi-Tech has recently proposed a new sequence, TIES out-of-band, which uses a 
break signal as the command character (a break is a distinguishable signal that can- 
not be mistaken for any character). The problem with this sequence is that rt is in- 
compatible with the Hayes sequence, so Multi-Tech will have to convince software 
vendors to support it Multi-Tech will continue to support TIES for Hayes- 



+ + + ATH 



compatible software. 
Zyxel has its own algonthm, for which it claims compatibility with 
existing code. Since the Zyxel algorithm is proprietary, we can't comment on its 
strength or weakness. However, it caused no problem in our testing. 



184 BYTE/NSXL LAB REPORT JULY 1993 




The Simple 
Connection Behind 
Computers And 
Backpack Tape Drives 





lt*s fast. It's small. It's reliable. 

Backpack is the best selling parallel port tape drive 
on the market. We'd like to tell you why. 

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MODEMS FOR 



HIGH-SPEED COMMUNICATIONS 



Think 14.4 Kbps from V.32bis modems is fast? 
Take a look at the proprietary speeds of to- 
day's fastest modems: 24 Kbps (Motorola 3260 
Codex Fast), 23 Kbps (Telebit WorldBlazer), 
19.2 Kbps (AT&T Paradyne Comsphere 3830 and Zyx- 
el U-1496EP1US and U-1496Plus), and 16.8 Kbps (US- 
Robotics Courier Dual Standard, Zyxel U-1496E). If 
you use long-distance telephone lines to set up net- 
work bridges, remotely control PCs, access leased lines, 
or create SLIP links, these modems could save you 
their cost and more in long-distance charges. 

But you can reap these benefits only if you control 
both ends of the line. For this category, we considered 
only the handful of modems now on the market that 
achieve data throughput speeds higher than 14.4 Kbps. 
Although CCITT's V.Fast will define faster standard 
communications, no such standard currently exists. 
Therefore, each of these high-speed modems uses its 
own modulation schemes, and each can communicate 
at its highest speeds only with another modem of its 
own kind. 

The exceptions to the both-ends-of the-line rule are 
Telebit's PEP and Turbo PEP, which can be found on 
a variety of public Unix hosts, including UUNET; 
Courier HST modems, which can be found on many PC 
bulletin boards; and Comspheres, which you can use 
with AT&T Mail (no surprise since AT&T manufac- 
tures these modems). 

Performance is, of course, the key criterion for this 
class of modems. We picked wirmers for both one-way and 
two-way communications. High-speed links for transmitting 
graphics files are excellent one-way applications, and asyn- 
chronous network bridges are prime examples of two-way 
applications. All the high-speed modems we tested can be 
run in either mode, but as the results show, many of the 
modems have an advantage in one mode over the other. 

The Motorola Codex 3260 Fast blew everything else away 
on the one-way throughput tests: It ran 23 percent faster than 
the second-place AT&T Paradyne Comsphere 3830. The 
Codex 3260 Fast also maintains its performance reasonably 
well on impaired lines, the second most important perfor- 
mance indicator in our evaluations. Impaired-Une reliability 
shows which modems can handle telephone-line impairments 
without dropping back to slower speeds, and although it hit 100 
percent on just four of the 25 line tests, the Codex 3260 Fast 
maintained good throughput regardless of impairment type. 

The AT&T Paradyne Comsphere, the Zyxel U-1496Plus, 
and the Telebit WorldBlazer held their high speeds better on 
impaired lines than did the other high-speed modems. The 
Comsphere was within 5 percent of its maximum through- 
put on all but five of the 25 impaired lines, so you can expect 
to achieve 19.2-Kbps transmissions on most calls. The World- 
Blazer dropped more than 5 percent on 13 of the 25 lines; 
however, it falls back in lesser increments than do other 
modems, so chances of maintaining higher-speed coimec- 
tions are better. The Zyxel U-1496Plus performed within 5 



Spoofing: Serious Speed Benefits 

Spoofing allows older software, using older protocols, to run effi- 
ciently at high speeds. XMODEM, for example, chokes high- 
speed modems that don't spoof, because XMODEM sends only 
128 characters and then sits and waits for a response. Consequent- 
ly, the modem sits idle much of the time. 

Modems that spoof, such as those from Telebit, accelerate 
XMODEM and other so-called stop-and-go protocols by return- 
ing a false acknowledgment as soon as a packet is sent from the 
DTE to the modem. The spoofing modem then continues to re- 
ceive data from the DTE and continues to send to the remote site. 
Later, the modem "swallows" any actual acknowledgment from 
the other computer. This allows the modem to receive succeeding 
packets from the computer while it continues sending. 




percent of maximum on all but seven lines. 

The Comsphere's strong showing on impaired lines seems 
to contradict V.32terbo naysayers. Rockwell and Hayes, 
among others, have suggested that V.32terbo is a stopgap 
modulation scheme that's too weak for real network conditions 
(i.e., impaired lines). Based on our tests, V.32terbo looks like 
a good intermediate step between V.32bis and V.Fast if AT&T 
and other V.32terbo proponents can muster enough support. 

The Comsphere, the Codex 3260 Fast, and the high-end 
Zyxel U-1496Plus all have LCDs, which makes using them 
easy. Their menus make it easy to change defaults and are 
particularly useful for vertical applications like kiosks and 
automatic teller machines or for mainirame applications where 
a PC is not readily available. All the modems can be config- 
ured remotely; the Comsphere can even have its firmware 
replaced remotely. 

The Codex 3260 Fast and AT&T Paradyne Comsphere 
command a high price for their excellent performance. You 
can expect to pay as much as four times more than for a 
V.32bis modem; in return, you'll get a 50 percent boost in 
performance. Of course, you may save money on your phone 
bill and through increased productivity. 

We were disappointed with the Codex 3260 Fast's inex- 
plicably slow performance in our two-way throughput tests. 
We expected the 24-Kbps modem to outpace the slower Com- 
sphere and Zyxels, but the Codex 3260 Fast came in fourth. At 
press time. Motorola Codex was looking into the problem. 



186 BYTE/IVSTL LAB REPORT JULY 1993 



The Comsphere 3830 was 
the top modem for sending data 
in both directions simultane- 
ously. The Zyxel modems are 
also very fast at bidirectional 
transfers, but they top out at a 
DTE speed of 76.8 Kbps. We 
tested the Zyxels at a DTE rate 
of 57.6 Kbps, because most en- 
vironments do not support the 
unusual 76.8-Kbps speed. With 
a 57.6-Kbps DTE connection, 
the Zyxel modems begin to 
starve for data on files that 
compress at better than 3 to 1 , 
as the compression engine and 
data pump outrun the serial 
connection. But all the Zyxel 
modems are faster than the 
Comsphere at sending files that 
compress at less than 3 to 1. 

Zyxel' s unusual handshake 
sequence uses a number of 
tones that confuse some 
V.32bis modems (e.g., the 
Hayes Optima 144 Pocket). 
Zyxel uses these tones to iden- 
tify other Zyxel modems so 
higher-speed Zyxel proprietary 
modulations can proceed. The 
Zyxel U-1496E connected to 
the Optima Pocket at only 2400 
bps until we explicitly shut off 
the high-speed negotiation se- 
quence. With the U-1496E set 
to negotiate only to V.32bis, 
connection went smoothly. 

The Telebit WorldBlazer is 
still the only high-speed mo- 
dem to support spoofing, so us- 
ing older protocols like XMO- 
DEM and UUCP with it will 
achieve far better performance 
than with other high-speed 
modems. Get this modem if 
you can't or don't want to mess 
with changing old protocols. 
The WorldBlazer is well de- 
signed for this work: Its excel- 
lent one-way throughput is all 
that is necessary for spoofing 
applications, because very little 
data must traverse the reverse 
channel. 

HST from USRobotics is 
showing its age. The oldest of 
these proprietary modulations, 
HST has become a popular 
way to link to bulletin boards 
from long distance. The Couri- 
er Dual Standard was by far the 
slowest of the high-speed mo- 
dems we tested. It was, how- 
ever, still faster than V.32bis 
modems for one-way transfers 
of compressed files. 



BYTE BEST 



HIGH-SPEED MODEMS 



Need the -fastest modenn on the market? 



BEST OVERALL 



Motorola Codex 3260 Fast 



^ At 24 Kbps, the Codex 3260 Fast is the fastest modem 
(jS^SSE. on the market today. Our tests also showed it to be 
^yif^^i reasonably reliable, although line-impairment tests show 
^^^SS f^^t it averages only 90 percent throughput over bad lines. 

It managed peak performance on only four lines, but 90 
percent of 24 Kbps is still pretty impressive. However, there are 
drawbacks: Ease of use is only average; automatic baud detect is 
capped at 38.4 Kbps; the AT command set is unique to Codex, so 
there's a good chance your communications package won't support the Codex modem without custom configura- 
tion; and finally, the defaults often needed some tweaking for compression and flow control. The modem lacks 
spoofing, so be sure that your data transfer protocols won't leave this fast modem idling. 




PRICE 1-WAV THROUGHPUT 
(KBPS) 



BEST 


Motorola Codex 3260 Fast 


$1395 


53.4 


RUNNER-UP 


AT&T Paradyne Comsphere 3830 


$795 


43.4 


RUNNER-UP 


Telebil WorldBlazer 


$1099 


38.5 


RUNNER-UP 


Zyxel U-1496PIIJS 


$989 


40.6 


RUNNER-UP 


Zyxel U-1496EPIUS 


$649 


40.6 



2-WAVTNROUGHPtlT IMPAIRED-tlNETKT DTE RATE DCERATE 



(KBPS) (% OF THROUGHPUT) (KBPS) (KBPS) 

38.4 90 115.2 24 

40.3 98 115.2 19.2 

23.1 97 115.2 23 

39.2 97 76.8 19.2 
39.2 94 76.8 19.2 



Looking -for full-duplex speed leader? 



TWO WAY 



AT&T Paradyne Comsphere 3830 



The AT&T Paradyne Comsphere 3830 combines top-notch two-way 
communication performance with excellent usability. Its ability to handle 
DTE rates of 115.2 Kbps gives it the performance edge over the second- 
and third-place Zyxel modems. It also handled impaired lines well, as 
shown by its score of 98 percent. The Comsphere autobauds all the way 
to its top speed of 115.2 Kbps, and its menus are easy to configure. The 
Comsphere is designed to be easy to upgrade; we upgraded it from a V.32bis modem to a V.32terbo modem with 
a phone call. 




PRICE 1-WAYTHROUGHPUT 2-WAV THROUGHPUT IMPAIRED-UNE TEST DTIRATE DCERATE 









(KBPS) 


(KBPS) 


(% OF THROUGHPUT) 


(KBPS) 


(KBPS) 


BEST 


AT&T Paradyne Comsphere 3830 


$795 


43.4 


40.3 


98 


115.2 


19.2 


RUNNER-UP 


Zyxel U-1496PIUS 


$989 


40.6 


39.2 


97 


76.8 


19.2 


RUNNER-UP 


Zyxel U-1496EPIUS 


$649 


40.6 


39.2 


94 


76.8 


19.2 


RUNNER-UP 


Motorola Codex 3260 Fast 


$1395 


53.4 


38.4 


90 


115.2 


24 


RUNNER-UP 


Zyxel U-1496E 


$469 


36.6 


33.3 


95 


76.8 


16.8 



Balancing high speed and low cost? 



LOW COST 



Zyxel U-1496EPIUS 



At $649, the Zyxel U-1496EPIus is less expensive than many of the 
V.32bis modems (all of which it outperforms handily). It has the best-case 
performance of the more expensive U-1496Plus and all of its features 
except leased-line support. We experienced poorer performance on 
impaired lines with the U-1496EPIus than with the U-1496Plus, but 
performance was still very good. (Zyxel was puzzled that the impaired-line performance differed from the U- 
1496Plus's, but the issue was unresolved at the time of writing this report.) 




BEST Zyxel U-1496EPIUS 
RUNNER-UP Zyxel U-t496E 



PRICE 1-WAV THROUGHPUT 

r (KBPS) 

$649 40.6 

$469 36.6 



2-WAV THROUGHPUT 
(KBPS) 

39.2 
33.3 



IMPAIRED-UNE TEST 
(% OF THROUGHPUT) 

94 
95 



DTE RATE DCERATE 

(KBPS) (KBPS) 

76.8 19.2 

76.8 16.8 



JULY 1993 BYTE/NSTL LAB REPORT i8'7 



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DATA-ONIY APPLICATIONS 



Want the fastest in V.32bis? 



BEST OVERALL 



AT&T Paradyne Comsphere 3830 




The Comsphere combines top-notch performance with 
excellent usability. Its ability to handle DTE rates of 
115.2 Kbps gives it the performance edge over the 
Zyxel modems. Usability is excellent. The Comsphere 
autobauds all the way to its top speed of 115.2 Kbps. 
Its menus make configuration easy, but you will probably do fine with 
the defaults. The Comsphere is designed to be easy to upgrade; we upgraded it from a V.32bis modem to a 
V.32terbo modem by downloading software over the phone. Its impaired-line performance was a perfect 100 per- 
cent, and its best-case throughput was near the top. 








PRICE 


1-WAV THROUGHPUT 


2-WAVTNROUGHPtlT 


IMPAIRED-UNETISr 


DTE RATI 


DOE RAH 








(KBPS) 


(KBPS) 


(% OF THROUGHPUT) 


(KBPS) 


(KBPS) 


BEST 


ATST Paradyne Comsphere 3830 


$795 


31.3 


30.7 


100 


115.2 


19.2' 


RUNNER-UP 


Zyxel U-1496PIUS 


$989 


32.0 


31.3 


99 


76.8 


19.2' 


RUNNER-UP 


Zyxel U-1496E 


$469 


31.8 


31.2 


99 


76.8 


16.8' 


RUNNER-UP 


Zyxel U-1496EPI1JS 


$649 


31.8 


31.2 


99 


76.8 


19.2' 


RUNNER-UP 


Motorola Codex 3260 


$1095 


29.3 


30.5 


99 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


GVC FM144/144V 


$399 


31.7 


30.6 


99 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


The Complete PC Turbo Modem Plus 


$399 


31.7 


30.6 


99 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


Motorola Codex 3260 Fast 


$1395 


29.7 


28.6 


99 


115.2 


24' 



Need top V.32bis speed at a low price? 



LOW COST 



GVC FM144/144V 




The GVC FM144/144V is a low-cost alternative to the Comsphere. Its khaki 
paint job won't win any design awards, but its blazing two-way throughput might. 
While most under-$400 V.32bis modems are underpowered for two-way applica- 
tions, the GVC modem clearly has enough horsepower for the job; it has nearly 
the speed of the Comsphere and the top Zyxels for V.32bis communication. It is 
light on backbone features, however (e.g., it has leased-line but not automatic 



dial backup). It provides fast fax with V.17 speeds and Class 1 support. 







PRICE 


1-WAVTHROUGHPUT 


2-WAVTHROUGHPIIT 


IMPAIRED-LINE TEST 


DTE RATE 


DCERA1E 








(KBPS) 


(KBPS) 


(% OF THROUGHPUT) 


(KBPS) 


(KBPS) 


BEST 


GVCFM144/144V 


$399 


31.7 


30.6 


99 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


The Complete PC Turbo Modem Plus 


$399 


31.7 


30.6 


100 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


USRobotics Sportster 14,400 Fax 


$299 


30.3 


25.5 


99 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


E-Tech UFOMateP1414MX 


$429 


30.8 


29.0 


95 


115.2 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


E-TechUFOMateP1496MX 


$379 


30.8 


29.1 


95 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


CMS Enhancements XI 4400 Ext. Fax 


$399 


31.6 


30.6 


85 


57.6 


14.4 


RUNNER-UP 


CXRTelcom Action Fax 1445-FXD 


$435 


31.0 


24,5 


95 


115.2 


14.4 



' Maximum DCE rate; test scores reflect modem's performance at 14.4 Kbps. 



BYTE 

B E S X 



When you need to communi- 
cate with an installed base of net- 
work modems or use a modem 
for terminal emulation with a 
mainframe, data throughput and 
speed standards are your main 
concerns. Often, an installed base 
of corporate modems limits you 
to less than cutting-edge speeds. 
The modems in this category are 
the fastest devices supporting 
standard modulations, and we 
didn't factor in fax support. 

When choosing modems for 
these applications, dispense with 
the fax and go all out for speed 
and performance. Modems with- 
out fax now tend to cost more 
than modems with fax. This may 
seem anomalous, but modems 
without fax capabilities are de- 
signed for mission-critical data- 
only applications. In this market, 
features like leased-line support 
and the ability to handle every 
probable kind of telephone-line 
impairment matter more than fax 
capabilities, which would sim- 
ply go unused. This is not to say 
that modems that include fax 
can't compete here: In fact, our 
low-cost pick includes solid fax- 
modem capabilities. However, 
fax support is more of a nice 
bonus than a selection maker. 

For these applications, we 
judged modems only on their 
data capabilities and limited our 
tests to modems running at 
V.32bis speeds. Throughput is 
important for network bridges 
and terminal-emulation applica- 
tions. We averaged two-way and 
one-way speeds. We then fac- 
tored in results from the im- 
paired-line tests. 

We found that most V.32bis 
modems can maintain high 
throughput in one direction, but 
relatively few can maintain high 
throughput in two directions si- 
multaneously. Most file transfer 
protocols transfer in only one di- 
rection at a time, so you may not 



care if your modem can handle 
more than that. You should care, 
however, if you want to use the 
modem as a network bridge. 

We counted remote configu- 
ration abilities highly. For ex- 
ample, if you're attempting to 
send sales results from a cash 
register to the corporate network, 
you won't have access to a PC 
to configure the modems for op- 



timum transmissions. Modems 
that let you change speeds, flow 
control, or other options easily 
from their display panels are a 
must for these installations. Like- 
wise, a modem's ability to auto- 
baud at its highest rate is essen- 
tial for network communications. 
Other important features are time 
windows, so you can determine 
when to do your backups; leased- 



line support; and dial backup, in 
case the leased line fails. 

The AT&T Comsphere is our 
pick for best data-only modem. 
Its DSP-based design makes it 
extremely flexible. The unit we 
tested was a V.32bis modem up- 
graded to V.32terbo. The Com- 
sphere achieves top performance 
and a perfect score on impaired- 
line tests. 



JULY 1993 BYTE/NSTL LAB REPORT 189 



honoMlementions 




AT&T Paradyne's 
Comsphere 3830 

is designed around a 
DSP, and its software 
resides in flash ROM. 
This gives it the dis- 
tinction of being the 
only modem we tested 
that allows instant remote upgrades. If you need to upgrade, you 
just download new firmware directly off the data line. Other 
modems, like the Dove Fax Pro, the Multi-Tech modems, and the 
Intel Satisfaxtion/400e, let you upgrade using software, but you 
can't do anything as radical as tum a V.32bis modem into one that 
supports V.32terbo. For most modems, even bug fixes require 
puUing the modem apart and replacing an EPROM. 



Dubious Achievements 



Telebit's WorldBlazer 

combines excellent one-way throughput with unparalleled 
spoofing support. Its pioneering innovation in the area of 
spoofing has already made it a standard in Unix shops, its 
support for heterogeneous environments is top-notch; you can 
pick your computing environment from one of more than a 
dozen sets of factory defaults. 




Our tests operate the modem in error-correction, data-compression mode, which is how most users will 
run them. So why do so many modems set the default to uncompressed, unreliable links? The Octocom Xpres- 
so 8396A gets the prize for longest AT command string required to reach a regular configuration: 

AT&F&C1&I2&K2E1*E1%G3&D2 



ass-"-" / 3 



V-U9i 




E-Tech proclaims that its UFOMate P1496MX modem supports 9600-bps 
fax/9600-bps data transmissions. Closer inspection reveals that this is a 2400- 
bps modem that achieves 9600-bps speeds in the unlikely event of constant 
4-to-l V.42bis compression. 

A few manufacturers actually portrayed some modems as less than 
they are. Manuals for the Zyxel modems (U-1496E, U-1496EPlus, and U- 
1496Plus) failed to mention the proprietary high-speed modes of 16.8 Kbps and 
19.2 Kbps. The Multi-Tech MT1432MU pocket modem's box mentions 9600- 
<1 bps fax capabilities; in fact, it can support 14.4-Kbps fax. 

Don't ti7 to share a phone line with a Zoltrix 144/144e modem — it can cause problems with other 
modems on the same line even when it's turned off. The Zoltrix modem also creates an annoying clicking on the 
phone line after being used with communication packages that fail to reset it (e.g., anything 
that uses the Macintosh Communication Toolbox). 

Many pocket modems have little in the way of 
informative call-progress indicators. The Megahertz 
P2144 dispenses with lights altogether, however, 
delivering the inconvenience of an internal mo- 
<I dem in an external package. 

What's wrong with this picture? Acmally, the picture is cor 
rect: You must plug the line cord into the jack labeled "phone" and the 
phone into the jack labeled "Une" to get the Best Data Products Smart One 
1442 to work. > 





130 BYTE/NSTL LAB REPORT JULY 1993 



so ADVANCED 

IT EVEN TURNS ITSELF OFE 





N 



anao, the technical leader in monitors has done 
it agaia In addition to being the top choice of 
today's graphics professionals and Windows 
users, Nanao's award-winning FlexScan 
F-Series monitors now have a remarkable 
energy-saving system — Power Save. 

Built into Nanao's new 17-inch FlexScan 
¥550tW and 21-inch F760fW, Power Save has 
been designed to work with all screen saver 
software, including Wndows 3.1 and After Dark. Power 
Save activates when the blank screen of the screen saver 
appears, cutting operating power to less than 8% of total 
consumptioa It can also automatically power the monitor 
down to a stand-by mode when the computer is turned oft 
These irmovations add up to energy savings and longer 




monitor life, and have placed Nanao at the forefront of the 
Environmental Protection Agency's Enei^Star Program. 

Both the F550!'W and F760/W exhibit their super- 
iority in many other ways, as welL Each Invar Shadow 
Mask CRT has a new anti-reflective coating 
that eliminates reflection of ambient illumina- 
tion, without sacrificing the focus level and 
brighmess. Ultra-high resolutions with large 
SCTeens plus other features make them ideal for 
CAD/CAM, DTP and Windows applications. On top of 
that, they can power down. So when you're not working, 
neither are they. 

Nanao FlexScan monitors. Intelligently designed. 
Incredibly useful. And now, built to help protea our 
environment by reducing energy consumption. 



NANAO USA CORPORATION 

23535 Telo Avenue, Torrance, CA 90505 
(310) 325-5202 



NANAO 

Superior In Every Detail 



1-800-800-5202 





Circle 1 1 8 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 119). 



ROLL CALL OF MODEMS XESXED 











THROUGHPUT TEST RESULTS' 




MAX SPEEDS' 






MANUFACTURER 


MODEM 


PRICE 


1-WAY 


2-WAY 


IMPAIRED LINES' 


DOE 


DTE 


ESCAPES 






AMT International Industries 


Star 14421 


$399 


31.7 


30.5 




14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Archtek America 


SmartUnk9614AV 


$399 


29.1 


16.0 


97 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




AT&T Paradyne 


Dataport 1 4.4 Data Fax 


$339 


29.6 


17.7 


97 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




ATI Technologies 


9600ETC/E 


$389 


20.3 


11.5 


100 


9.6 


57.6 


TIES 




Best Data Products 


Smart One 1442FX 


$319 


31.7 


22.0 


95 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




J Boca Research 


14.4K External 
BocaModem 


S395 


32.0 


26.0 


100 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Cambridge Telecom 


Datasystem 1414XE 


$269 


29.4 


I6r4 


97 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Cambridge Telecom 


Datasystem 1414XP 


$349 


22.7 


12.1 


97 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Cambridge Telecom 


Discovery 9632AX 


$495 








14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Cardinal Technologies 


14400V32bis 


$399 


31.7 


22.1 


92 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Cardinal Technologies 


96C)0V42 


$349 


22.1 


21.1 


100 


9.6 


38.4 


Hayes 




CMS Enhancements 


XI 4400 Ext. Fax 


$399 


31.6 


30.6 


85 


14.4 


57.6 


TIES 




CXR Telcom 


Action Fax 1445-FXD 


$435 


31.0 


24.5 


95 


14.4 


115.2 


Hayes 




Digicom Systems 


Scout Plus 


$289 


30.0 


24.2 


85 


14.4 


57.6 


TIES 




Dove Computer Corp, 


Dove Fax Pro 


$449 


31 .7 


22.1 


97 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Global Village Communications 


Teleport Gold 


$499 


29.5 


16.8 


97 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Global Village Communications 


Teleport Silver 


$499 


29.5 


16.8 


97 


9.6 


38.4 


Hayes 




GVC Technologies, Inc. 


FM 144/1 44V 


$399 


31.7 


30.6 


99 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Hayes Microcomputer Products 


Accura 144/Fax 144 


$339 


31.2 


18.3 


95 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Hayes Microcomputer Products 


Optima 144 


$499 


31.2 


18.3 


95 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Hayes Microcomputer Products 


Optima 96 + Fax 96 


$479 


19.8 


19.1 


95 


9.6 


38.4 


Hayes 




Hayes Microcomputer Products 


Ultra 144 


$999 


26.7 


13.9 


97 


14.4 


38.4 


Hayes 




Hayes Microcomputer Products 


Ultra 96 


$899 


20.4 


13.7 


99 


9.6 


38.4 


Hayes 




Intel Corp. 


Satisfaxtion/400e 


$499 


31.4 


24.6 


92 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Microcom 


DeskPorte 


$499 


31.3 


19.5 


95 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Microcom 






■ai "7 




99 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Microcom 


OX/4232bis+ 


$899 


32.4 


20.4 


84 ' 


9.6 


57.6 


Hayes 




Motorola Codex 


otitiU rlus 


$795 


29.6 


16.7 


100 


14.4 


38.4 


Hayes 




Motorola Codex 


3260 


$1095 


29.3 


30.5 


99 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Motorola UDS 


FasTalk Fax32bx 


$845 


32.2 


29.5 


100 


9.6 


57.6 


Hayes 




Multi-Tech Systems 


MT1432BA 


$799 


31.4 


21.4 


99 


14.4 


57.6 


TIES 




Multi-Tech Systems 


MT932BA 


$749 


21.2 


16.7 


100 


9.6 


38.4 


TIES 




NEC 


N9635E Plus 


$1199 


29.7 


27.4 


84 


14.4 


38.4 


Hayes 




Octocom Systems 


Xpresso 8396A 


$1095 


27.3 


14.5 


100 


14.4 


38.4 


Hayes 




Penril DataCom Networks 


DX144 


$595 


31.0 


26.3 


100 


14.4 


115.2 


Hayes 




Practical Peripherals 


PM14400FXMT 


$299 


31.3 


20.1 


95 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Practical Peripherals 


PM14400FXSA 


$549 


31.4 


24.1 


95 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Practical Peripherals 


PM9600FXMT 


$249 


21.6 


20.1 


95 


9.6 


38.4 


Hayes 





Results of tests are measured in Kbps. 
Maximum transfer rate In Kbps. 
Percentage of throughput. 



^ Unable to run our tests; problem was unresolved at press time. 
- BYTE Best. 



X92 BYXE/NSTL LAB REPORT JULY 1993 







FAX SUPPORT 




SOFTWARE 

(DOS; WINDOWS; MAC) 


WARRANTY 

(YEARS) 










CLASS 1 


CLASS 2 


V.17 


PHONE 


TOLL-FREE NO. 


INQUIRY NO. 






Yes 


No 


Yes 


QuickLink Fax; QuickLink Fax; QuickLink II 


5 


(714)375-0306 


None 


1113 




Yes 


No 


Yes 


BitFax, ArchCom; ArchFax Plus, ArchCom; 
QuickLink II 


2 


(818)912-9800 


(800) 368-5465 


1114 


■ 


Yes 


No 


No 


QuickLink II; QuickLink II; QuickLink II 


Lifetime 


(813) 530-2000 


(800) 484-3333 


1115 




Yes 


No 


No 


None; none; none 


5 


(416) 756-0718 


None 


1116 


^^^^ 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


QuickLink II; WinFax; Microphone, STF 


2 


(818)773-9600 


(800) 632-2378 


1117 




Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Relay/PCLE, FaxWorks; Relay/PCLE, 
FaxWorks; QuickLink II, STF Fax 


5 


(407) 997-6227 


None 


1118 




Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


BitCom/BltFax; BitCom/BitFax; none 


5 


(408) 980-0885 


None 


1119 




Yes 


No 


Yes 


BitCom/BitFax; BitCom/BitFax; none 


5 


(408) 980-0885 


None 


1120 




Yes 


Yes 


No 


ABC Fax; BitCom/BitFax; none 


5 


(408) 980-0885 


None 


1121 




Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


QuickLink II Fax; QuickLink II Fax; 
QuickLink II 


Limited 
lifetime 


(717)293-3000 


None 


1122 




No 


No 


No 


QuickLink II; QuickLink II; 
QuickLink II 


Limited 
lifetime 


(717)293-3000 


None 


1123 




No 


Yes 


No 


QuickLink II; none; QuickLink 11 


1 


(714) 222-6000 


None 


1124 




" Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


FaxMaker, Comit; FaxMaker, Connit; none 


5 


(408) 435-8520 


None 


1125 




Yes 


No 


No 


DOSFax Lite; WinFax Lite; Microphone LC, 
STF Fax 


5 


(408) 262-1277 


(800) 833-8900 


1126 




Yes 


No 


No 


None; none; AppleTalk remote switching 
software, SFT Fax, Dove PhoneWare Lite 


3 


(919) 343-5600 


(800) 849-3297 


1 127 




Yes 


No 


Yes 


None; none; Global Fax with OCR 


5 


(415) 390-8200 


(800) 736-4821 


1128 




Yes 


No 


No 


None; none; Global Fax 


5 


(415) 390-8200 


(800) 736-4821 


1129 . 




No 


Yes 


Yes 


QuickLink II; WinFax Lite; Microphone, STF 


5 


(201)579-3630 


(800) 289-4821 


1130 




Yes 


No 


Yes 


Smartmm F7 F7 Fay nnnp' Smartpnm Fpk 


2 


f4041 840-9200 


None 


1346 




Yes 


No 


Yes 


Smartcom EZ, EZ Fax; none; Smartcom, Fax 


2 


(404) 840-9200 


None 


1349 




Yes 


No 


Yes 


^mprtpnm F7 F7 Pay" nnnp' ^martpnm Fav 


2 




None 


1350 




No 


No 


No 


Smartcom EZ, EZ Fax; none; Smartcom, Fax 


2 


(404) 840-9200 


None 


1347 




No 


No 


No 


^mflrtpnm F-7 I--7 Pay nnnp* ^martrrim Fjiv 


2 






1348 




Yes 


No 


Yes 


CrossTalk, Satisfaxtion, Faxability Plus; 
CrossTalk, Satisfaxtion, Faxability Plus; none 


3 


(503) 696-8080 


(800) 538-3373 


1351 




Yes 


No 


No 


None; WinFax Lite; none 


t 


(617)551-1000 


(800) 822-8224 


1354 




No 


No 


No 


None; none; none 


1 


(617) 551-1000 


(800) 822-8224 


1352 




No 


No 


No 


None; none; none ' S^^H^^B 


1 


(617)551-1000 


(800) 822-8224 


1353 




No 


No 


No 


None; none; none 


2 


(508) 261-4000 


(800) 446-6336 


1356 




No 


No 


No 


None; none; none 


2 


(508)261-4000 


(800) 446-6336 


1355 




Yes 


No 


Yes 


None; none; none 


2 


(205) 430-8000 


(800) 451-2369 


1370 




No 


Yes 


Yes 


MultiExpress, MultiExpress-Fax; none; 
QuickLink II 


5 


(612)785-3500 


(800)328-9717 


1357 




No 


Yes 


No 


MultiExpress, MultiExpress-Fax; none; 
QuickLink II 


5 


(612) 785-3500 


(800) 328-9717 


1358 




No 


No 


No 


None; none; none 


1 


(214)518-5000 


(800) 222-4632 


1359 




No 


No 


No 


None; none; none 


2 


(508)441-2181 


(800) 989-8888 


1360 




Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


None; none; none 


2 


(301)921-8600 


(800) 473-6745 


1361 




Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


QuickLink II Fax Win/DOS; QuickLink II 
Fax Win/DOS; QuickLink II Fax 


Lifetime 


(805) 497-4774 


(800) 442-4774 


1363 




Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


QuickLink II Fax Win/DOS; QuickLink II Fax 
Win/DOS; QuickLink II Fax 


Lifetime 


(805) 497-4774 


(800) 442-4774 


1362 




Yes 


Yes 


No 


QuickLink II Fax Win/DOS; QuickLink II 


Lifetime 


(805) 497-4774 


(800) 442-4774 


1364 



Fax Win/DOS; QuickLink II Fax 



JULY 1993 BYTE/NSTL LAB REPORT 193 







ROLL 


GALL OF 


MODEMS 


XESXED 
























Ui 








THROUGHPUT TEST RESULTS' 




MAX SPEEDS' 






0 


MANUFACTURER 


MODEM 


PRICE 


1-WAY 


2-WAY 


IMPAIRED LINES' 


DCE 


DTE 


ESCAPES 




0 






















w 




Supra Corp. 


Supra Fax Modem v.32 


$380 


22.1 


21.0 


100 


9.6 


57.6 


Hayes 




(A 


Supra Corp. 


Supra Fax Modem v.32 bis $380 


31.7 


21.8 


92 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




IQ 


Telebit Corp. 


T3000 


$949 


31.1 


23.1 


93 


14.4 


57.6 


TIES 




N 
« 


The Complete PC 


Turbo Modem Plus 


$399 


31.7 


30.6 


100 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




1 

> 




Twincom ^^^^HHHR 


14.4/DF 


$399 


31.7 


22.1 




14.4 




^Hayes " ' 




0 


US Robotics 


Courier V.32bis Fax 


$795 


30.2 


25.6 


99 


14.4 


57.6 


TIES 




z 
< 




USRobotics 




$299 


30.3 


25.5 


99 


14.4 








N 
« 

1 


USRobotics 


Sportster 9600 Fax 


$249 


20.9 


20.4 


100 


9.6 


38.4 


TIES 




Ven-Tel 


\_/ 1 '-i'-t t CIA 


$599 


31.7 


21.8 


95 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 


i 


> 


Western Datacom 


WorldCom V.32bis 


$695 








14.4 


115.2 


Hayes 








Xycomm Technologies 


QuickComm Spirit II 


$249 


30.2 


24.2 


ST 
oo 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 












Zoom Telephonies 


VFXV32 


$269 


22.1 


21.0 


100 


9.6 


38.4 


Hayes 








Zoom Telephonies 


VFXV32bis 


$349 


31.7 


22.0 


97 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




























E-Tech Research 


UFOMate P1414MX 


$429 


30.8 


29.0 


95 


14.4 


115.2 


TIES 




(A 


E-Tech Research 


UFOMafe P14t)6MX 


$379 


30.8 


29.1 


95 


14.4 


57.6 


TIES 






Hayes Microcomputer 
Products 


Optima 144 Pocket 


$599 


31.2 


18.3 


95 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Megahertz 


P2144 


$499 


32.0 


26.1 


97 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




Microcom 


MicroPorte 4232bis Fax 


$699 


31.9 


19.7 


86 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




IVI4 




Multi-Tech Systems 


MT1432MU 


$699 


31.4 


21.4 


99 


14.4 


57.6 


TIES 




u 


^ Practical Peripherals 


PM14400FX PKT 


$499 


31.3 


20.3 


95 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




J 

< 




Twincom 


Voyager 


$499 


30.8 


29.1 


ifO 


14.4 


57.6 


TIES 


1 

1 


USRobotics 


WorldPortI 4,400 Fax 


$649 


30.1 


28.0 


HO 


14.4 


57.6 


TIES 




K 




USRobotics -^^^Hl 


HB/VorldPort 9696 Fax/Data 


$549 


20.1 


19.7 


99 


9.6 


57.6 


TIES 




0 


Zoltrix 


144/144e 


$239 


31.7 


22.1 


85 


14.4 


57.6 


Hayes 




























^AT&T Paradyne 
Motorola Codex 


Comsphere 3830 
3260 Fast 


$795 
$1395 


43.4 
53.4 


40.3 
38.4 


98 

90 


19.2 
24 


115.2 
115.2 


Hayes 
Hayes 




III s 


Telebit Corp. ,^.__«Mi8»<w-- WorldBlazer 


$1099 


38.5 


23.1 


97 


23 


115.2 


TIES 




111 E 


USRobotics 


Courier Dual Standard 


$1295 


32.1 


25.6 


92 


16.8 


57.6 


TIES 








U-1496E 


$469 


36.6 


33.3 


95 


16.8 


57.6 


Proprietary 




. 0 
IS 


Zyxel 


U-1496EPIUS 


$649 


40.6 


39.2 


94 


19.2 


76.8 


Proprietary 






U-1496PIUS 


$989 


40.6 


39.2 


97 


19.2 


76.8 


Proprietary 




HIG 


' Results of tests are measured in Kbps. 
^ Maximum transfer rate in Kbps. 
^ Percentage of throughput. 


' Unable to run our tests; problem was unresolved at press time. 
= BYTE Best 










a.94. BYXE/NSTL LAB REPORT JULY 1993 

















SOFTWARE 

(DOS; WINDOWS; MAC) 



WARRANTY 

(YEARS) PHONE 



TOLL-FREE NO. 



INQUIRY NO. 



Comit DOS/Windows, FaxTalk; WinFax Lite; 
STF Fax, Microptione 


5 


(503) 967-2400 


(800) 727-8772 


1366 


Comit DOSAA/indows, FaxTall<; WinFax Lite; 
STF Fax, Microphone 


5 


(503) 967-2400 


(800) 727-8772 


1365 


None; none; none ~™ 


2 


(408) 734-4333 


(800) 835-3248 


1367 


CrossTalk, RapidFax; RapidFax; BitFax, 
Microplione 


7 


(408) 434-0145 


(800) 229-1753 


1368 


QuickLink II; QuIckLink II with OCR; QuickLink II 
or QuickLink Data and STF Fax 


2 


(919) 395-6100 


(800) 666-2496 


1369 


Blast Fax; WinFax Lite; Apple Talk scripts 
on BBS 


2 


(708) 982-5010 


(800) 342-5877 


1371 


Blast Fax; WinFax Lite; AppleTalk scripts 
on BBS 


5 


(708) 982-5010 


(800) 342-5877 


1372 


Blast Fax; WinFax Lite; AppleTalk scripts 
on BBS 


5 


(708)982-5010 


(800) 342-5877 


1373 


QuickLink 11 Fax; none; QuickLink II Fax 


5 


(408) 436-7400 


(800) 538-5121 


1374 


QuickLink II Fax; QuickLink II; none 


1 


(216) 835-1510 


(800) 262-331 1 


1375 


QModem Lite, DOS Fax Lite; WinFax Lite; 
none 


Lifetime 


(214) 732-0255 


(800) 551-6166 


1376 


MTez with ExpressFax Protocols & Emulations; 
WinFax Lite; STF Fax, Microphone LT Data 


7 


(617) 423-1072 


(800) 666-6191 


1378 


MTez with ExpressFax Protocols & Emulations; 


7 


(617) 423-1072 


(800) 666-6191 


1377 



WinFax Lite; STF Fax, Microphone LT Data 



QuickLink II; QuickLink 11; QuickLink II 


2 


(408) 730-1388 


(800) 328-5538 


1379 


QuickLink II; QuickLink II; QuickLink II 


2 


(408) 730-1388 


(800) 328-5538 


1381 


Smartcom EZ, EZ Fax; none; 
Smartcom, Fax 


2 


(404) 840-9200 


None 


1382 


Eclipse Fax; WordPerfect MTEZ; none 


5 


(801)272-6000 


(800) 527-8677 


1383 


DOSFax Lite; WinFax Lite; none 


1 


(617) 551-1000 


(800) 822-8224 


1380 


MultiExpress, MultiExpress-Fax; none; 
QuickLink II 


5 


(612) 785-3500 


(800)328-9717 


1384 


QuickLink II Fax Win/DOS; QuickLink II 
Fax Win/DOS; QuickLink II Fax 


Lifetime 


(805) 497-4774 


(800) 442-4774 


1385 


QuickLink 11; QuickLink II with OCR; 
QuickLink II or QuickLink Data and STF Fax 


2 


(919) 395-6100 


(800) 666-2496 


1386 


Blast Fax; WinFax Lite; AppleTalk scripts 
on BBS 


2 


(708) 982-5010 


(800) 342-5877 


1387 


Blast Fax; WinFax Lite; AppleTalk scripts 
on BBS 


2 


(708) 982-5010 


(800) 342-5877 


1388 


BitFax for DOS, BitCom for DOS; BitFax for 
Windows, BitCom for DOS; none 


5 


(510)657-1188 


None 


1389 


None; none; none 


2 


(813) 530-2000 


(800) 484-3333 


1105 


None; none; none 


2 


(508) 261-4000 


(800) 446-6336 


1106 


None; none; none '~ '| 




(408) 734-4333 


(800) 835-3248 


1108 


Blast Fax; WinFax Lite; AppleTalk scripts 
on BBS 


2 


(708) 982-5010 


(800) 342-5877 


1109 


ZVoice/Fax; ZVoice/Fax; ZVoice/Fax 




(714)693-0808 


(800)255-4101 : 


1110 


ZVolce/Fax; ZVoice/Fax; ZVoice/Fax 


5 


(714) 693-0808 


(800)255-4101 


1111 


ZVoice/Fax; ZVoice/Fax; ZVoice/Fax 


5 


(714) 693-0808 


(800)255-4101 


1112 



JULY 1993 BYTE/NSTL LAB REPORT 19S 



From parallel 860s, to coprocessors and workstations- 



NDP " Fortran Drives 
Them All! 



Microway's industry-leading 
32-bit Fortran produces the 
highest quahty numeric code and 
supports all x86 operating systems, 
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Hands On 



Under the Hood 



Inside MS-DOS 6 



The developers of MS-DOS 6 describe the operating system's 
memory optimization and disk-compression technology 



BENJAMIN W. SUVKA, ERIC STRAUB, 
AND RICHARD FREEDMAN 

The two most interesting features of the newly 
released MS-DOS 6 Upgrade are Microsoft's 
new MemMaker memory optimization and 
DoubleSpace on-the-fly disk-compression 
technology. 

MemMaker automatically scans all device drivers and 
TSR programs in your AUTOEXEC.BAT and CON- 
FIG.SYS files, scans the upper-memory area, and deter- 
mines the most efficient way to load these files into avail- 
able UMBs (upper-memory blocks). A new EMM386 
allows MemMaker to recover up to 100 KB of addition- 
al UMB space. 

DoubleSpace effectively doubles your available disk 
space by compressing the contents of your hard disk. 
DoubleSpace works in the background, decompressing 
files as applications request them and then 
compressing the files when they are saved 
to disk. 

Both technologies mark an advance in 
MS-DOS by integrating memory manage- 
ment and file compression tightly into the 
core operating system. 

MemMaker 

We designed MemMaker with three goals 
in mind: safety (i.e., reliability), ease of 
use, and optimum use of memory resources. 
When we had to make trade-offs, we gave 
safety and ease of use higher priority than 
optimization. 

During memory optimization, Mem- 
Maker reboots the system twice. The first 
pass is for detecting the size of all device 
drivers and programs in CONFIG.SYS and 
AUTOEXEC.BAT (it does this by adding 
the SIZER command to each line contain- 
ing a device driver or program). The second 
pass is for loading these drivers and pro- 
grams in the optimal upper-memory con- 
figuration. Our primary goal was safety, 
yet we think it's impossible to design a memory opti- 
mizer that will never hang, since certain device drivers 
and programs do not function properly when loaded into 
upper memory. Our solution was to implement a state 
model that tracks the optimization process and lets Mem- 
Maker recover gracefully should the system hang during 
the optimization process. 

If MemMaker incorrectly maps over a critical piece of 
memory used by adapter ROM, the system may hang 



while restarting. MemMaker's state model automatical- 
ly detects this situation when the system restarts, and it lets 
you undo all changes or try a more conservative map- 
ping algorithm that creates less upper memory but may 
avoid the conflict. MemMaker recovers in a similar way 
if a device driver or program hangs when loaded into 
upper memory (or if it hangs as a result of another driv- 
er's or program's attempt to load into upper memory). 

Each time it runs, MemMaker creates a MEMMAK- 
ER.STS file to hold the information it gathers during op- 
timization, such as driver size information. The STATE= 
line in MEMMAKER.STS tracks the current state of the 
optimization process. MemMaker modifies this line many 
times during optimization as it passes certain milestones, 
such as completing the first reboot pass. 

Before each reboot, MemMaker inserts the statement 
DEVICE=C:\DOS\CHKSTATE.SYS /S:STATEARG 
as the first line in CONFIG.SYS. STATEARG defines the 




state that appears in MEMMAKER.STS when CHK- 
STATE.SYS loads and all is well. If CHKSTATE.SYS 
detects a mismatch between STATEARG and the state in 
MEMMAKER.STS when loading, MemMaker halts op- 
timization and takes action. Since CHKSTATE.SYS is the 
first driver loaded in CONFIG.SYS, it can load and take 
appropriate action when you reboot after a system hang. 
MemMaker removes the CHKSTATE.SYS line from 
CONFIG.SYS after it completes the optimization. 

continued 



JULY 1993 15 V I I: 3.97 



Hands M 



Under the Hood 



Optimum Balance 

MemMaker's optimization process does not automatically con- 
figure the 32-KB upper-memory area from B000-B7FF for two 
reasons: Super VGA boards use this space, and MemMaker can't 
always detect the presence of a Super 
VGA board. 

We also did not implement the Flex- 
Frame/Stealth feature that some other 
memory managers offer. This feature 
enables a 386 memory manager to load 
a device driver or TSR into a UMB that 
would otherwise not be large enough to 
hold the device driver. This feature takes 
advantage of the fact that the initial size 
of most device drivers and TSRs is larg- 
er than the final size. 

The difference between these two 




Benjamin W. Slivka 



sizes is usually due to initialization code that can be discarded af- 
ter the driver or TSR has been initialized. The trick is to detect a 
region of ROM or device adapter RAM adjacent to a target UMB 
that is not used while the particular device driver is loading. If the 
memory manager can find such an adjacent region, it maps this 
region with RAM temporarily, loads the device driver, and ini- 
tializes it. Once the driver or TSR shrinks down to a size that 
can fit in the UMB space, the memory manager restores the orig- 
inal ROM or adapter RAM mapping. 

The drawback here is that you may later add a driver, TSR, or 
board to the computer that invalidates the adjacent memory region 
selected. Unless you reoptimized at that point, the system would 
probably hang, and the problem would be difficult to diagnose. 

DoubleSpace 

DoubleSpace uses an on-the-fly LZ (Lempel-Ziv) compression al- 
gorithm that doubles — or nearly doubles — available disk space 
on a typical hard drive. DoubleSpace provides this increased 
disk capacity in a manner that is as compatible, easy to use, and 
safe as possible. Since disk compression 
is a file-system technology, we focused 
on integrating DoubleSpace into the MS- 
DOS file system. 

LZ compression lies at the heart of 
DoubleSpace. Lempel and Ziv wrote a 
landmark paper, LZ77, on lossless data 
compression (see "A Universal Algo- 
rithm for Sequential Data Compression" 
in IEEE Transactions on Information 
Theory, vol. IT-23, no. 3, May 1977) 
and proved that you can achieve nearly 
optimal compression without any knowl- 
edge of the type of data being handled. Quite simply, if a repeti- 
tion is found, it is represented by referring back to any early oc- 
currence in the data block of the same data. 
For example, consider the following string. 

1234567 8901234567 8901234567 8901234567 8901234 
The rain in Spain falls mainly on the plain. 

According to LZ77, you can represent this in a compressed 
form by writing out a combination of explicit bytes and matches 
that refer back to a previous portion of the input. For this exam- 
ple, you would produce the following: 




Eric Straub 



"Safety and ease 
of use were 
the top priorities in 
MemMaker's design." 

— Richard Freedman 



The rain <3,3>Sp<9,4>falls m<l l,3>ly on 
t<34,3>pl<15,3>. 

Here, <offset,length> indicates that you should move back 
offset bytes in the input string and copy length bytes. As anoth- 
er example, given the compressed data 0<1,200>1<1,100> 
2<1,50>, the uncompressed data would be 0.. .01. ..12. ..2 (i.e., 
201 O's, followed by 101 I's, followed by 51 2's). 

To create an LZ77 scheme suitable for DoubleSpace, we con- 
structed an algorithm that found good matches quickly and used 
very little data space. Since DoubleSpace is a part of every disk 
read and write on a compressed drive, it must be fast. And since 
it's resident in memory at all ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
times, it must be small. We 
also needed to choose an en- 
coding scheme that produced 
good compression but was 
easy to both encode and de- 
code. 

The final result is a good 
compromise. The performance 
impact of DoubleSpace is, on 
average, in the range of 5 per- 
cent to 15 percent slower than 
the performance of an uncom- 
pressed drive. But few users 
notice any change in perfor- 
mance. DoubleSpace requires 
43 KB of memory and can be 
loaded high. The compression 
ratio ranges from about 1.4 to 
1 for executable files, to 2 to 
1 for spreadsheet and word processing files, to more than 3 to 1 for 
bit maps and other redundant files. 

The CVF Approach 

Like many commercial third-party on-the-fly data-compression 
programs, DoubleSpace stores all compressed data in a single 
file — what we call a CVF (compressed volume file) — that ap- 
pears to be a separate logical drive. A normal FAT (file allocation 
table) drive can be converted into a DoubleSpace drive, and the 
conversion process occurs in place without any disk reformatting 
or repartitioning. A system can have up to 255 CVFs; a CVF 
can hold up to 512 MB of data (that's the uncompressed value). 

A CVF implementation has several advantages over automat- 
ic file-by-file compression. Since it stores compressed data at 
the cluster level, MS-DOS doesn't have to decompress the entire 
file to randomly read or write to it. The CVF approach also dou- 
bles the reported size of the hard disk while reporting the un- 
compressed sizes of individual files. The file-by-file approach, by 
contrast, reports the same total disk size as before, while report- 
ing the compressed size of individual files. 

Since files, unlike hard disks, travel between systems, changes 
in their reported sizes as they are decompressed and copied to an- 
other location can create knotty compatibility problems. And 
since DoubleSpace effectively simulates a standard FAT drive 
structure, existing disk tools work with a DoubleSpace drive. 
Finally, since DoubleSpace stores clusters on a sector basis, the 
CVF approach solves the problem of cluster slack: Small files, 
even if they are not compressible, are stored in as few 512-byte 
sectors as possible, rather than taking a full cluster as they would 




198 BYTE JULY 1993 



PHOTOGRAPHY: MATTHEW MCVAY©1993 



Hands Oni 



Under the Hood 



DoubleSpace Data Structures 

Uncompressed 
(drive H) 



Boot sector 

(1 sector) 



FAT 
(size varies) 



Root directory 
(size varies) 



File space 



CVF 



on a normal FAT drive. 

Some users worry that a CVF might 
be less safe than the normal FAT file sys- 
tem, because it puts everything in one 
file. Actually, a CVF is no more suscep- 
tible to damage than a normal FAT drive. 
Both contain a FAT, a root directory, sub- 
directories, and sectors that store actual 
file data; the CVF also has an additional 
data structure (called the MDFAT) that 
allows for optimal space allocation. 

As with a FAT drive, one bad sector 
in a CVF means that you lose just the file 
(or a portion of it) that contains the bad 
sector. A damaged FAT, root directory, or 
subdirectory sector is a more serious prob- 
lem, but these risks exist for both FAT 
drives and DoubleSpace drives. 



Inside the CVF 

A DoubleSpace CVF uses the naming 
convention DBLSPACE.nnw, where nnn 
is a number between 000 and 254 that 
represents the CVF's sequence number. 
DoubleSpace uses sequence number 000 
when the CVF is created by compress- 
ing the contents of an existing drive (as 
opposed to creating an empty CVF from 
free space). When DoubleSpace mounts 
a DBLSPACE.OOO CVF, it refers to the CVF using the drive let- 
ter of the host drive — which is most often C — and refers to the 
host drive using a new drive letter (the default is H). 

The CVF's internal data structures include the MDBPB (Mi- 
crosoft DoubleSpace BIOS parameter block), the BitFAT, MD- 
FAT, boot sector, FAT, root directory, and sector heap (see the fig- 



DoubleSpace 
(drive C) 



MDBPB 

(1 sector) 



BitFAT 
(size varies) 



MDFAT 
(size varies) 



Boot sector 
(1 sector) 

FAT 
(size varies) 



Root directory 
(32 sectors) 

Sector heap 
(compressed 
file space) 



DoubleSpace uses the same data structures as an 
uncompressed hard drive but adds several new 
structures that allow data to be stored at the sector 
level, rather than by cluster. 



ure "DoubleSpace Data Structures"). The 
MDBPB contains an MS-DOS BPB as 
well as fields that describe the rest of the 
CVF. 

The BitFAT indicates which sectors 
in the sector heap are in use (1) or free 
(0). Its size depends on the maximum 
CVF size (which is stored in the MDBPB 
and chosen at the time the CVF is creat- 
ed). MS-DOS 6 rebuilds the BitFAT each 
time it mounts the CVF (including when 
the system restarts) by scanning the MD- 
FAT. This process verifies the integrity 
of both the MDFAT and the BitFAT. 

The MDFAT is a table of 4-byte en- 
tries that map each FAT cluster to sectors 
in the sector heap. Each entry points to 
the location in the sector heap that con- 
tains the data for the cluster, the com- 
pressed and uncompressed length of the 
cluster, whether the data is compressed, 
and whether the cluster is in use. If 
DoubleSpace can't compress a cluster, 
it stores the data uncompressed to avoid 
wasting space and to improve read speed. 

The boot sector in the CVF is present 
for compatibility only; MS-DOS 6 does 
not use it to boot the system. However, 
this sector is returned when MS-DOS 
reads sector 0 from the compressed volume. 

DoubleSpace uses a standard MS-DOS root directory (512 
entries of 32 bytes each) and replaces the usual cluster file-space 
area of a normal FAT drive with a sector heap. Unlike a normal 
FAT drive, where file space is allocated in units of a cluster, 
DoubleSpace allocates sector-heap space in units of a sector. 

continued 



How DoubleSpace Stores Data 



Root directory 



FAT 



MDFAT 



Sector heap 



Name 


Size (KB) Cluster 


MY^DIR 


dir 


37 


READMETXT 


12 


42 


• 




• 




• 





IMY_DIR directory 



Name 



Size (KB) Cluster 



BRICK.ZIP 



24 



65 





• 




• 




• 


37 


<eof> 




• 




• 




• 


42 


43 


43 


<eof> 




• 




• 




• 


65 


66 


66 


67 


67 


<eof> 



f = Flag uncompressed (u) or compressed (c) 
us = Uncompressed sector count 
cs = Compressed sector count 
sec = Sector number 



If 


us 


cs 


sec 


u 


16 


16 


1002 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


« 


• 


c 


16 


7 


200 


c 


16 


6 


207 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


u 


16 


16 


612 




16 


16 




u 


628 


u 


16 


16 


644 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 


• 





200 
-*■ 207 
213 



612 
628 
644 
660 



1002 
1018 



Cluster 42 



Cluster 43 



Cluster 65 



Cluster 66 



Cluster 67 



Cluster 77 



On a DoubleSpace Ame, files arui subdirectories map through the FAT and MDFAT to the sector heap. DoubleSpace stores files by sector rather than 
by cluster, and the MDFAT provides the link between the uncompressed logical clusters in the FAT and the compressed data in the sector heap's 
physical sectors. README. TXT uses two clusters that compress from 32 to 13 sectors in the sector heap. BRICK.ZIP can 't be compressed; it 's flagged 
as uncompressed in the MDFA T and uses a full 16 sectors per cluster. 



JULY 1993 BYTE 199 



Hands On; 



Under the Hood 



Contents of a Compressed Drive 

Compressed 
volume 

(drive C) 



The DBLSPACE.BIN kernel file executes from the boot drive immediately after lO.SYS 
and MSDOS.SYS. Drive C then becomes the CVF, and the boot volume becomes drive H. 
The latter contains DoubleSpace 's hidden files. Note that lO.SYS and MSDOS.SYS are 
duplicated on the CVF for application program compatibility. 



When DoubleSpace re- 
quires disk space, it allo- 
cates one or more free sec- 
tors from the sector heap 
and sets the correspond- 
ing bits in the BitFAT to 
indicate that the sectors 
are in use. 

FAT-Compatible 

A DoubleSpace drive ap- 
pears to the MS-DOS file 
system as a normal FAT 
drive and has similar on- 
disk structures. The key 
difference is how Double- 
Space stores subdirectory 
data and data clusters (see 
the figure "How Double- 
Space Stores Data"). On 
a FAT drive, MS-DOS 
uses a simple multiplica- 
tion formula to translate a 
FAT cluster number to a 
logical sector number on 
the drive containing the 
cluster's data. Using a DoubleSpace drive, MS-DOS 6 finds clus- 
ter data by looking at the MDFAT entry that corresponds to the 
requested FAT cluster. 

Suppose an appUcation calls MS-DOS to read file data. MS- 
DOS finds the FAT cluster containing the desired data — call it 
cluster X — and then calls DoubleSpace to read this cluster. Dou- 
bleSpace examines the MDFAT entry for cluster X, finds the 
sector heap location for cluster X's sectors, reads those sectors into 
an internal buffer, decompresses them (if necessary), and returns 
control to MS-DOS. 

The cluster size varies on uncompressed hard drives, but a 
DoubleSpace drive always has 8-KB clusters. Therefore, the 
number of sectors read from the sector heap can range from one 
(if the cluster was compressed to a ratio of 16 to 1) to 16 (if the 
cluster was not compressed). 

Operations such as creating a file, deleting a file, and search- 
ing the disk for a particular file work exactly the same way on a 
DoubleSpace drive as they would on a FAT drive. The only dif- 
ference is that reading a subdirectory or data cluster requires 
a lookup in the MDFAT table, and probably decompression 
as well. 

Disk utihties are another matter. Any program that uses normal 
MS-DOS INT 21h file I/O operations or BNT 25h/26h direct- 
sector read and write operations will see a DoubleSpace drive 
as a normal FAT drive. However, the data for a contiguous range 
of clusters on a DoubleSpace disk is most likely not stored con- 
tiguously in the sector heap. That means that disk defragmenters 
that haven't been updated to support MS-DOS 6 will work safe- 
ly but won't produce physically contiguous files. (Many such 
products have already been upgraded to support DoubleSpace.) 

DoubleSpace's own disk utihties, CHKDSK and DEFRAG, op- 
erate in two phases when applied to a DoubleSpace drive. They 
first perform the same operations they would perform on a nor- 
mal FAT drive — working with the root directory, the FAT, sub- 
directories, and data clusters — before operating on the CVF's 



Uncompressed 
boot volume 

(drive H) 

/ 




unique internal structures 
(the MDBPB, BitFAT, 
MDFAT, and sector heap). 

The Boot Process 

We integrated Double- 
Space into MS-DOS by 
making the compression 
system, DBLSPACE.BIN, 
a kernel file. Because 
DoubleSpace doesn't load 
as a device driver from 
CONFIG.SYS, you don't 
need to have two copies of 
CONFIG.SYS and AU- 
TOEXEC.BAT (one on 
the CVF and one on the 
uncompressed disk). You 
also don't need to main- 
tain duphcate copies of all 
files that are referenced in 
CONFIG.SYS and AU- 
TOEXEC.BAT (which are 
called boot files), syn- 
chronize changes to these 
files, or swap drive letters 



partway through processing CONFIG.SYS. 

On a system without DoubleSpace, the boot process begins 
when the CPU executes the ROM BIOS and loads the MBR 
(master boot record). The MBR searches the partition table for the 
active partition and loads that partition's boot sector. The boot 
sector then loads lO.SYS and initializes MSDOS.SYS. Finally, 
CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT execute. 

In a DoubleSpace system, DBLSPACE.BIN loads right after 
MSDOS.SYS initializes. DBLSPACE.BIN then reads the ini- 
tialization parameters from DBLSPACE.INI and mounts the 
CVFs indicated in the ActivateDrive=X, Yn line. At this 
point, the uncompressed drive C becomes drive H, and C 
becomes the CVF (see the figure "Contents of a Compressed 
Drive"). DBLSPACE.BIN looks for DBLSPACE.INI first on 
the boot drive and then on the CVF. If it doesn't find the file, 
DBLSPACE.BIN unloads itself from memory. 

Since DBLSPACE.BIN does not load when DoubleSpace 
drives are absent, you can put DBLSPACE.BIN on every boot- 
able MS-DOS 6 drive without fear of wasting valuable memory 
space. And since the configuration information remains in DBL- 
SPACE.INI on the hard drive, you can boot an MS-DOS 6 sys- 
tem that uses DoubleSpace from a boot floppy disk that contains 
DBLSPACE.BIN, and the DoubleSpace drives will mount cor- 
rectly. 

The next step is to load DoubleSpace into a UMB. The kernel 
approach created its own problems here: DBLSPACE.BIN loads 
before the system's 386 memory manager loads in CONFIG.SYS, 
so no UMBs are available at load time. We solved this problem 
by writing a short program, DBLSPACE.SYS, and by adding 
code to DBLSPACE.BIN so that DoubleSpace can relocate itself 
into upper memory. DBLSPACE.SYS loads from CONHG.SYS 
after EMM386.EXE and HIMEM.SYS and contains the line DE- 
VICEHIGH=C:\DOS\DBLSPACE.SYS /MOVE. This line sig- 
nals DBLSPACE.BIN to move itself from conventional memory 
to upper memory. continued 



200 BYXE JULY 1993 



" DISK COMPRESSION IS 
INHERENTLY MORE FRAGILE 
...USERS OF COMPRESSION 

SHOULD HAVE A COPY 
OF NORTON UTILITIES 7.0." 



PC Week -May 10,1993 




The new compression teciinology can 
put you in a squeeze. You wanted ttie 
efficiency, but now you're worried about 
losing data. 

Here's some news that might help you 
relax. No other single product gives you 
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It's the only utility specifically designed to recover data 
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truly defragment the drives, making your recovery a fast, 
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You also get the Norton Disk Doctor,® with its nine auto- 
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the new Norton Diagnostics, which analyzes and tests all vital 
system components, including memory, video, CPU, system 
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You can't put a price on peace of mind. But we'll try. Take 
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408-262-3570. The Norton Utilities, Norton Disk Doctor and Speed Disk are registered trademarks of Symantec Corporation. Quote reprinted from PC Week May 10, 1993. ©1993 Ziff Communications 
Company. Other names are trademarks of their respective holders. Compatible with Windows 3.0 and 3.1, DOS 3.3 and higher. ©1993 Symantec Corporation. All rights reserved. 



Cilcle 161 on Inquiry Card. 



Circle 162 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 163). 



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Norcross, GA 30092 
Tel: 1-800-4FRACTI' Fax: (404)840-0806 



A Message To 
Our Subscribers 

FROM TIME TO TIME WE MAKE THE BYTE SUBSCRIBER 
list available to other companies who wish to 
send our subscribers material about their 
products. We take great care to screen these 
companies, choosing only those who are reputable, 
and whose products, services or information we feel 
would be of interest to you. Direct mail is an 
efficient medium for presenting the latest personal 
computer goods and services to our subscribers. 

Many BYTE subscribers appreciate this controlled 
use of our mailing hst, and look forward to finding 
information of interest to them in the mail. Used are 
our subscribers' names and addresses only (no other 
information we may have is ever given). 

While we believe the distribution of this information 
is of benefit to our subscribers, we firmly respect the 
wishes of any subscriber who does not want to 
receive such promotional literature. Should you 
wish to restrict the use of your name, simply send 
your request to the following address. 

BVTE 



Magazine 
Attn; Subscriber Service 

P.O. Box 555 
Hightstown, NJ 08520 



m 



Hands On 



Under the Hood 



Safety First 

DoubleSpace operations can be classified as either restartable or 
robust. Restartable operations, such as compressing a FAT drive 
or resizing a DoubleSpace drive, must complete. If such an op- 
eration terminates before completion, the data on the hard drive 
will be in an inconsistent state, and the computer will become in- 
operable. A robust operation such as CHKDSK or DEFRAG, 
on the other hand, is designed so that it can be interrupted with- 
out consequence; it does not have to complete. For either type of 
operation, we engineered DoubleSpace so that the computer can 
be restarted at any time without losing data. 

When DoubleSpace starts an operation that must be com- 
pleted, it modifies AUTOEXEC.BAT so that it automatically 
regains control after an interruption. Also, DoubleSpace per- 
forms all operations on the hard drive in a careful order to ensure 
that at least one copy of all user data is on the drive at all times and 
that DoubleSpace knows at all times what operation is being per- 
formed. In this way, DoubleSpace can pick up where it left off 
after an interruption with no data loss. Robust operations like 
CHKDSK and DEFRAG move data around on the DoubleSpace 
drive in a specific order so that no data loss occurs if the system 
reboots unexpectedly. 

Extending DoubleSpace 

Disk-tool vendors can take advantage of the DoubleSpace system 
API and the CVF specification to write DoubleSpace-aware disk 
defragmenter and repair utilities. And software and hardware 
developers can take advantage of the MRCI (Microsoft Real- 
Time Compression Interface), a client/server software interface 
that allows a compression client (be it DoubleSpace, a backup 
program, or a network protocol transport) to use compression 
without depending on the particular compression-server imple- 
mentation. This approach requires only a single copy of the com- 
pression server (a boon in the RAM-starved arena of MS-DOS) 
and allows compression-server improvements to occur without re- 
quiring corresponding revisions to the clients. 

The most obvious improvement would be to implement an 
MRCI server in hardware. This would have several benefits. The 
RAM occupied by the software server would no longer be need- 
ed and would be available to other programs (the present MRCI 
server occupies 14 KB). A hardware server is faster and can 
achieve better compression by performing more exhaustive 
searching for matches. And in a multitasking environment, the 
hardware server can free the CPU for other functions. 

MRCI-compliant hardware will have the greatest speed if it 
is implemented on a local-bus architecture. In the future, MRCI 
compression could even be built into CPUs. By contrast, an ISA- 
bus compression card would be at a distinct disadvantage, since 
the 8-MHz speed of the bus limits the amount of data that can be 
transmitted to and from the card. MRCI is currently limited to real- 
mode operation but will soon support enhanced-mode Windows. 

We focused on safety and ease of use in our design of Mem- 
Maker and DoubleSpace in the hope that a much broader audience 
will reap the benefits of increased conventional memory and 
disk space. Up to now, these benefits have been limited to a 
much smaller group of advanced users. ■ 



Benjamin W. Slivka is development manager, Eric Straub is lead program 
inanager, and Richard Freedman is lead product manager for MS-DOS 6 
at Microsoft Corp. (Redmond, WA). You can contact them on BIX c/o 
"editors "or on the Internet at editors@bix.com. 



202 BYTE JULY 1993 



Hands On 



Beyond DOS 



Confessions of a DDK Developer 

The OS/2 Device Driver Development Kit fails sliort, 
but it's a start 




STEVE MASTRIANNI 

One cold February afternoon, after a 
long wait, I received a letter from IBM 
announcing the beta OS/2 2.0 Device 
Driver Development Kit. I eagerly 
signed and returned the form with a check for $15, and 
less than one week later, I finally had the elusive OS/2 
DDK. I'd been hearing rumors about it for several 
months. IBM kept promising to deliver it, but delays 
dragged the process out, and IBM had to repeatedly ask 
developers to have patience. Sources close to IBM say 
that the problem was not the availability of the driver 
code. Instead, no one was given the responsibility to 
gather the code and produce the DDK. Rumors of legal 
problems with Microsoft also circulated. At last, the 
problems were resolved. 

A Dubious Beginning 

The DDK came on one CD-ROM, and the 
Win-OS2 drivers came on two floppy disks. 
I was eager to find out what took up all the 
space, so I began to install it immediately on 
a machine that was running the December 
2. 1 beta code. The installation process asked 
for 50 MB of disk space. I had 52 MB free, 
so I figured I'd just make it. 
I was wrong. 

About 95 percent of the way through the 
installation, I got a general protection fault 
and that feared message "the system is 
stopped." Judging by the address of the 
fault, it appeared to be in a device driver, 
and my worst fears were realized when I 
found that the first several tracks of my 
disk were rewritten with data. The disk was 
no longer bootable. The FAT (file allocation 
table) was gone, as was all my data. Fortu- 
nately, this was a spare system that didn't 
contain any critical information. (I later 
found out that this was a known bug with 
the 2. 1 beta code. The device-driver code, I later dis- 
covered, requires 54 MB of disk space.) 

I reformatted the hard disk and reinstalled DOS and the 
2. 1 beta code. I reinstalled much of my previous soft- 
ware, but I left approximately 100 MB free. This time the 
installation went perfectly, duly placing a gob of driver 
source code on my disk. All the drivers were installed: 
printer, SCSI, display, virtual, and physical. The instal- 
lation program lets you select only the drivers you want. 



That helps conserve disk space, but locating a particular 
driver is a tedious job. 

Wliat You Get 

The DDK includes the previously unreleased Microsoft 
CL386, a 32-bit C compiler that was used internally to 
create the 32-bit code for OS/2 2.0. IBM also used CL386 
to build all the VDDs (virtual device drivers) for OS/2 2.x. 
Also included is a copy of MASM (Microsoft Macro 
Assembler) 5.1, although some examples require MASM 
6.0. 1 was annoyed by this. Why couldn't the examples all 
use the same tools? 

A better question yet: Why does IBM develop OS/2 
with different compilers and assemblers? This requires de- 
vice-driver developers to install Microsoft C 5.1, Mi- 
crosoft C 6.0, CL386, IBM's C Set/2, MASM 5.1, and 




MASM 6.0. In its defense, IBM says that it is working to 
correct this problem in a subsequent release of the DDK. 
Also, some simple tools are included with the DDK, such 
as a program that lets you quickly change a file's ex- 
tended attributes, a hardware palette-display program, a 
display test tool, a printer test tool, TOUCH, SED, MAP- 
SYM, LIB, and the resource compiler, RCPP. 

As for drivers, the DDK includes dozens. In the cate- 
gory of video-display drivers, the DDK includes a 16-bit 



JULY 1993 BYTE 



203 



Hands Oil 



Beyond DOS 



VGA driver, a 16-bit 8514/A driver, a 32-bit VGA driver, a 32- 
bit Super VGA driver, and a 32-bit device-independent driver. The 
virtual video counterparts are also included. Base video handlers 
for VGA, 85 14/A, CGA, XGA (Extended Graphics Array), and 
EGA top off the list of video drivers. The two floppy disks con- 
tain the source code for two seamless video drivers based on a 
Windows 3.0 and Windows 3.1 VGA driver. 

In the printer category, IBM suppUes only two drivers: a Post- 
Script driver and a plotter driver, which appear to be OS/2 1 .3 
source code. This makes sense, because IBM still supports these 
drivers on OS/2 1.3. You must compile the PostScript driver 
with CL386. For disk drives, the DDK includes the source code 
for the floppy driver, ASPI (advanced SCSI programming inter- 
face) driver, IDE driver, PS/2 SCSI driver, PS/2 floppy driver, and 
PS/2 DASD (Direct Access Storage Device) driver. For CD- 
ROM drives, the DDK includes the source code for the Hitachi, 
Toshiba, NEC, and Sony SCSI CD-ROM drives, as well as CD- 
ROM Device Manager. Drivers for the Mouse Systems mouse, PC 
Mouse/Logitech mouse, and VisiOn mouse are also included, 
although a virtual mouse driver is missing. 

Hunting Around 

The first place I looked was the PDD (physical device driver) 
section, since these are my favorite OS/2 device drivers. I've 
long been an advocate of writing PDDs in C. I supply a C-callable 
library that allows a PDD written in C to call the register-based 
OS/2 device helpers, and I was curious to see what IBM offered. 

IBM included a library with source code and make files, but ab- 
solutely no documentation. If you're a good MASM programmer, 
you can probably figure out the more-complex-than-necessary as- 
sembly language code and macros, and the way to call the func- 
tions by reading the assembly language include file — if you have 
the time. 

Also, the library contained several undocumented device- 
helper function calls. The library needs to be fully documented, 
and the documentation file placed on the CD-ROM for refer- 
ence. If the function calls are unsupported, IBM should make 
note of these so that developers won't use them in production 
code. But they should be documented nonetheless. I was pleased 
to see much of the driver code written in C. Since most driver op- 
erations are quick, it makes almost no sense to write them in as- 
sembly language. Drivers written in C can be written in half the 
time it takes to write one using MASM, and they're easier to de- 
bug and support. 

I didn't find the PDD reference, which is the PDD writer's 
bible. Nor did I find the presentation driver and VDD references. 
What's confusing about these omissions is that IBM has already 
released these in the Professional Developer's Kit. Not all driver 
writers, however, have need for the PDK, so they're left with 
virtually no documentation. IBM says it intends to supply these 
documents on future releases of the DDK. 

Trying to make sense of the DDK by wading through over 50 
MB of code is extremely tedious. The DDK CD-ROM should in- 
clude the necessary navigational information in INF format. I'd 
also like to see the Control Program Reference manual on the 
DDK CD-ROM, since most of the calls to the device driver are 
performed with these APIs. When testing my drivers, I always 
have to refer to Control Program Reference because I find it im- 
possible to remember all the parameters and their ordering. 

Also noticeably absent from the DDK is an example of a file- 
system driver. The information about OS/2's IFS (installable 



file system) is sketchy at best, and it can be obtained only with 
special permission. Although a small skeleton IFS is download- 
able via CompuServe, IBM needs to do a better job in the IFS area 
by providing sample code and IFS documentation as a standard 
part of the DDK CD-ROM. There's just no excuse for not pro- 
viding the code. 

Other Improvements Needed 

The DDK is a good start, but it's extremely difficult to use with- 
out good documentation. Because IBM has committed to regular 
releases of the DDK, it should take the time to make the product 
better. Many of the source code examples contain hundreds of 
lines of code with no documentation whatsoever, and some never 
even state what the function does. IBM must provide more docu- 
mentation to let developers understand exactly what is on the 
CD and how to find it. Nobody has the time to fumble around the 
CD looking for something that may or may not be there. 

A debugger such as ASDT32 should be provided on the CD. 
The DDK is also lacking in examples of character drivers, such 
as a serial or parallel driver, a data acquisition driver, or a simple 
memory-mapped driver. These "other" drivers make up over 
half of the devices that will require OS/2 device drivers. The 
DDK should also include a tutorial for building device drivers with 
sample code. All these documents, including the device-driver ref- 
erences, should be supplied in several formats (e.g., INF, Read/2, 
ASCII, and PostScript). 

IBM must do a better job of supporting device-driver writers, 
especially since this has traditionally been OS/2's Achilles' heel. 
Currently, IBM operates a small BBS where device-driver writ- 
ers can ask questions and download sample code. However, the 
BBS is a single-user system and lacks the benefit of ongoing 
message threads, like you find on CompuServe or BIX. Period- 
ically, the questions and answers are merged into a file that can 
be downloaded, but this is not as helpful as a continuing message 
thread on CompuServe. IBM has announced that CompuServe is 
the official public support forum for OS/2 2.x. Therefore, IBM 
should support device drivers in the device-driver forum there, 
where a much wider audience of developers can benefit from 
the message traffic. 

Waking Up? 

IBM may finally be getting the message. A special group within 
the company has been formed to promote OS/2 device drivers — 
both pubUcly and internally. The DDK has become a product, and 
it now has a product manager assigned to it. IBM plans quarter- 
ly releases of the DDK, and each release should get better and bet- 
ter. Future releases will include drivers and tools for the follow- 
ing areas: pen computing, multimedia, XGA, 8514/A, SCSI, 
mice, keyboards, IFS, serial and parallel ports, touchscreens, and 
PCMCIA, as well as a large selection of tools and on-line docu- 
mentation. 

IBM has scheduled a three-day OS/2 DDK conference this 
month. The OS/2 2.x device-driver developers from the Boca 
Raton labs will attend to give talks and meet with developers. 
Perhaps the release of the DDK and the conference signal a turn- 
ing point for OS/2 device-driver developers. Stay tuned. ■ 

Steve Mastrianni is president of Personal Systems Software in Canton, Con- 
necticut. He specializes in device drivers, operating systems, and real-time ap- 
plications for OS/2 and Windows NT. You can reach him on BIX as "smas- 
trianni, " on the Internet at smastrianni@bix.com, or on CompuServe at 
71501,1652. 



204 BYTE JULY 1993 



Hands Oil 



Some Assembly Required 



The Mac Extended 



The Mac operating system's modular design lets savvy 
programmers add new -features 




ERIC SHAPIRO ANO 
TOM THOMPSON 

uch of the Apple Macintosh's identity 
comes from its Toolbox code. Believe 
it or not, despite the fact that these rou- 
tines are frozen in the Mac ROMs, you 
can still change the Mac's identity. Apple does it all the 
time. MultiFinder retroactively added cooperative mul- 
titasking to all existing Macs; QuickTime added time- 
based data manipulation to the Mac's repertoire. This 
was possible because the Mac OS's low-level structure 
was designed to be easily extensible. Such extensions 
take the form of code patches that alter a program's thread 
of execution out of the ROM and into new code located 
in RAM. It's this new code that adds extra features. 

Easy Extensions 

You can patch the Mac OS in various ways. 
For example, some word processors patch 
the Mac's text-handling routines so it can 
work with huge chunks of text. (These 
patches apply only to the application's en- 
vironment, not to other running applica- 
tions). The application applies these patch- 
es when it launches and removes them just 
before it quits. The exception is MultiFinder 
under System 6.0.x. This System applica- 
tion applies specific patches and runs in 
the background for as long as the Mac re- 
mains switched on. 

You might, however, want to add a spe- 
cial feature that's present constantly, not 
just when a certain application runs. The 
QuickTime Extension, for example, sup- 
ports all applications, and Steve Chris- 
tensen's SuperClock Control Panel adds a 
permanent time display to the Mac's menu 
bar. The trick is to do what experts do to ap- 
ply a permanent feature: patch the operating 
system at boot time. Fortunately, the Mac 
OS gives you a hand here. A special ini- 
tialization mechanism scans the Control Panel, Exten- 
sion, and System folders at boot time for files of type 
INIT, cdev, and RDEV. These file types signal the soft- 
ware to open the file, load initiahzation resources of type 
INIT into memory, and execute their code. This code 
apphes the patches to the Mac OS. 

These INITs are called Extensions in System 7 par- 
lance, although INIT code can be found in Control Pan- 
els. They are powerful tools, but they're more compUcated 



to write than applications. Apple doesn't officially ap- 
prove of patching the Mac OS because it can create com- 
patibiUty problems. Nevertheless, it has supplied some in- 
formation. Tech Note number 256 discusses these issues, 
with a heavy bias toward using the MPW development 
tools. To add balance, we provide information on writing 
Extensions using Symantec's Think C compiler. Since 
we're tinkering with the Mac OS at a low level, a brief ex- 
planation of how the Mac OS operates is in order. Once 
you understand how it works, you'll know how and where 
to apply a patch safely. 

The Trap Mechanism 

The Mac OS gains its extensibility by leveraging off the 
680x0 processor's exception handUng. An exception is an 
error condition that the processor detects as it runs a pro- 
gram. Such errors include attempting to access a memory 




address outside of physical RAM, trying to use a privi- 
leged instruction, executing an unimplemented instruction, 
and other abnormal conditions. 

When the processor detects an exception, it switches to 
supervisor mode, calculates an exception vector (which is 
an address that contains a pointer to a handler routine), and 
saves its registers on the stack. The processor then loads 
the address stored in the exception vector and jumps to it. 
The handler code at this address deals (presumably) with 



JULY 1993 BYTE 20S 



Hands On 



Some Assembly Required 



Trap Word Formats 

Toolbox trap word format 



15 14 13 


12 11 


10 9 8 7 6 


5 


4 3 


2 


1 0 


1 1 0 1 1 

1 I 










i 




J 










J 







Unimplemented 
instruction code 



Flags 



Trap number 



Specifies 
Toolbox 
format 



Operating-system trap word format 



15 


14 


13 


12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 


4 


3 


2 


1 0 


1 


0 


1 


0^0. ■ 1 , 










V 














J 



Unimplemented 
instruction code 



Flags 



Trap number 



Specifies 
operating-system 
fomnat 



Format of the opcode used to call Toolbox routines. Bit 11 is used to select 
the type of service requested. 



the error condition and returns execution to the program. As most 
Mac users know, the Error Manager fields some of these excep- 
tions, displaying the much-beloved bomb box. 

So far, this sounds no different from the way other processors 
handle exceptions. However, you can use a special unimple- 
mented instruction to expand the features of the 680x0 processor. 
This unimplemented instruction word is called the A-line op- 
code, because bits 15 through 12 equal the bit pattern for the 
hexadecimal "A." Exception handling is the same when the 
processor encounters this instruction, but the system jumps to 
handler code that emulates new functions. The A-line trap there- 
fore allows new operations to be added to the processor's in- 
struction set. 

Apple uses the A-line trap mechanism to implement its Tool- 
box and Mac OS routines. The figure above shows the format of 
this instruction word (commonly called a trap word or trap). 
Notice that bit 1 1 of the word (the 'Toolbox bit") signifies whether 
the trap is a Toolbox routine or a Mac OS routine. Originally, 
Toolbox routines were stack-based (i.e., they took arguments off 
the stack), and the Mac OS routines were register-based (with a 
few exceptions). 

Apple adds another level to this trap mechanism (see "Anato- 
my of a Trap" on page 207). When the processor hits an A-line 
trap during the execution of a Mac application, it jumps to a han- 
dler known as the Trap Dispatcher. The Trap Dispatcher first 
examines the trap word's Toolbox bit to determine the type of rou- 
tine being called. Then it uses the 8 or 9 remaining bits in the trap 
word as an index into a dispatch table. The entries in this table 
contain pointers to routines, so the processor jumps to a routine 
that provides the services that the trap requests. Finally, the 
processor returns to the Mac application. 

The Mac ROM contains a list of entries that get loaded when 
the Mac boots, and this is where the initial addresses in the dis- 
patch table come from. The Trap Dispatcher must determine 
whether the trap is a Toolbox call or a Mac OS call, because it 
maintains a separate dispatch table for these two trap types. 

While the Trap Dispatcher scheme adds some complexity to 
trap handling, it also provides great flexibihty. Since every call to 
the Toolbox or Mac OS is controlled by the dispatch tables. 



changing an entry in the table changes which routine services a 
trap. To add a new routine to the Toolbox (perhaps a QuickDraw 
GX trap), Apple loads the new trap code into RAM at boot time, 
locks it (so it can't move around in memory), and then plugs the 
code's start address into an empty slot in the dispatch table. 

Once you understand the workings of the Trap Dispatcher, 
you can patch a trap to add custom features to the Mac OS by 
modifying a dispatch table entry to point to your code. Instead of 
replacing a particular trap's routine, use the Trap Dispatcher to call 
your code to perform a task, and then call the original trap routine. 

This sounds simple, but it's a bit tricky. Remember, you're 
performing surgery as the Mac starts up, and your code can't 
rely on many of the resources made available to an application. 
Since it's on its own to access global variables or allocate mem- 
ory, such code is called stand-alone code. 

Global Issues 

When you launch an application, the Process Manager creates a 
memory partition, loads the application code into it, and sets up 
its heap, stack, and A5 world. The A5 world uses the A5 register 
to point to the application's global variables, QuickDraw globals, 
and jump table. The application code starts running once the 
Process Manager sets up this environment. 

With a few exceptions, extension code runs in another appli- 
cation's heap. Because the Process Manager didn't launch the 
application, the value in register A5 is meaningless. And you 
can't change A5 to correct the problem because the application 
already uses it for its own global variables. Fortunately, when 
Think C builds a code resource, the generated code uses register 
A4 as its globals pointer. This solves the problem of interfering 
with an application, but you still need a valid address in A4. 

Think C stores the program's globals inside the code segment 
itself, just past the actual machine code. References to these glob- 
als are just offsets from the start of the code, so you can make A4 
point to the first byte of the code segment. A supplied Think C 
macro, RememberAO( ), saves a copy of register AO (which points 
to the code segment) within the code itself, where another macro 
can find it. This macro, SetupA4 ( ), loads the stored AO value into 
register A4. A RestoreA4 ( ) macro restores the previous value 
of A4. 

RemeniberAO( ) smacks of self-modifying code, and while 
programs we've written using these macros have worked reli- 
ably on even 68040-based Macs, we consider this technique 
tacky. Instead, we select the Custom headers option when build- 
ing the code segment. We then use Think C's built-in assembly 
language feature to write a macro that copies the segment's start 
address into A4. When our code finishes, another macro restores 
A4's original value. (See GET_GLOBALS ( ) in the useful-macros 
listing on page 207.) 

We also needed to initialize QuickDraw because we use it to 
show our Extension icon on-screen when the code loads at boot 
time. In addition, your Extension might use QuickDraw traps at 
some point. In a Mac application, you do this by calling Init- 
Graf (&qd.thePort) to initialize QuickDraw. In fact, qd.the- 
Port is the last field in a 206-byte structure allocated for us by 
our development systems. When the Process Manager sets up 
the A5 world, it loads the QuickDraw globals into this structure. 
Since Think C places its globals within code resources, we just al- 
locate an identical data structure in our global space and pass 
the last field's address, thePort, to InitGraf (). Be sure to use 
the fields in this structure instead of the globals qd.thePort, 



206 BYTE JULY 1993 



Hands On 



Some Assembly Required 



screenBits, black, and so on. This scheme works well as 
long as the combination of code and data doesn't exceed 32 KB. 
Think C has the ability to build multisegmented code resources 
(larger than 32K), but we haven't tried these techniques in such 
a situation. 

Peimanent Residence 

Most of a Mac's memory is a temporary heap region that the 
Process Manager slices and dices as it partitions and then loads 
or unloads applications. You don't want your code hanging 
around here. The safest place for it in the Mac OS is the system 
heap. The system heap is built at boot time and is off-limits to ap- 
plications. This haven is where drivers, system code resources, 
patches, and extension code hang out, and this is where we place 
our home-brew Extension. 

There are several ways to place code in the system heap. You 
can allocate a block of nonrelocatable and nonpurgeable memory 
in the system heap using NewSysPtr{ ) and then use Block- 
Move ( ) to copy the code from the file into this block. Think C has 
a feature that lets you set a code resource's attribute bits when you 
build it. By setting the System and Locked bits on the code seg- 
ment, you can coerce the Resource Manager into loading it as a 
nonpurgeable block in the system heap. But when the Mac OS 

closes your INIT file, 
the Resource Manager 
releases the code re- 
source, thinking that 
you are finished with 
it. To avoid this prob- 
lem, call Detach- 
Resource ( ) on the 
block immediately in 
your setup routine so 
the Resource Manag- 
er "forgets" about it 
when the file closes. 
The macro LOCK__ 
SELF ( ) in the useful- 
macros listing shows 
how this is done. 

Patching Traps 

Once you have stowed 
the code segment safe- 
ly away in memory and 
have your global vari- 
ables set up, you must 
make the Mac aware 
of it by modifying a 
dispatch table entry. 
Begin by seeing if the 
desired trap exists. Re- 
member that your neat 
hack might be running 
on all sorts of Macs, 
some of which may 
not have QuickTime, 
QuickDraw GX, or 
other nifty features. 
Also, since Extension 
files load in alphabeti- 



AnatomyofaTrap 




When an exception occurs O, program flow jumps to the Trap Dispatcher @, 
which uses the Toolbox bit in the trap word to select a dispatch table 
address. This address is used to locate and execute a routine in ROM or 
RAM @. The thread of execution then returns to the next instruction in the 
Mac program ©. 

cal order, it's possible that your QuickTime-patching Extension 
might load before the QuickTime Extension does. 

The Apple-approved way is to call the Gestalt Manager to ob- 
tain this information. However, the Gestalt Manager might be 
absent (definitely the case if the Mac is running an operating 
system lower than System 7). Or the Gestalt Manager might not 
be aware of the really new Mac OS features you want to patch. 

The functions listing on page 208 shows how to check for a de- 
sired trap's existence. You start by passing the target trap word to 
the IsTrapAvailable( ) function, and if the word exists, the 
program returns TRUE. 

Now you're ready to change the dispatch table entry. Apple 
provides two traps, NGetTrapAddress ( ) and NSetTrapAd- 
dress ( ), that facilitate this operation. The first function, given a 
trap number, provides the address of its handler from the dispatch 
table. The second function, given a trap number and the address of 
our own handler, plugs this address into the dispatch table. 

Even at this level, most of the low-level workings of the Mac 
remain hidden. All that's required is a trap number and the address 
of your routine. This setup also lets you add patches on top of 
patches. As long as everyone writes well-behaved code, a single 
trap might invoke several custom handlers before calling the ac- 
tual trap code. 

Patcli witli Caution 

You'll want your code to be robust and reliable. Since the code 
might be called from anywhere, you'll want to save the current en- 
vironment carefully and restore it when you're done. The macros 
PATCH_SETUP ( ) and PATCH_CLEANUP in the useful-macros 
listing help here. Since the Toolbox calls use Pascal calling con- 
ventions rather than C, you must set up your patch routines as Pas- 
cal routines. You do this in Think C by adding the pascal pre- 
fix to your routine declaration. 

If the routine returns a result, its value must be the correct 
size or it will corrupt the stack. Similarly, examine how the trap 
accepts arguments. Some traps take values that are pushed onto 
the stack, while others require that one or more arguments be 



Useful macros for writing Mac 
Extensions. 



/* Note: MainO must be the very 
first function in the 
file for this to work. */ 
#define LOCK_SELF() 
asm { \ 
lea main, AO \ 
dew _RecoverHandle \ 
move.l AO, -(SP) \ 
dew _HLock: \ 
dew _DetachResource \ 

) 

♦define GET_GLOBALS ( ) 
asm { \ 
move.l A4, -(SP) \ 
lea main, A4 \ 

} 

#define UNGET_GLOBALS ( ) 
asm { \ 
move.l (SP)+, A4 \ 

} 

#define PATCH_SETUP ( ) 
asm { \ 
movem.l a0-a5/d0-d7, -(SP) 
lea main, A4 \ 
) 

/* Note: Save any global result 
into local variable 
before calling this 
macro. Then use local 
variable to return 
result. */ 
#define PATCH_CLEANUP ( ) 
asm { \ 
movem.l (SP)+, a0-a5/d0-d7 
) 



JULY 1993 BYXE 207 



Hands On 



Some Assembly Required 



Functions that test for and patch a trap. 




/* Global f.OT oiriginal routine addiress . */ 


TrapType tType ; 


Stat ic void *g01dKey Tirap ; 




/* OujT custom iroutine^ which gets substituted. */ 


/ * T r>f~iV ^f- ^-y^o Ti~inl l-if~iv V-\-i +- * / 


exteirn void OuirKey (void) / 


L i ype — (urapiNum tt uxuouu> r looxi rap i Uo i rap; 




return ( tType ) ; 


Boolean ChangeTirap (void) 
{ 


\ /* (=nH f^^Tl-?lnT\m^=' M * / 
/ / ci 1"^. vTt; 1 — L J_ cl_^ X y \ ) / 


Boolean patchFlag; 


/* This function is based on Inside Mac VI 3-8. */ 


#def ine kMenuKeyTrap 0xA93E 


J.oXJ_ a^^rt V dX Xd-L/J-C ^olltJXl- LX ct^l*J Lllli } 


patchFlag = FALSE; /* Assume the worst. */ 


S 
\ 


if (IsTrapAvailable (kMenuKeyTrap) ) 


TrapType tType; 


{ /* Trap exists ; patch it . * / 


short numToolboxTraps ; 


gOldKeyTrap = PatchTrap ( kMenuKeyTrap, OurKey ) ; 


#def ine kinit Graf Trap 0xA86E 


patchFlag = TRUE; /* Flip flag to OK state. */ 


strict f •{ rte> VTTn i nrnl omonf- oHTfar-i flvZiRQir 
tr Lit; X XI icT JvUllXiU^Xt^llLcl i U± X L/ArtO 


} /* end if */ 




return patchFlag; 


tType = (trapNum & 0x0 800) ? ToolTrap : OSTrap ; 


} /* end ChangeTrap () */ 


if (tType == ToolTrap) 
I 


/ * PatchTrap ; Modifies the dispatch table . */ 


I 

u xd^iNLun ct — ujvu ten g / Xicix^c::oL' 1t ox uxdpo 


/* St r ipAddress ( ) reguired because an app can */ 


pos sible. f 


switch to 32 — bit mode and call a patched trap. */ 


/ XC3 XllX UijXclX cl U aU.O.Xt;tit) UJ. UJCtiflOxj : / 




XX \ iVVjt: 1^ ± X a._|JrtLJ.LJ,X o o \ j'LX 11 X UoX dX J. X op ^ -LtJOXXXdUJ 


void *PatchTrap (short trapNum, void *codeAddress ) 


NGetTrapAddress (0xAA6E, ToolTrap) ) 


{ 


numToolboxTraps — 0x0200; /* Yes * / 


void *oldAddress ; 


else /* No ^ table is larger. */ 


TrapType tType; 


numToolboxTraps = 0x0400; 




if (trapNum > numToolboxTraps) 


tType = GetTrapType (trapNum) ; 


/ Valid trap #? */ 


oldAddress — (void *) NGetTrapAddress (trapNum, tType) ; 


return (FALSE) ; /* Trap # larger than table. */ 


NSetTrapAddress ( (long) StripAddress (codeAddress) , 


) /* end if */ 


trapNum, tType ) ; 




return ( (void *) StripAddress (oldAddress) ) ; 


/* Return trap address if != unimplemented trap. */ 


} /* end PatchTrap 0 */ 


return ( NGetTrapAddress (trapNum, tType) 




NGetTrapAddress (kUnimplementedTrap, ToolTrap) 


/* Determine if trap is Toolbox or Mac OS trap. */ 


); 


TrapType GetTrapType ( short trapNum ) 
{ 


) /* end IsTrapAvailable 0 */ 



placed into certain registers. For the latter traps, you'll have to 
write some in-line assembly language code to process the ar- 
guments. Note that some Managers (such as the Hierarchal File 
System Manager and the Slot Manager) use one trap word as an 
entry point. A value in register DO acts as a selector that deter- 
mines the routine actually called when the trap fires. 

Examine the Toolbox descriptions in the Inside Macintosh se- 
ries (Addison- Wesley) to see what size arguments the trap uses 
and how it's set up. Or write a small routine that calls the trap, and 
use Think C's Disassemble menu command to create an assem- 
bly language code dump. Finally, check to see if the routine 
moves or purges memory. If the original routine didn't move 
memory, neither should your patch code. 

Patches fall into two categories. A head patch performs some 
preprocessing before calling the original trap code. Put another 
way, when your trap gets called, it first performs some prelimi- 
nary operations and then calls the actual trap routine. An exam- 
ple of this is when a keyboard event calls your code. You might 
scan for a certain combination of keys (perhaps cin option key held 
down) to determine whether or not to process the character. We 
created KeyTest.sea to demonstrate a head patch. (This program 
patches the Mac OS so that the system beeps when you hold 
down the Shift key.) 

In a tail patch, your code does postprocessing; it hands off 
execution to the trap first and then acts on the results that the 
trap passes back. You might call MenuSelect ( ) to see which 
menu and which menu item were chosen. Eric Shapiro has created 



an Oscar the Grouch Extension that works this way. (In this ex- 
tension, the Sesame Street character pops out of the Trashcan 
when you pick Empty Trash from the Finder's Special menu.) 
BellTest.sea demonstrates a tail patch. It patches the "About" 
item in the Apple menu so that the Mac beeps when you select it. 

Apple deems tail patches a bad thing because they c£in interact 
with the System Software patches that Apple uses to fix Toolbox 
bugs. These patches often rely on the return address on the stack 
to determine what trap called them, and a tail patch can defeat 
these checks. But obtaining menu choices or other situations 
make tail patches unavoidable. Don't say we didn't warn you. 

Code with Honor 

With a good understanding of the Mac's trap mechanism, it's 
possible to add permanent features to the Mac OS. Just remem- 
ber that Extension code operates outside the benign environment 
that the Process Manager sets up for an application, so you have 
little margin for error. ■ 

Editor's note: The complete listings for programs mentioned in this 
article are available electronically. See page 5 for details. 



Eric Shapiro is a Macintosh software author and president of Rock Ridge En- 
terprises, a Mac consulting firm in Ann Arbor, Michigan. You can reach 
him on BIX do "editors." Tom Thompson is a senior technical editor at 
large for BYTE. You can reach him on BIX as "tomthompson" or the Internet 
at tomt@bytepb.byte.com. 



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239 


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222 


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224 225 


226 


227 228 


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2M 


231 


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409 410 


411 


412 


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414 415 


416 


417 


418 


419 


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423 


424 425 


Inquiry Numbers 426-612 






















Inquiry Numbers 613-799 






















426 427 


428 429 


430 


431 432 


433 


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436 


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436 


439 


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613 


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618 619 


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443 


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44-8 449 


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630 


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477 


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482 4« 


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488 490 


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664 


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669 670 


671 


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494 


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681 


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686 687 


688 


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687 


511 


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513 514 


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696 


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528 


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530 531 


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533 534 


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541 


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715 


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719 


720 721 


722 


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730 


731 


545 


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547 548 


549 


550 561 


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732 


733 


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737 738 


739 


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562 


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564 565 


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567 588 


569 


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749 


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766 


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596 


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598 599 


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601 602 


603 


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905 


606 


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611 


612 


783 


784 


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786 


787 


788 789 


790 


791 


792 


793 


794 


795 


796 


797 


798 


799 



Inquiry Numbers 800-986 



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Inquiry Numbers 987-1151 



800 


801 


802 


803 


804 


805 806 


807 


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812 813 


814 


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987 


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1000 1001 


317 


818 


819 


820 


821 


822 823 


824 


825 


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830 


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1015 1016 


834 


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839 840 


841 


842 


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844 


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846 


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848 


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1017 


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1019 


1020 


1021 


1022 


1023 


1024 


1025 


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1027 


1028 


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1030 1031 


851 


852 


853 


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865 


856 857 


858 


859 


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861 


962 


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866 


867 


1032 


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868 


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S73 874 


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e«3 


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318 


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936 


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941 942 


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948 949 


950 


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952 


1107 


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1111 


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1120 1121 


953 


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958 969 


960 


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1122 


1123 


1124 


1125 


1126 


1127 


1128 


1129 


1130 


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1135 1136 


970 


971 


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975 976 


977 


978 


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980 


961 


982 


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965 


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1137 


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1139 


1140 


1141 


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1148 


1149 


1150 1151 



Inquiry Numbers 1317-1481 



1152 


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1151 


1159 


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1161 


1162 


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1166 1166 


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1330 1331 


1167 


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1169 


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1180 1181 


1332 


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1360 1361 


1197 


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12(K 


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1210 1211 


1362 


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1225 1226 


1377 


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1366 


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1390 1391 


1227 


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1234 


1235 


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1240 1241 


1392 


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1405 1406 


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1255 1256 


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1420 1421 


1257 


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1270 1271 


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1435 1436 


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1285 1286 


1437 


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1450 1451 


1287 


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Pournelle 



JERRY POURNELLE 



The DOS 6 Question 



A 



bout the time you read this, they should be do- 
ing flight tests on the DC/X out at White Sands. DC/X, which 
stands for Delta Clipper X, is a flying scale model of the SSX 
spaceship that General Graham, Max Hunter, and I have been 
involved with. The goal is to have a ship that will fly into orbit 
without dropping off stages (and thus will be able to take off 
from any location, not just rocket ranges), return, refuel, and fly 
into orbit again without refurbishing. It should also have the ca- 
pability of surviving an engine failure on takeoff. DC/X won't 
do that — it has only four engines, and you need at least eight — 
and it won't make orbit, but it does test many of the concepts 
needed for a proper spaceship. 

We went down to the rollout at the McDonnell Douglas plant 
in Huntington Beach, and it was a pretty impressive thing to see a space- 
ship — even a model — rolled out like we used to roll out airplanes. We won't 
have access to space for the rest of us until we have spacecraft that operate like 
airplanes, and DC/X gets us one step closer to that. 




At the rollout, DC/X program manager Paul 
Klevatt said that this was the first project he'd 
ever seen in which the software development 
wasn't the long pole in the tent. DC/X is con- 
trolled entirely by computers — they're using a 
32-bit, 4.5-MIPS computer with off-the-shelf 
flight-control hardware such as the F-15 inertial 
navigation system — and the programs, being 
part of a Department of Defense project, are 
written in Ada. 

Originally there were plans for them to de- 
velop software from scratch, but there wasn't 
enough money for that; which, I suspect, may 
have been a blessing in disguise, because it led 
them to off-the-shelf CASE tools. One of those 
was Matrix X from Integrated Systems. This 
starts with a graphical representation and de- 
velops actual Ada code. According to Klevatt, 
"Our coding error rates are much lower than on 
previous projects, and debugging times have 
been much shorter." 

Anyway, she's a beautiful ship, and I'll sure 
be glad to see her flying. 



Everyone runs out of disk space, and 

it doesn't matter how much you have. Ezekial, 
my original Z80 system, had twin 64-KB flop- 
py disks to hold both programs and data, and I 
can recall thinking how luxurious double-density 
8-inch floppy disks would be. Now, even with 
twin 330-MB hard drives, plus network access 
to the Pioneer read/write optical drive, I some- 
times find I have to stop and shift things around 
to install a new program. I can imagine what it 
must be like for people who don't have the hard- 
ware assets I do. 

One answer to the disk-space problem is com- 
pression systems, and the latest of these is DOS 
6, which includes both file compression and 
memory management. While Microsoft's special 
introductory offer will be over before you read 
this, I suspect DOS 6 will still be far and away 
the lowest-cost way to get those goodies. 

DOS 6 works, or at least I had no great prob- 
lems with it; but for some reason, I don't get a 
warm feeling about it. I'm not sure why, since 
most of the reports I get are positive. I think it 



I'm sure DOS 6 
will eventually 
catch on. But until 
I have some 
applications that 
need it, I'll use 
DOS 5.0, QEMM, 
and caching 
controllers. 



ILLUSTRATIONS: DIANE BIGDAei993 



JULY 1993 BYTE 209 



Pournelle 



may be a case of "be not the first by whom 
the new is tried." 

There's also some confusion about just 
what kind of compression system Mi- 
crosoft put into DOS 6. Microsoft has a 
lot of experience with DOS, but I'm not so 
sure they have all that much in integrat- 
ing file-compression programs. 

If you're a big fan of DOS 6, 1 

won't fight with you. But if you have an 
IDE hard drive — as nearly all the Gate- 
way 2000 systems do — I think there's a 
better way to get file compression: Per- 
ceptive Solutions' WinStore caching con- 
troller. 

It works only with IDE drives (not 
SCSI), but WinStore incorporates the 
Stacker file-compression chip right on the 
controller. The controller has its own 
processor and memory. Thus, you get both 
file compression and disk caching with- 
out using up system memory. That's a 
great advantage, because memory is like- 
ly to be in shorter supply than disk space. 

Do note that while WinStore has the 
file-compression chip on the controller 
card, it isn't really integrated into the op- 
erating system. Your increased disk space 



looks to the outside world as if it were a 
new hard drive, but in fact it's an enor- 
mous hidden file. That means there's a 
small but real chance that a glitch in the 
compressed file system will make it im- 
possible to access any of that data. Of 
course, that can happen with DOS 6, too. 

The Stacker system for file compres- 
sion and management has been in use long 
enough to be trustworthy, and certainly 
Perceptive Solutions makes reliable cach- 
ing controllers: two of my major systems 
use them. (Another system uses a Distrib- 
uted Processing Technology controller.) 

All major compression systems main- 
tain special FATs (file allocation tables) 
that are supposed to make it impossible 
for you to lose all the compressed data. 
However, I have enough disaster reports 
from readers that I'm very pleased that 
Norton Utilities 7.0 understands DOS 6 
compressed files and file systems. What- 
ever compression system you decide to 
use, get and learn Norton Utilities 7.0 be- 
fore you embark on it. 

The DOS 6 MemMaker memory opti- 
mizer and revised EMM386 are a hands- 
down improvement over DOS 5.0's EMM- 
386.S YS, and for many these will probably 



be good enough. However, MemMaker is 
not as efficient as Quarterdeck's QEMM- 
386 6.0. When I replaced a DOS 5.0/ 
QEMM system with DOS 6 and used 
MemMaker, I found I had 28 KB less DOS 
memory, largely because MemMaker isn't 
as aggressive about allocating unused 
memory. It also doesn't seem to be as 
good as QEMM in working with fully 
reentrant programs that understand how 
to use memory in small noncontiguous 
chunks. 

MemMaker isn't as simple to use as 
QEMM's Optimize. On the other hand, if 
you really need to play around to cadge 
memory, you'll have to go to QEMM's 
analysis tools. That takes some hard study, 
but it's also the most efficient memory re- 
covery system I know of. 

In general, QEMM works well with 
DOS 6. There are some load-high switch- 
es in DOS 6 that Optimize currently 
doesn't understand, but that just means 
you have to do some things manually. 
QEMM/DOS 6 is a good combination; 
but then so is QEMM/DOS 5.0. 

We're all running out of UMBs (upper 
memory blocks), especially those of us 
who use networks. I'm already having 



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Pournelle 



memory trouble. Thus my recommenda- 
tion: where money is a primary factor, 
DOS 6 may be the right choice. In my 
judgment, however, it's worth the extra 
cost to use QEMM for memory manage- 
ment and, if you have an IDE drive, Win- 
Store for file caching and compression. 
Obviously WinStore will cost more than 
DOS 6, but given a choice between hard- 
ware and software solutions, I'll take hard- 
ware just about every time. 

I'm sure DOS 6 will eventually catch 
on. But until I have applications that need 



it, I'll stay with DOS 5.0, QEMM, and 
caching controllers. 

I keep promising to change my 

network over to NetWare, and when I do, 
I'll install a Procomp Pro-Val network 
controller in the server. Procomp makes 
network-aware controllers tested and ap- 
proved by Novell, and it will be interesting 
to compare the Pro-Val with the Distrib- 
uted Processing Technology controller 
that's in the Cheetah 386 now. For the mo- 
ment, though, I'm still wringing out Win- 




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dows for Workgroups. 

That's partly a matter of time — I have 
never had so many things to do — but it's 
also a matter of "good enough." W4WG 
can't do all the things a full-featured net- 
work operating system can, but it sure 
makes it easy to share files and gives me 
access to assets like the Pioneer CD-ROM 
drive and read/write optical drive. W4WG 
also works well with Traveling Software's 
LapLink V. I can attach a parallel cable 
to any system on the network, plug the 
other end into a laptop, and run LapLink V, 
and I have access to every network drive. 
That is useful enough that I don't need any 
fancier way to service my portables. 

Indeed, LapLink V has so many won- 
derful features — such as synchronizing 
directories so that both have all and only 
the latest files — that I'd be hard pressed 
to do without it. I only wish W4WG itself 
had some of the features. 

I've had astonishingly few problems 
with W4WG, but there have been some 
glitches. It is the easiest network software 
to install that I've ever worked with, so 
it's surprising that one of my worst panics 
came when I tried to install the Gateway 
4DX2-66V with local-bus video. Previ- 
ously, all I'd done with the Gateway 
4DX2-50V was to put in the Intel Ether- 
Express 16 card, cormect it to the network, 
and do an upgrade installation of W4WG 
over the Windows 3.1 that the machine 
came with. When it came time to add the 
4DX2-66V, I expected no difficulties. 

At first all went well. I selected the Ex- 
press installation and let things run. When 
I got to the third floppy disk, it all came 
apart. Up popped "ATI Flexdesk Win- 
dows Driver Error. The ATI Flexdesk 
Windows driver requires Windows to be 
run in 386 enhanced mode. Select the 
8514/A driver to use your ATI 68800 
video board with a 286-based processor 
to use Windows standard mode." Then the 
installation aborted. 

To make it worse, I'd foolishly done 
this without making a full backup. There's 
no real excuse for that, but in my defense, 
I'll say that I'd installed W4WG in the 
other Gateway without problems; and if 
the system isn't on the network, backups 
aren't so easy to do. Indeed, that was one 
reason I wanted to add it to the network. 
Anyway, Setup had gone far enough that 
I couldn't get into Windows 3.1 either. 
Worse than that, attempts to install Win- 
dows 3.1 from the original Gateway disks 
ran into other problems, with various error 
messages about not being able to find 
needed device files I'd never heard of. I 
was dead in the water. 

I sent out panic messages and got a call 



2i2 BYTE JULY 1993 



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from Lex in Microsoft technical support 
within an hour; a result that you probably 
can't get, but after you read this, you may 
not need to. Fixing things was relatively 
easy, if tedious. 

First, 1 was told to edit 
SYSTEM.INI and remove 
the line that says Setup- 
state = l. This line tells 
Setup that there was a failed 
attempt to install and gets 
in the way of things. Sec- 
ond, I logged on to C:\WIN- 
DOWS and ran Setup to se- 
lect VGA 3.0 (standard 
VGA) as the video mode. This is necessary 
because Setup launches Windows in stan- 
dard mode, and standard mode doesn't un- 
derstand ATI's Flexdesk. Setup asked for 
several floppy disks and eventually an- 
nounced that it was finished. 

Now to install W4WG again, i 

put in the first floppy disk, fired it up — 
and the system hung up fairly early in the 
procedure, well before I got to the third 
disk. OK, turn the machine off — it was 
hung good — and start over, this time with 
a bare-bones CONFIG.SYS and AUTO- 
EXEC.BAT. Same resuh. 

OK, maybe it's the floppy disks. I'd 
been using S'A-inch; change to 3'/2-inch. 

Same result. The machine hung to hard- 
ware reset quite early in the process. By 
now I was ready to panic, but Lex wasn't. 
Apparently this happens more often than 
you'd think, and there's a trick that will 
get you around it. 

Here it is. Reboot the machine and cre- 
ate a directory called C:\FOO (or whatev- 
er strikes your fancy). Copy the first three 
W4WG installation disks into that direc- 
tory, log on to it, and launch Setup from 
within it. When Setup asks what kind of in- 
stallation you want, say Custom rather than 
Express. Now follow instructions. After a 
while, it will run out of stuff from the hard 
disk and ask where to find the rest. Tell it 
which floppy drive, put the disk it wants in 
there, and Bob's your uncle. 

When Setup is done, it restarts Win- 
dows, this time in 386 enhanced mode, 
and configures your network, including 
your network card. When it asks which 
IRQ (interrupt request) you want to use, 
the default is 3, which probably isn't what 
you want; 5 is usually free, and that's the 
one I chose. The EtherExpress card is con- 
figured in software: no jumpers to set, just 
drop in the card. You'll also be asked to 
name your machine: since Gateway ma- 
chines come in cow-spotted boxes, the 
4DX2-66V became SuperCow. 

I had one more glitch, but it was my 




fault. My network is called JERRY ONE, 
but I forgot and told the new machine to be 
on JERRYONE; so it couldn't find any 
other machines on the network. Howev- 
er, when I told it to go look 
for LITTLE CAT C (my 
name for the C drive on the 
Cheetah 386/25), it in- 
formed me that I could find 
that machine on JERRY 
ONE, so I didn't even have 
to retype to get logged on. 

No one seems to know 
why Setup sometimes has 
problems with floppy drives. 
It's a bit like the Sound Blaster Pro prob- 
lem I sometimes have. I launch a program 
that needs the Sound Blaster Pro card, the 
system informs me it can't do that because 
something else is using the card, and it 
iconizes the program. I double-click on 
that icon, the program launches, and there's 
sound. This, it turns out, is a known bug. 
Creative Labs may have a new driver on 
their BBS by the time you read this. But I 
do notice that as these machines get faster 
and their programs get more complex, we 
find more odd things that we just have to 
live with. Oh, well. 

I've been fighting to install Norton 
Speedcache-I- on my network server. This 
program works very well with DOS and 
Windows. It speeds up CD-ROM opera- 
tions something wonderful and appears to 
work well with the Pioneer CD-ROM 
drive and read /write optical drive. It likes 
Windows 3.1 just fine and speeds up nor- 
mal disk operations at least as much as 
Smartdrive. Of course, it doesn't have 
much effect if you have a good caching 
controller. When it comes to speeding up 
a system, hardware generally beats soft- 
ware every time. ITie controllers from Per- 
ceptive Solutions and Distributed Pro- 
cessing Technology have cache memory 
on the controller card, and thus don't use 
up your main system memory. 

My major systems now use controllers 
from those two companies, and I've yet 
to see the software that will improve their 
performance. The Gateway 4DX2-66V 
doesn't come with a caching controller, 
so I installed Speedcache+ on that. It in- 
stalls just fine without the manual. Once 
you have it going, there are some opti- 
mizations you can try, but the default in- 
stallation is painless. On the Gateway ma- 
chine, it works fine in both DOS and 
W4WG, but more on that in a minute. The 
bottom line is that Speedcache-h works 
very well indeed on vanilla systems. 

How it works isn't so easy to figure out. 
Speedcache-I- comes with a Disk Process- 
ing Test program that you can run under 



214 15 V I I JULY 1993 



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Windows, but there's no printed docu- 
mentation except for a reference to the on- 
line help system, and the help for the test 
has no instructions for use. I'm sure that 
given time I could figure it out, but I 
wasn't willing to put that much time into it; 
and since there were no examples, I soon 
got discouraged. Symantec says that Speed- 
cache+ will work better than Smartdrive, 
and I'm willing to believe that. 

Where I really need Speedcache+ is on 
my network server, because I don't have a 
caching controller for the Pioneer CD- 



ROM and read/write optical drives, and 
those are the very things that need caching 
most. I got it installed on the server, and 
the performance im- 
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It really has to be seen 
to be appreciated. 

Fair warning: if you 
use caching systems, 
get a UPS ( uninterrupt- " 
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the optical drive through Speedcache+, it 




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all happens at blinding speed; but the op- 
tical drive's disk activity light shows that 
it may be half a minute before those files 
are written onto 



the glass disk. If I 
had a power fail- 
ure before the files 
were completely 
written, the conse- 
quences would be 
severe. I recom- 
mend that anyone whose work is valuable 
get a UPS, but it's particularly important if 
you use caching systems. 

Anyway, Speedcache-I- works fine with 
Windows and CD-ROMs, and with 
W4WG with a single CD-ROM; what I 
haven't been able to do so far is get it to 
work with my W4WG file server, which 
has the two Pioneer drives. On that ma- 
chine, when I load Speedcache+ and then 
run Net Start (which you have to get going 
before you launch W4WG), the system 
goes out to the land of lost bits. I'm work- 
ing with Symantec's technical-support peo- 
ple on finding out why, and I have no 
doubt the problem will be solved, probably 
well before you read this. 

Until then, Speedcache+ installs easily 
and intuitively, seems to work just fine 
with Windows and the various CD-ROM 
and optical drives we've got here at Chaos 
Manor, and gives noticeable speed im- 
provements for every drive we've tried it 
with (except, as noted, those that have 
caching controllers). If you use Smart- 
drive, you will love Speedcache+. Rec- 
ommended, but do be careful if you've got 
complex systems. 

There are some problems Sta- 

bilant 22 won't solve, but I'm as- 
tonished at how many it does take care of. 
The Pioneer CD-ROM drive resides back 
in the cable room (a horrible place infest- 
ed with monsters), where it runs off the 
Cheetah 386/25 we use as the server for 
the W4WG network. When I had prob- 
lems installing Speedcache-l-, I found I 
needed to get a telephone back into that 
room, which meant stringing together 
phone lines using those wonderful little 
Radio Shack connector gizmos that let you 
do that. You expect that if you have seven 
different telephone wires connected end 
to end you'll get a noisy line, and indeed 
that happened, so I used Stabilant 22 on 
each connection. The result was blessed 
silence. I periodically use Stabilant 22 on 
all my phone connections, including mo- 
dem phone lines. 

In case you don't know about Stabilant 
22, it's a contact enhancer. It comes in a lit- 
tle bottle that isn't cheap, but don't worry 



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Pournelle 



about that. A little goes a long way. 

It helps eliminate noise in telephone 
lines, but for me the most important use 
of this stuff is inside my computers. I have 
a lot of fairly old equipment. My main ma- 
chine is a Cheetah 486/33 with an Intel 
OverDrive CPU, which makes it in effect 
a 486/66. You may recall that the Cheetah 
486 won my 1990 User's Choice Award as 
the most useful machine of the year. The 
previous year's winner was the Cheetah 
386, which is useful as a network server. 

Problems never come singly: when my 
attempts to install Speedcache+ crashed 
the Cheetah 386, recovery was compli- 
cated because the Cheetah 486 began to 
act flaky at reboot time. Sometimes it 
wouldn't boot at all — even from the "pan- 
ic" boot floppy disk, and if you have not 
made yourself one for every machine you 
have, go do that now — sometimes it would 
tell me the hard drive wasn't properly for- 
matted, and then it began telling me there 
were no hard drives at all. 

"Don't panic," I kept telling myself, as 
I thought about all the deadlines I'm fac- 
ing. I had everything backed up on DAT 
(digital audiotape) using the Palindrome 
backup system, so if worst came to worst. 



I could install Palindrome in a Gateway 
486 and let it transfer over my whole work- 
ing environment. It would cost a couple 
of hours, but it would be 
no disaster. 

I didn't want to do that 
because I like this big 
Cheetah. It's not quite as 
fast as the Gateway 
4DX2-66V because the 
latter has local-bus video, 
but unless I'm doing very 
complex video images, I 
can't tell the difference. 
That Cheetah has worked 
fine for years. 

I don't like opening up com- 
puters without need, but it was clear I'd 
have to get inside this one, so I did. It was 
dusty in there, and cables were bunched 
up in a way that might have been blocking 
airflow. I moved the cables. I also rein- 
stalled the CD-ROM drive. It's the one 
that comes with Creative Labs' Multime- 
dia Upgrade Kit; a fast, reliable CD-ROM 
drive, highly recommended. Alas, when I 
first installed it, I hadn't any proper rails 
for the hard disk cage, and I used a lash-up 



with gaffer's tape. This time I found some 
rails and did it right. Then I vacuumed 
things out and got a fan blowing into the 
open case while I tested 
things. 

This time it booted 
from a floppy disk all 
right, and once booted 
that way, it could find 
the hard drives. But it 
wouldn't boot from the 
hard drive. 

OK, that's progress, I 
thought; so let's see what 
else I can do. The ma- 
chine was filthy in there, so I took all the 
boards out. Some of the boards — including 
the caching controller — had discolorations 
on the contacts. I got out the Stabilant 22 
and used that to polish up every board con- 
tact; then for good measure I used it on all 
the cable contacts as well. This time when 
I fired up, everything worked fine. I con- 
fess that before I actually put the cover 
back on, I used the reset switch several 
times and powered the system on and off a 
few times. My lack of faith wasn't justi- 
fied. It worked every time. 

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Pournelle 



time you tiave to do any troubleshooting, 
use Stabilant 22. If it doesn't fix things, 
you will at least know that the problem 
isn't dirty contacts, and that's always worth 
knowing. Highly recommended. 

Of course, Stabilant 22 can't fix some 
problems. Once I had all my machines 
running again, I'd still get messages that 
some of the shared resources on the 
W4WG network weren't available. Natu- 
rally that caused another panic, but it 
shouldn't have, since there were plenty of 
clues as to what was wrong. The network 
was intact, but my big Cheetah 486/33 
wasn't on it. That should have told me 
everything, but I wasn't thinking properly. 

Whenever I have mysterious failures in 
my system, I suspect all kinds of things, in- 
cluding a virus. The latest version of Dr. 
Solomon's Anti-Virus Toolkit had just 
come in, and this seemed a good time to 
use it. When I check for viruses, I like to 
do it right: I booted up the machine with a 
floppy disk that has remained write-pro- 
tected since I first formatted it. Then I ran 
Dr. Solomon's from its write-protected 
floppy disk. 

As it was running, I figured out what 
was the real problem. I learned early on 



that if you have a problem with a comput- 
er, chances are good that it's a cable. That's 
even more true of networks. If your net- 
work stops working, cables are a more 
likely culprit than a virus. I thought about 
that, looked behind the Cheetah 486, and 
lo!, the T connector for the Ethernet had 
come loose. It took about a second to con- 
nect it back, after which the network 
worked fine. Meanwhile, Dr. Solomon's 
told me there were no viruses in my sys- 
tem, which I'd known all along, but it's 
good for one's peace of mind to be sure. 

Indeed, peace of mind is the major val- 
ue of a good virus detector. Really good 
protection like Dr. Solomon's (which in- 
cludes 24-hour telephone advice if needed) 
isn't cheap; but a not-so-good virus de- 
tector that gives false alarms can induce 
you to do something stupid, like needless- 
ly reformatting your hard disk in panic. 
Don't laugh: I know at least three people 
who have done it. 

Reader Oscar Weingart reports that he 
has W4WG working with a 286 system. 
The 286 is a client only — it can get stuff 
off the network and send stuff to it, but 
others can't access it. At least one CPU in 
the system has to be a 386, and it can act as 



a network server. He reports that the net- 
worked Hearts game that comes with 
W4WG works fine. I've always thought 
that game was an insidious plot sneaked 
into W4WG by competitors. 

He also finds he can use Radio Shack 
cable and the Radio Shack "push on" 
connectors (about $1.50 each). I've been 
tempted to try that because some of my 
Ethernet cables are just too darned long, 
but so far I haven't done it. 

The CD-ROM scene continues 
to be complicated, with some cd- 

ROMs able to work across the network 
while others have to be installed on my 
local machine. Some companies are para- 
noid about letting their CD-ROMs be used 
on a network. One such company used to 
be World Library, whose Library of the 
Future won a User's Choice Award a few 
years ago. With 950 classical-literature ti- 
tles on one disc, it's still a bargain. The 
good news is that they're updating it, and 
the next one will work on networks. 

Meanwhile, I get a dozen CD- 
ROMs every month, some silly, some 
wonderful. I have Grolier's and Compton 



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JULY 1993 BYTE 219 





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BVTE 



Pournelle 



New Media encyclopedias, both excellent. 
There are CD-ROMs about animals and 
birds. There are the Timetables of History, 
which are extremely interesting. 

The CD-ROM of the Month is the His- 
tory of the World from the Bureau of Elec- 
tronic Publishing. This is the kind of thing 
1 envisioned CD-ROM publishing would 
produce. 

The original team who started the Bu- 
reau of Electronic Publishing has parted 
company, and Barry Cinnamon, one of its 
founders, has a new idea: books on disk 
for Windows users. 

Allegro New Media has published a 
whole raft of TurboBooks. They come 
compressed on disk. Installation is pain- 
less enough, and when you're done, you 
read the book with the Windows Viewer 
program. It reads fine. The books are or- 
ganized in chapters, so you can jump to 
any one of them. You can also search the 
text. 

Books published by Allegro in this for- 
mat include Fallen Angels by Larry Niven 
and Jerry Pournelle; that one also incor- 
porates two Falkenberg novels: Go Tell 
the Spartans and my latest. Prince of Spar- 
ta, both coauthored by Steve Stirling. Other 
books include two Anne McCaffrey col- 
laborations. The City Who Fought and The 
Ship Who Fought. 

I'd generally rather read novels on pa- 
per, but if you're carrying a laptop any- 
way, they sure take up less room in your 
luggage this way. There are also tides like 
Jim Seymour's On the Road: The Portable 
Computing Bible, a complete on-line man- 
ual to Windows 3.1, a career guide, and 
other technical books, where it makes 
sense to have search capabilities. 

This is a new experiment in publishing, 
and one well worth watching. 

We have a whole line of Mustek 

scanners, ranging from hand-held to a 
big flatbed. I'll have more on those when 
I do a major essay on image processing, 
but they install easily enough and work as 
advertised. We had no trouble setting the 
scanner to use IRQ 12, and QEMM's Op- 
timize loads the software high. If you're in 
the market for a scanner, take a look at 
these. 

I'm pleased to report that Micrografx's 
Picture Publisher 4.0 supports Photo CD, 
which is a Kodak standard. You take your 
film to be developed, and in addition to 
slides or prints, you get a CD. Of course, 
one roll of film won't fill that CD, but 
that's all right: Kodak can put more pic- 
tures on it. 

That means you need a Photo CD— ca- 
pable CD-ROM drive that is smart enough 



to look past the symbols that mark the end 
of each batch of pictures you've put on 
there. Many new CD-ROM drives support 
Photo CD. Some of those that don't may 
be expandable by inserting new ROMs. 
Others won't be. 

In my judgment, it makes sense to get a 
CD-ROM drive that can handle the Photo 
CD standard, particularly if you have any 
professional use for graphic art. For ex- 
ample, suppose you use publicity or prod- 
uct photos. If you have your pictures de- 
livered on a Photo CD, they'll be digitized 
better than you'll manage with any scan- 
ner. You can send digital copies over a 
network, paste them into desktop docu- 
ments, and so forth. 

Thus, even if Photo CD doesn't catch 
on as a consumer product — and I think it 
will, although that may take a bit of time — 
it's going to be professionally useful. 

Meanwhile, for systems installation peo- 
ple, the Trantor T358 MiniSCSI EPP pock- 
et SCSI and a portable CD-ROM drive 
have become essential equipment. It's sure 
easier to install CorelDraw from a CD than 
to spend half a day swapping floppy disks! 
Trantor has turned your parallel port into 
the world's new bus standard. 

I have three, count them, three 

SCSI controller boards in my Cheetah 
486. This seems like wretched excess. 
There's the Perceptive Solutions controller, 
the Palindrome Future Domain SCSI card 
to run the Palindrome DAT backup sys- 
tem, and the sort-of-SCSI built into the 
Creative Labs Sound Blaster Pro card. That 
latter runs the CD-ROM drive. 

Macs have always been SCSI, and that's 
probably the way the world will go; the 
PC world went through MEM, RLL, ESDI, 
IDE/AT, and then to SCSI. IDE is cheap, 
but you can have only two devices, and 
they can be only disk drives, not CD-ROM 
or tape. SCSI lets you daisy chain up to 
seven devices, but the controller costs 
more. Meanwhile, what we have now is a 
zillion SCSI devices, each one slightly dif- 
ferent. I sure wish people would get their 
acts together and put it all on one card. 

The book of the month is by 

Charles J. Sykes, A Nation of Victims (St. 
Martin's Press, 1992). It's a readable but 
scholarly diatribe about the decline of in- 
dividual responsibility, and it paints a fair- 
ly frightening picture. The computer book 
of the month is by Ralph Roberts, A-Train 
Railroading (Compute Books, 1993). If 
you have much interest in the Maxis game 
A-Train, then you definitely need this 
book. 

There are two games of the month. The 



222 BYTE JULY 1993 




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Name 
Title 

Company 
Company Address 



City 



State 



J Zip/Postal Code 
I Tel 



Country 



.J 



Pournelle 



first, unsurprisingly, is A-Train. This is 
sort of a cross between Railroad Tycoon 
and SimCity. The train schedule and rout- 
ing control are a bit odd, but it can be a 
lot of fun anyway. The other game of the 
month is Capitalist Pig, which is both fun 
and a serious business simulator. Mr. Hein- 
lein once said that top management was 
like sex — until you'd done it you didn't 
know what it was — and while that's true 
enough, this game will give you some se- 
rious hints. If you know people who as- 
pire to run a company, point them at this 
game. 

Another CD-ROM of the month is De- 
Lorme's Global Explorer, which adver- 
tises itself as "The most detailed world at- 



A-Train is a cross between Railroad Tycoon 
and SimCity. The train-schedule and routing- 
control simulation game is available in 
versions for DOS, the Mac, and the Amiga 
for $69.95. 

Maxis, 2 Theatre Sq., Suite 230, Orinda, CA 
94563, (510) 254-9700. 
Circle 1146 on inquiiy Card. 

Capitalist Pig is both fun and a serious 
business simulator. The DOS-only version 
has a list price of $59.95. 
Pluma Software, 1116 East Greenway, Suite 
200, Mesa, AZ 85203, (602) 969-9441. 
Circle 1147. 

Dr. Solomon's Anti-Virus Toolllit can find, identify, 
and remove a wide variety of viruses. 
Regular updates are available for both the 
Windows version 6.04 ($195.95) and the 
DOS version ($149.95). 
Ontrack Computer Systems, 6321 Buiv Dr., 
Suite 15-19, Eden Prairie, MN S5346, (6121 
937-1107. In Europe, contact S&S 
International, Ltd., Berkley Court, Mill St, 
Beridiamsted, Hertfordsliire HP4 2HB, U.K., 
+44 442 877877. 
Circle 1148. 

Global Explorer is a detailed world atlas on 
CD-ROIVl. It includes geographical maps, 
cultural details, and street maps for most 
major cities in the world. If you like maps, 
you'll love this; for DOS, $169. 
DeLorme Mapping, Lower Main St., P.O. Box 
298, Fi«epoit, ME 04032, (207) 865-1234. 
Circle 1149. 

The History of Die World CD-ROIVI is a 
compilation of books covering history from 
the dawn of civilization to the present. List 
price is $795, and annual updates are 
$125. 

Bureau of Electronic Publishing, 141 New Rd., 
Parsippany, NJ 07054, (800) 828-4766 or 
(201) 808-2700. 
Circle 1150. 



las ever" and pretty well lives up to that. 
I'm to be guest of honor at a convention in 
Stockholm this August, and I sure appre- 
ciated being able to look at a street map. 
Ever wonder about the street layout of 
Beijing? It's in there. Also geographical 
and cultural features, and a partridge in a 
pear tree. If you like maps, you'll love this 
thing. 

Several readers have suggested 

that NetWare Lite is preferable to W4WG, 
particularly if you already have NetWare 
running. DR DOS 7 is supposed to include 
NetWare Lite. There have been major im- 
provements to Artisoft's LANtastic. I'm 
accumulating both hardware and software 



For More Information 



Mustek produces a variety of hand-held and 
desktop scanners. Models range from the black- 
and-white, hand-held ImageArtist to the Color Artist II 
flatbed scanner. List prices are from $149 to 
$1295. 

Mustek, Inc., 15225 Alton Pkwy., Irvine, CA 92718, 
(800) 366-4620 or (714) 833-7740. 
Circle 1151. 

Traveling Software's latest file transfer program, 
LapLink V ($99.95), now features peer-to-peer file 
transfer across NetWare networks and automated 
file transfers. It operates in the background under 
Windows. 

Traveling Software, 18702 North Creek Pkwy., Bothell, 
WA 98011, (206) 483-8088. 
Cirele 1152. 

Library of tlie Future, 2nd Edition contains the complete 
text of over 2000 classical literary works from 
over 950 titles. The DOS-based CD-ROM, listing 
for $299, is an entire home library on one disc. 
Worid Libiaiy, Inc., 12914 Master St., Garden Grove, 
CA 92640, (800) 443-0238 or (714) 748-7197. 
Circle 1153. 

The latest operating system for PCs, MS-DOS 6, 
incorporates on-the-fly data compression, an 
improved memory manager, and antivirus 
software. The suggested list price is $129. 
Microsoft Corp., 1 Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 
98052, (800) 426-9400 or (206) 882-8080. 
Circle 1154. 

Norton Speedcaclie+ is a caching program that works 
on CD-ROM drives and removable-medium drives, 
as well as on your hard drive. The list price is 
$99. Norton Utilities 7.0 ($179) is the latest 
incarnation of this famous package. Version 7.0 
works with MS-DOS 6 and can recover files from a 
compressed drive. 

Symantec Corp., 10201 Torre Ave., Cupertino, CA 
95014, (408) 253-9600. 
Circle 1155. 

Micrografx's Picture l^blislier 4.0 ($595) image- 
editing package for Windows features Object 
Layers technology that gives you complete control 
over the placement, transparency, size, rotation, 
and order of bit-map objects. 
Micrografx, 1303 Arapaho, Rk:hardson, TX 75081, 
1800) 733-3729 or (214) 234-1769. 
Circle 1156. 



for major network investigations, and I'll 
be looking at as many of those as I can get 
to. Meanwhile, despite major cleanups, 
there's a traffic jam of new software at 
Chaos Manor; stay tuned. ■ 



Jerry Pournelle holds a doctorate in psychology 
and is a science fiction writer who also earns a 
comfortable living writing about computers 
present and future. Jerry welcomes readers' 
comments and opinions. Send a self-addressed, 
stamped envelope to Jerry Pournelle, do BYTE, 
One Phoenix Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 
03458. Please put your address on the letter as 
well as on the envelope. Due to the high volume 
of letters, Jerry cannot guarantee a personal 
reply. You can also contact him on BIX as 
"jerryp." 



The Pro-Val intelligent SCSI controller ($199) works 
with any SCSI-1 or SCSI-2 storage device, 
including optical, CD-ROM, and WORM drives. 
Procomp USA, Inc., 6777 Engle Rd., Cleveland, OH 
44130, (216) 234-6387. 
Circle 1157. 

When applied to electromechanical contacts, 
Stabilant22 acts as a contact enhancer and ^ 
provides the connection reliability of a soldered 'M 
joint. It is available in either diluted or iSj 
concentrated form; $36 to $551 for 15- to 100- 
milliliter bottles. 

D. W. Electrochemicals, Ltd., 97 Newkirk Rd. N, Unit 
3, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada L4C 3G4, (416) 
889-1522. 
Circle 1158. 

With data transfer rates as high as 1 MBps, the , 
TrantorlBSS MiniSCSI EPP is a high-performance * 
parallel-port-to-SCSI adapter ($269). Parallel 
printer signals pass through the SCSI adapter, so 
you can use both your SCSI devices and printer. 
Trantor Systems, Ltd., 5415 Randall Place, Fremont, 
CA 94538, (510) 770-1400. 

Circle 1159. f 

TurboBooks are books on floppy disks that can be 
read via Windows. Titles include several works of 
fiction and nonflction, such as Prince of Sparta 
($29.95) by Pournelle and Stiding and Winn L 
Roscti Hardware Bible ($35.95). 
Allegro New Media, 387 Passaic Ave., Fairfield, NJ 
07004, (201) 808-1992. 
Circle 1160. 

The WinStore IDE caching controller ($499) J 
incorporates the Stacker file-compression chip ^ 
right on-board. The controller has its own * 
processor and memory. You get both file 
compression and disk caching without using up 
system memory. 

Perceptive Solutions, Inc., 2700 Flora St, Dallas, TX 
75201, (214) 954-1774. 
Circle 1161. 




224 It V I I JULY 1993 



You could hire National Software Testing 
Laboratories to help you make the right LAN 

purchasing decisions. 

Or you could subscribe to LAN REPORTER. 



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THE SCIENCE OF NSTL TESTING 

NSTL is the laboratory of choice for buyers 
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Circle 67 on Inquiry Card. 



What's New 



Hardware 



A SCANNER FOR 
THE MAC ► 

The AVR 8800/ 
CLX (from $1700) 
24-bit flatbed scan- 
ner scans in color 
and gray scales. The 
TWAIN-compati- 
ble device from 
AVR Technolog> 
(San Jose, CA) can 
reach a vertical res- 
olution of 800 dpi 
and an optical res- 
olution of up to 1600 dpi. 
Phone: (800) 544-6243 or 
(408)434-1115. 

Circle 3.303 on Inquiry Card. 

DEC'S QUIET DOT-MATRIX 
PRINTER 

Able to automatically switch be- 
tween its resident Epson LQ 570 
and IBM Proprinter X24e emu- 
lations, the DECwriter 95 ($319) 




is a 24- wire narrow-carriage PC 
printer. The 360-dpi printer from 
DEC (Maynard, MA) prints at 
speeds of up to 300 cps at a noise 
level of only 43 dBa. It includes 
two resident scalable fonts, a 
Windows 3. 1 printer driver, and 
a two-year warranty. The printer 
handles fanfold or cut-sheet pa- 
per, labels, envelopes, and up to 
four-part forms. An optional 
user-installed color kit ($55) lets 



Photographic-Quality Color Printing 

Tektronix says its 
newest dye-sublima- 
tion printer processes 
color images in just 
over 3 minutes. The 
new Phaser IISDX 
($9995) also sup- 
ports Adobe Post- 
Script Level 2. The 
networkable printer 
uses proprietary Tek- 
Color color-matching 
algorithms suitable 
for color proofing in 
graphic arts applica- 
tions and scientific 
and engineering print- 
ing. A Phaser Print 
plug-in device for 
Adobe Photoshop in- 
creases the speed of 
printing Photoshop 
files by bypassing the 
Mac printer driver, 
Tektronix says. A 
driver for Windows 3.1 compresses scanned images such as 
photographs that are in Windows documents. 
Contact: Tektronix. Inc., Wilsonville, OR, (800) 835-6100 or 
(503) 682-7377. 

Circle 3.299 on Inquiry Card. 




you print in seven colors on each 
medium. 

Phone: (800) 344-4825 or 
(508) 493-7161. 

Circle X307 on Inquiry Card. 

PCMCIA TO SCSI 

SlimSCSI ($349) from Trantor 
Systems (Fremont, CA) is a 16- 
bit PCMCIA-to-SCSI host adapt- 
er that features Trantor' s propri- 
etary ASIC controller and con- 
figurable I/O-mapped address 
settings. The adapter's two-piece 
design lets you remove the ex- 
ternal connector and cable, leav- 
ing the card in place when car- 
rying your portable computer. 
Phone: (510) 770-1400. 

Circle 1304 on Inquiry Card. 

MICRO CHANNEL EXPANSION 

Arco-Electronics' (Hollywood, 
FL) AC-1079MC Slim Drive 
Adapter ($395) expands storage 
on Micro Channel-based com- 
puters. The adapter, which lets 
you mount one or two 2'/2-inch 
hard drives on it, supports drives 
from Seagate, Maxtor, and Con- 
nor. The Arco BIOS on the card 
allows disk mirroring via hard- 
ware. The redundant write mode 
protects data by writing it to the 
primary and secondary drives; if 
a drive fails, Arco provides a re- 
covery routine that allows data 
to be remirrored. 
Phone: (305) 925-2688. 

Circle 1306 on Inquiry Card. 

PORTABLE DATA FAX MODEMS 

PCMCIA Type 2-compatible, 
the RediCard V.32bis data fax 
modems ($595) from Data Race 
(San Antonio, TX) include MNP 
level 4 and V.42 error protection 
as well as MNP level 5 and 
V.42bis data compression. They 
support Group 3 fax protocols 
and have EIA-578/Class 1 fax 
commands. The RediCard mo- 
dems ship with Windows-based 
fax software. 
Phone: (210) 558-1900. 

Circle 1305 on Inquiry Card. 



DAT DRIVE RUNS FAST T 

Cristie Electronics (Gloucester- 
shire, U.K.) claims that its 
TS5450 DAT drive ($3108; 
£1999) reaches operational 
speeds of more than 14 KB per 
minute over standard PC parallel 
printer ports. Without data com- 
pression, the drive has a capaci- 
ty of 2 GB; with data compres- 




sion, the drive can achieve 
capacities of up to 8 GB. The 
TS5450 is available with a SCSI 
connection in lieu of the paral- 
lel port and comes with software 
for DOS, Windows, OS/2, Unix, 
Xenix, and NetWare. 
Phone: +44 453 823611. 

Circle 1309 on Inquiry Card. 

PALMTOP PERIPHERALS 

The S2P-95LX converter ($125) 
lets you connect the HP 95LX 
palmtop PC to any printer with a 
parallel port. From Imaging Sup- 
plies Express (Torrance, CA), 
the 5-ounce converter connects 
directly to the palmtop's four- 
pin serial connector and the print- 
er' s 36-pin connector. 
Phone: (800) 462-4309 or 
(310) 370-6882. 

Circle 3.323 on Inquiry Card. 

The Flashdrive (from $599) Vh- 
pound battery-powered external 
hard drive provides additional 
storage for your palmtop. From 
BSE (Flagstaff, AZ), the 17- 
inch-tall drive interfaces to any 
parallel printer port, letting you 
access your stored data from a 
variety of PCs. The internal bat- 
teries are rechargeable. 
Phone: (602) 527-8843. 

Circle 1324 on Inquiry Card. 



226 BYTE JULY 1993 



Hardware 



Wireless LAN Adapter 

Designed for peer-to-peer or 
client/server communications, 
tlie RadioPort/Parallei Wireless 
LAN Adapter ($599) lets you 
quicldy set up, add, remove, or 
relocate workstations without 
disrupting the rest of the net- 
work. Able to communicate at 
distances as far as 800 feet, 
the adapter plugs into your 
computer's parallel port; it sup- 
ports LANtastic and NetWare. 
Contact: Alps Electric (USA), 
Inc., San Jose, CA, (800) 825- 
2577 or (408)432-6000. 

Circle 1300 on inquiry Card- 




SCSI STORAGE 

An intelligent multitasking SCSI 
bus-to-ISA bus host adapter, 
SCSI Cache ($315; £199) from 
Western Systems (Ruislip, Mid- 
dlesex, U.K.) supports as many 
as four adapters that in turn each 
support up to seven SCSI de- 
vices. With 2 MB of RAM, SCSI 
Cache also provides hardware 
disk mirroring for all operating 
systems. 

Phone: +44 81 845 8383. 

Circle 1315 on Inquiry Card. 



VOLTAGE REGULATION 

From Upsonic (Tustin, CA), the 
VR Series of UPS systems (from 
$279) includes voltage regula- 
tion to protect LANs, host com- 
puters, and file servers from 
brownouts. In addition, these 
UPSes provide surge protection 
and up to 10 minutes of battery 
backup power. 
Phone: (800) 877-6642 or 
(714) 258-0808. 

Circle 1320 on Inquiry Card. 



REMOVABLE CARTRIDGE DRIVES 

The Puma 105 ($1119) external 
S'/i-inch cartridge drive provides 
105 MB of removable storage for 
DOS- or Windows-based PCs. 
The SyDOS (Boca Raton, FL) 
drive has an average seek time of 
14.5 ms and a 64-KB buffer. A 
parallel-port adapter that comes 
with the drive includes a printer 
pass-through that lets you simul- 
taneously use the drive and your 
printer. An optional battery pack 
provides up to 5 hours of contin- 
uous use. 

Phone: (407) 998-5400. 

Cirele 1.326 on Inquiry Canl. 

From Mirror Technologies (Rose- 
ville, MN), the Mirror 105MB 
Syquest Removable Drive ($699) 
for the Mac offers an average 
seek time of 14.5 ms and a sus- 
tained data transfer rate of 1.7 
MBps. The drive includes an em- 
bedded SCSI-2 controller. 
Phone:(612)633-4450. 

Circle 1327 on Inquiry Card. 

NOTEBOOK VIDEO 
ENHANCEMENT 

Designed for Toshiba notebooks. 
Phoenix Graphics' (San Diego, 
CA) VideoPak-1024 ($649) high- 
resolution accelerated video 
adapter enhances video capabili- 
ties in such areas as CAD, spread- 
sheets, and word processing. Res- 
olution-switcher software for 



Windows automatically config- 
ures Windows drivers for LCD 
and high-resolution modes. A 
PS/2-compatible keyboard port 
lets you connect a full-size key- 
board. 

Phone: (619) 283-9375. 

Circle 1308 on Inquiry Card. 

FLOPTICAL STORAGE 

Adambyte's (Mountain View, 
CA) Powerbox mobile storage 
system is now available in two 
floptical versions. As is the orig- 
inal Powerbox, the 200-f ($1449) 
and 500-f ($2399) are complete 
systems for use with the Power- 
Book. Features include a 200- or 
500-MB on-line hard drive and 
an additional PowerBook battery. 
Phone: (415) 988-1415. 

Circle 1312 on Inquiry Card. 

PS/2 UPGRADE 

Designed to interface with indus- 
try-standard IDE hard drives, the 
MC70 Upgrade Kit ($394; £249) 
lets you add storage to the IBM 
PS/2. It plugs into the IBM hard 
drive adapter slot, replacing the 
adapter. From CDL (Woking, 
Surrey, U.K.), the MC70 supports 
up to two hard drives, which can 
be installed in the B drive bay. 
Phone: +44 483 756813. 
Circle 1.31.4 on Inquiry Card. 



POWERBOOK CABLE ADAPTER 

A palm-size 25- to 30-pin SCSI 
adapter, SCSI Boy ($29) from 
APS Technologies (Kansas City, 
MO) turns a standard 25- to 50- 
pin SCSI cable into a Power- 
Book-compatible cable. The 
lightweight cable's shell is made 
of anodized aircraft aluminum. 
Phone: (800) 235-2753 or 
(816) 373-5800. 

Circle 131.8 on Inquiry Card. 

CROSS-PLATFORM COLOR 
PRINTING 

The CrayonFX Color Printer 
($1495) is a thermal-wax-trans- 
fer printer that prints from Mac 
QuickDraw and Windows appU- 
cations. From LaserMaster (Eden 
Prairie, MN), the 203-dpi printer 
includes Apple's ColorSync 
technology for color matching 
and 50 TrueType fonts that au- 
tomatically scale on-screen and 
in the printer. You can use the 
LocalTalk and parallel-port in- 
terfaces simultaneously and con- 
nect to a network via AppleTalk 
and Windows for Workgroups. 
Phone: (800) 477-7714 or 
(612) 944-9330. 

Circle 1310 on Inquiry Card. 




SEEING IS COMMUNICATING 

From Datapoint (San Antonio, 
TX) comes the Minx Link Point- 
to-Point System ($16,500), a 
desktop video workstation with 
integrated camera, monitor, 
speaker, and microphone that 
provides two people with direct 
video communication. Expan- 
sion capabilities let you build a 
video network for multiple users. 
The system includes a codec and 
Minx control software. 
Phone: (800) 334-9968 or 
(210) 593-7910. 

Circle 1313 on Inquiry Card. 

T ERGONOMICS 
ON A KEYBOARD 

An ergonomic PC keyboard, the 
MiniErgo ($179) from Mar- 
quardt Switches (Cazenovia, 
NY) is designed for people who 
use their computers for exten- 
sive word processing or data-en- 
try work. Developed in Germany 
by Marquardt's parent company, 
the MiniErgo features a sloping 
V-shaped configuration with a 
large resting area for hand and 
palm. Sculptured key caps are in 
the standard QWERTY pattern. 
Numerical keys are embedded 
and are also available as an op- 
tional number pad. 
Phone: (800) 282-3746 or 
(315) 655-8050 

Circle 1311 on Inquiry 
Card. 



JULY 1993 BYXE 22T 



What's New 



Hardware 



KEYBOARD KIT FOR VISUALLY 
IMPAIRED 

Adhesive labels ($21 .95) that ad- 
here directly to the top of your 
keyboard's keys feature the key- 
top legends of a 101-style key- 
board in a combination of raised 
braille characters and high-con- 
trast large print. The size, spac- 
ing, and height of the braille dots 
comply with ADA specifications. 
From Hooleon (Cottonwood, 
AZ). 

Phone: (800) 937-1337 or (602) 
634-4503. 

Circle 1317 on Inquiry Card. 

PORTABLE ETHERNET ADAPTER 

Featuring lOBase-2 and lOBase- 
T interfaces, the Dual Interface 
Pocket Ethernet Adapter ($295) 
from Kingston Technology 
(Fountain Valley, 
CA) connects to 
any portable or 
desktop PC via 
the parallel port. 
The adapter sup- 
ports the enhanced 
parallel port and is the latest in 
Kingston's EtheRx line of Ether- 
net LAN products. 
Phone: (714)435-2600. 

Circle 1333 on Inquiry Card. 

SINGLE-BOARD VOICE 
COMPUTER 

The MA590 ($240; $A333) sin- 
gle-height Eurocard intelligent 
voice-output card has on-board 
memory sockets for several min- 
utes of tape recorder-quality 




recording and playback at 10-kHz 
audio bandwidth. The Microcon- 
trol (Pymble, Australia) card in- 
cludes multitasking voice-pro- 
cessing monitor firmware. 
Phone: +61 2 449 1546. 

Circle 1316 on Inquiry Card. 

PANASONIC'S COLORFUL 
NOTEBOOK 

An active-matrix TFT color dis- 
play and a 120-MB hard drive are 
major features of the CF-580C 
($4499) 486 notebook from Pana- 
sonic (Secaucus, NJ). The 25- 
MHz computer includes a built-in 
numeric coprocessor, 8 KB of in- 
ternal cache memory, 3.3-V nick- 
el-metal-hydride batteries, Su- 
perStor disk-compression soft- 
ware, and a minitrackball. 
Phone: (800) 742-8086 or (817) 
685-1210. 

Circle 1321 on Inquiry Card. 

SCANNER DIGITIZES COLOR T 

The Pro Imager 7650C color 
flatbed scanner ($1 1,495) from 
PixelCraft (Oakland, CA) digi- 
tizes color and gray-scale reflec- 
tive images in sizes of up to II 
by 17 inches. The scanner has 
variable resolutions of up to 1200 
dpi and ships with QuickScan and 
ColorAccess software. The scan- 
ner/software combination is de- 
signed to offer a desktop color- 
separation solution that rivals 
more expensive systems. 
Phone: (800) 933-0330 or (510) 
562-2480 

Circle 1319 on Inquiry Card. 





Super Server 



Tatung's Super COMPserver 10 Series (from $15,990) desk- 
top servers are compatible with Sun IVIicrosystems' Sparc- 
station 10. The entry-level model 10/30 features 32 MB of 
RAM, a 36-MHz SuperSparc chip, a 1-GB hard drive, built-in 
ISDN capabilities, graphics accelerator cards, and CD-quali- 
ty 16-bit audio. Configurable with up to 10 storage devices, 
the unit includes Open Windows 3 and the Solaris 1.1 or 2.1 
operating environment. 

Contact: Tatung Science & Technology, Inc., San Jose, CA, 
(408) 435-0140. 

Circle 1301 on Inquiry Card. 



REMOVABLE STORAGE 

The IncreMeg 6000 ($19,500) 
hard disk storage subsystem from 
MountainGate Data Systems (Or- 
ange, CA) provides up to 7.2 GB 
of formatted on-line capacity via 
up to six 3'/2-inch removable 
drives. Designed for secure stor- 
age, exchange, and transport of 
data for applications such as 
video/audio editing, mission 
planning, simulation, and data 
acquisition, the IncreMeg 6000 
supports DOS, OS/2, Unix, Mac, 
and Sun platforms. 
Phone: (800) 556-0222 or 
(714) 998-6900. 

Circle 1322 on Inquiry Card. 

TURN YOUR PC INTO AN 
OSCILLOSCOPE 

A 12-bit, PC-based oscilloscope 
card from Gage Applied Sci- 
ences (Montreal, Quebec, Cana- 
da), the CompuScope 1012 (US 
$4995) provides a 10-mega-sam- 
ple-per-second sampling rate 
on two simultaneous channels. 



Other features include a 65-dB 
dynamic range, 384 KB of mem- 
ory depth per channel, program- 
mable input gain, internal or ex- 
ternal trigger capability, and 
programmable input coupling. 
GageScope software ships with 
the card, so you don't have to 
write any programming code. 
Phone: (514)337-6893. 

Circle 1328 on Inquiry Card. 

DOUBLE THE VIEWING 

The Nth Double Edge ($1295) 
graphics board from Nth Graphics 
(Austin, TX) lets you run two col- 
or-graphics screens at once on 
two side-by-side monitors. You 
can see a large overview of a sin- 
gle application or view two full- 
screen applications and switch be- 
tween them. The board includes 2 
MB of VRAM and lets you pan, 
scroll, drag, and redraw screens. 
Phone: (800) 624-7552 or (512) 
832-1944. 

Circle 1329 on inquiry Card. 



228 



It V I I- JULY 1993 



Decisions, decisions, decisions. 




Decider, decider, decider. 



Down -sizing, upgrading, multi- platform envi- 
ronments. Today's computer hardware issues are 
more numerous, more difficult, more critical than 
ever. So how do companies make decisions? 

According to a new IntelliQuest study, they 
turn to the only person qualified to decide. Some- 
one like Bob Barrett. A person with 18 years in 
computers. Who oversees a technical staff of 75. 
And whose buying decisions and approvals affect 
nearly 3,000 users worldwide. 

In other words, they turn to the BYTE reader. 
A full 92% of whom control the products and 
brands their companies buy. 

If you want to reach an audience as influential 
as this, then yours is an easy decision— advertise 
in BYTE. 



BYTE reader Robert N. Barrett, Vice President Management 
Information Systems, M/A-COM, Inc. 





It doesn't g 




) 1992 BYTE, a McGraw-Hill publication. For a presentation of the Ma 




Quest study, 




What's New 



Hardware 




MAKE VIDEOTAPES 
ON YOUR MAC ► 

Designed for making high- 
quality presentations and 
videotapes on your Mac, the 
L-TV Pro LC ($449) and L- 
TV Pro NuBus ($499) sup- 
port NTSC and PAL video 
standards. The interface cards 
support up to 16-bit video, 
which is optimized for Quick- 
time movies and photographic- 
quality pictures. From Lapis 
Technologies (Alameda, CA), 
the cards' four modes of opera- 
tion are video recording, presen- 
tation, dual display, and TV only. 
Composite video and S-Video 
connections are standard. 
Phone: (800) 435-2747 or 
(510) 748-1600 

Circle 1335 on Inquiry Card. 

VIEW COMPUTER IMAGES ON TV 

The pocket-size Presenter Plus 
2 ($429) from Consumer Tech- 
nology Northwest (Beaverton, 
OR) lets you present images gen- 
erated in DOS or Windows ap- 
plications on your TV screen. 
The device connects a comput- 
er's VGA port to a TV's video 
input port. Output is in NTSC, 
S- Video, and VGA formats. 
Phone: (800) 356-3983 or 
(503) 643-1662. 

Circle 1337 on Inquiry Card. 

PRINT MULTIPART FORMS 

From the Facit division of 
Aheam and Soper (Manchester, 
NH), the D4000 ($2299) 80-col- 
umn multipart forms and label 
printer handles up to six-part 
forms and pressure-sensitive la- 
bels. A straight paper path, front- 
mounted heavy-duty tractors, and 
the capability to print on paper 
from 3 'A to 9 'A inches wide are 
features of the 300-dpi printer. 
Facit' s FormStore software lets 
you store up to six forms settings 
in the printer's memory. Serial 
and parallel interfaces and a key- 
pad panel are built in. 
Phone: (603) 647-2700. 

Circle 1336 on Inquiry Card. 



MULTIPLE-RESOLUTION 
SCANNER 

A floor-standing scanner with a 
small footprint, the Visionscan 
VS-1250 ($9428; £5990) scans 
at speeds of up to 36 A4 portrait 
pages per minute at 200 dpi. You 
can also select resolutions of 240, 
300, and 400 dpi. From Advanced 
Recognition (Windsor, Berkshire, 
U.K.), the scanner has a built-in 
100-sheet page feeder and a man- 
ual paper-thickness adjustment. 
Phone: +44 753 855442. 

Circle 1332 on Inquiry Card. 

STACKABLEHUB 

Standard Microsystems Corp. 
(SMC, Hauppauge, NY) lets you 
stack up to eight of its Elite 



38 12TP ($995) IGBase-T hubs to 
form a 1 12-port logical repeater. 
When you add field-upgradable 
Network Management Modules 
($1695 each), the hub allows in- 
band and out-of-band manage- 
ment and is compatible with any 
SNMP manager. 
Phone: (800) 762-4968 or (516) 
435-6255. 

Circle 1334 on Inquiry Card. 

NOTEBOOK HAS LONG 
BAHERYLIFE 

With power management based 
on PicoPower Technology's 
Evergreen chip set, the Compu- 
Add 425TX notebook ($1895) 
runs on battery power for up to 
5 hours under normal operation 
and 3 hours under heavy opera- 
tion, the vendor says. The Com- 
puAdd (Austin, TX) machine 
features 4 MB of RAM (ex- 
pandable to 8 MB), a PCMCIA 
slot, a 120-MB hard drive, an in- 
ternal fax modem slot, and a 
built-in trackball. Simulscan 
capability allows simultaneous 
display on the monochrome 



LCD and on an optional exter- 
nal color Super VGA monitor. 
Phone: (800) 627-1967 or 
(512) 250-1489. 

Circle 1330 on Inquiry Card. 

VERSATILE IDE HARD DRIVE 

The palmDrive 210i ($999) Irom 
ProTege (Laguna Hills, CA), an 
external IDE drive, interfaces 
with your PC through the com- 
pany's Stealth controller and de- 
vice management software. The 
drive has access times of 12 ms, 
data transfer rates of 2.25 MBps, 
and drive buffer-to-host transfer 
speeds of 10 MBps. It coexists 
with IDE, SCSI, ESDI, RLE, 
and MFM controllers without 
changes to the PC BIOS. 
Phone: (800) 995-4453 or 
(714) 586-8004. 

Circle 1331 on Inquiry Card. 

LIGHTWEIGHT NOTEBOOK 

Epson America's (Torrance, CA) 
ActionNote 4SLC/25 notebook 
(from $1399) weighs 5 'A pounds 
and has built-in power manage- 
ment features. The basic config- 
uration includes 4 MB of RAM, 
an 80-MB hard drive, a backlit 
monochrome LCD, a dual dis- 
play with an external monitor, 
and system and video BIOS 
RAM. 

Phone: (800) 289-3776 or 
(305) 265-0092. 

Circle 1338 on Inquiry Card. 

MAKE THE CD-ROM 
CONNECTION 

Future Domain's (Irvine, CA) 
SCSI CD-ROM kit ($69) lets 
you easily connect a CD-ROM 
drive to your PC. The kit in- 
cludes a SCSI controller card, 
PowerSCSI universal applica- 
tion interface software, and NLM 
software for NetWare 3.11,3.12, 
and 4.0 that lets file servers use a 
CD-ROM as a read-only volume. 
With PowerSCSI you can access 
several different SCSI periph- 
erals, each connected through a 
different interface, simultane- 
ously under Windows. 
Phone: (714) 253-0400. 

Circle 1325 on Inquiry Card. 



Local-Bus Multimedia 




The Mega M46D2LM ($3895) local-bus muttimedia system 
has 8 MB of RAM, 256 KB of cache RAM, 2 MB of VRAM, and 
1 MB of DRAM. The MPC-compliant system includes a Pro 
Audio Spectrum 16 sound card, speakers, a microphone, and 
headphones. The medium-tower system can read multises- 
sion Photo CDs and includes Windows NT driver support. 
Contact: Megamedia Computer Corp., San Jose, CA, (800) 
634-2334 or (408) 428-9920. 

Circle 1302 on Inquiry Card. 



230 BYTE JULY 1993 



O Your Direct 



BYTE introducesYour Direct Link - An 
enlianced service for BYTE readers tfiat 
gives you free information on products - 
faster and easier! 



In the NEW Direct Link 
section, here's what 
you'll find: 

Alphabetical Index 
to Advertisers 
Including Phone 
Numbers 

Now dial companies 
directly. 





Product Category 
Index to 
Advertisers 

Order information on 
individual products or 
complete product 
categories. 

Redesigned 
Editorial Index 

Free information from 
companies covered in 
articles, columns, or 
news stories. 



New Enhanced 
Direct Link Card 

Receive free information 
quickly by filling out and 
mailing or faxing Your Direct 
Link Card today! 





Send for FREE product information by 
filling out Your Direct Link Card 
found in the back of every issue. 

Buy It 
Thtough BYTE! 



BVTE 



I 

I 

(A 



m 



What's New 



Software 




STATISTICAL SOFTWARE ▲ 

QI Analyst ($395 until Septem- 
ber 30; $695 thereafter) SPC 
(statistical process control) soft- 
ware for quality improvement 
runs under Windows 3.1. From 
SPSS (Chicago, IL), QI Analyst 
is designed to help businesses 
improve processes, cut waste, 
and reduce nonconformance to 
quality improvement require- 
ments. The package provides 23 
SPC charts, capability statistics, 
Shewhart control tests, and re- 
ports. 

Phone: (800) 543-2185 or 
(312)329-2400. 

Circle X283 on Inquiry Card. 

NO MORE MEMORY LEAKS 

Bounds-Checker for Windows 
($199) from Nu-Mega Tech- 
nologies (Nashua, NH) can trap 
common bugs such as memory 
and heap-related corruption prob- 
lems; library routine overruns of 
strings, arrays, and structures; re- 
sources that were not freed; and 
errant parameters that were 
passed to API routines. 
Phone: (603) 889-2386. 
Circle 11.35 on Inquiry Card. 

DATABASE MANAGEMENT 
MADE EASY 

SQL Manager for SQL Base 
(US$795) from Nakiska Systems 
(Calgary, Alberta, Canada) com- 
bines database management, 
monitoring, and reporting for 



Windows users. Features include 
an intuitive interface, point- 
and-click commands, database 
maintenance, database trend 
information, server activity mon- 
itoring, and system catalog re- 
porting. 

Phone: (403) 945-7087. 

Circle 1137 on Inquiry Card. 



MODELING AND SIMULATION 
SOLUTION 

A data analysis and numerics 
software package from Micro- 
Math Scientific Software (Salt 
Lake City, UT), Scientist ($495) 
transparently processes standard 
and differential equations. The 
graphics editor supports annota- 
tion, editing, and grouping. 
Phone: (800) 942-6284 or 
(801)943-0290. 

Circle 1136 on Inquiry Card. 

TALK, DON'T TYPE 

A speech-recognition command- 
and-control tool that works in 
Windows, IBM VoiceType 2 
($2195) lets you vocally enter 
text and control applications into 
programs such as WordPerfect, 
1-2-3, and dBase. With a base 
vocabulary of 7000 words, the 
program accepts replacement 
words that you define or draw 
from a backup list. The Dragon 



Systems' (Newton, MA) pro- 
gram adapts to individual voice 
patterns. 

Phone: (617) 965-5200. 

Circle 1273 on Inquiry Card. 

VIRTUAL REALITY DESIGN TOOL 

Continuous, DSP-based (digital 
signal processor) operation in 
Real-Time Convolver ($1895) 
lets you design a virtual reality 
system in real time. The program 
supports impulse responses up 
to 25,000 points and sampling 
rates up to 100 kHz for mono or 
binaural real-time audible simu- 
lation. This Signalogic (Dallas, 
TX) software is compatible with 
the company's Hypersignal- 
Acoustic audio signal analysis 
environment. 
Phone: (214) 343-0069. 

Circle 1138 on Inquiry Card. 

COLOR YOUR BUSINESS 
GRAPHICS 

The Palette Chooser and the Ex- 
plorer components of ColorUp 
($99.95), an intuitive color soft- 
ware utility from Pantone (Carl- 
stadt, NJ), provide professional- 
ly designed color palettes and an 
encyclopedia of color informa- 
tion and experiments. Colors are 
optimized for specific output me- 
dia, and palettes are easily ex- 
ported. 

Phone: (201)935-5500. 

Circle 1140 on Inquiry Card. 

CREATE INTERACTIVE 
PRESENTATIONS 

AniMage ($395) from Digital 
ChoreoGraphics (Costa Mesa, 
CA) lets you create interactive 
annotated animated graphical 
presentations. You can merge 
text, graphics, and animation into 
a single presentation and inter- 
act with it via the pan, zoom, re- 
play, skip, and scroll options. 
You can then distribute the pre- 
sentation and a presentation play- 
er on a floppy disk. 
Phone: (714) 548-1969. 

Circle 1142 on Inquiry Card. 



Develop and Maintain Unix Software 




Sextant for C ($2500), an integrated hypertext environment 
for developing and maintaining Unix-based C applications, 
provides navigation and visualization capabilities that let 
programmers manage large and complex projects. The 
software assists in code reuse and reengineering and allows 
multiple views to be dynamically linked. You can configure 
the language-sensitive editor and fully integrate it into the 
environment. Features include color coding, filtering, and 
synchronization among specifications, code, and 
documents. 

Contact: Sextant, Inc., Ann Arbor, Ml, (313) 973-8888. 



232 BYXE JU1.Y 1993 



Smart Communicating 



Communications software for Windows 3.0 and 3.1, 
Smartcom for Windows 1.0 ($49 througli July; $149 
tliereafter) combines tlie GUI of a Windows application witli 
tlie features and performance of a DOS program, according 
to Hayes. Smart Buttons let you access common commands 
and frequently used scripts with the click of a button, and 
the SCOPE scripting language allows you to automate tasks 
and to create interface-driven scripts for transparent 
operations. Hie Communications Editor includes ANSI.SYS 
functionality so that you can add color and graphics to text 
messages. 

Contact: Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc., Norcross, GA, 
(404)441-1617. 

Circle 13.32 on Inquiry Card. 




SAFE FILE TRANSFER 

FileRunner ($99.95) for the Mac 
lets you network among your 
desktop computers and Power- 
Books. The MBS Technologies 
(McMurray, PA) program syn- 
chronizes any number of Macs 
via its Tru-Sync feature, which 
automatically identifies and 
transfers updated and new files 
and folders. Overwrite Safeguard 
protects your data and wams you 
if the same file is changed on 
more than one computer. File- 
Runner creates a log of all trans- 
fers and compensates for changes 
in time zones. 
Phone: (800) 860-8700 or 
(412) 941-9076. 

Circle 1278 on Inquiry Card. 



WINDOWS SOFTWARE FOR 
FINANCIAL ANAUrSTST 

Leading Market Technologies 
(Cambridge, MA) has moved 
Expo to Windows 3.1 ($2995). 
Expo graphically monitors and 
analyzes market data, providing 
predefined analytics and letting 
you create custom analytics. A 
worksheet can contain up to 100 
graphics windows; you can relate 
each window to others, spread- 
sheet-style, by for- 
mulas you define. 
Graphics, analyses, 
and decision rules 
from financial mar- 
kets are automati- 
cally updated as 
you enter new data. 
Phone: (617) 
494-4747. 

Circle ±2S2 on 
Inquiry Card. 



SPEED UP WINDOWS WORK 

When you power up your PC, 
Fantastic Recall ($49.95 until 
September 1; $79.95 thereafter) 
lets you start where you left off 
in Windows. With no special 
hardware required, this package 
from Binar Graphics (San Ra- 
fael, CA) automatically restores 
the application you were working 
in via a single keystroke. 
Phone: (800) 228-0666 or 
(415) 491-1565. 

Circle 1281 on Inquiry Card. 

WINDOWS PAINTING 

Color Wheel ($395), an image- 
processing program from Pacif- 
ic Gold Coast (Glen Cove, NY), 
lets you quickly create designs 
using object-oriented procedures 
that let you change the shape, 
size, color scheme, and attribut- 
es of new or prefabricated ob- 
jects. Major components of the 
software are object and overlay 
manipulation, color and palette 
management, special effects and 
editing, and OLE. 
Phone: (516) 759-3011. 

Circle 1271 on Inquiry Card. 

NEURAL WINDOWS 

DataSculptor ($495) shortens the 
time needed to solve data-analy- 
sis and manipulation problems. 
The NeuralWare (Pittsburgh, 
PA) data-translation, analysis, 
and transformation tools work in 
an object-oriented environment. 
You select tools and functions 
as you would building blocks; 
you connect the blocks to create 
reusable solutions to data-pro- 
cessing problems. 
Phone: (412) 787-8222. 

Circle 1272 on Inquiry Card- 




Software Update 



WinMaster 1.5 ($129.95), PC- 
Kwik (Beaverton, OR), adds 
new module KwikFind and 
enhancements to Toolbox, 
Kwiklnfo, PowerScope, and 
KwikVault. 

Phone: (800) 759-5945 or 

(503)644-5644. 

Circle 1285 on Inquiry Card. 

LANDesk Manager 1.5 ($995 per 
server), Intel (Santa Clara, 
CA), adds alert log, scripting, 
event manager, and Quick 
Windows screen control; en- 
hances control panel with 
Network Device Table. 
Phone: (800) 538-3373, 
(503) 629-7354, or +44 793 
431 155. 

Circle 1286 on inquiry Card. 



HiJaait Pro 2.0 ($169), Inset 
Systems (Brookfield, CT), 
adds improved user interface, 
new graphics formats, and 
support of the Aldus Graph- 
ics Import Filter specifica- 
tion, the WordPerfect for 
Windows API, and TWAIN. 
Phone: (203) 740-2400. 
Circle 1287 on Inquiry Card. 

Linkage 3.1 (developer's kit, 
$20,000), Cimlinc (Itasca, 
IL), adds enhancements in 
computer graphics, data inte- 
gration, floating licenses, and 
text handling. 
Phone: (708) 250-0090. 
Circle 1289 on Inquiry Card. 

Golden Retriever 2.0b ($99), 
Above Software (Irvine, CA), 
adds File Save and File Open 
commands, version-control 
field in File Record, Uninstall 
option, and enhancements to 
Desk, File Manager, and 
ASCII file viewer. 
Phone: (800) 344-01 16 or 
(714) 851-2283. 
Circle 1293 on Inquiiy Card. 



JULY 1993 IS V I I 233 



What's New 



Software 



TECHNICAL GRAPHING IN 
WINDOWS ► 

EasyPlot for Windows 
($399) technical graphing 
software lets you quick- 
ly analyze, manipulate, 
and plot large amounts of 
data. The Turbologic fea- 
ture virtually eliminates 
delays normally associat- 
ed with Windows screen 
rewrites by anticipating 
screen updates and storing key 
accelerator information, accord- 
ing to Spiral Software (Brook- 
Une, MA). Other features include 
the Text Toolbar, Clipboard Plot- 
ting, and the Data Editor. 
Phone: (617) 739-1511. 

Circle 1.279 on Inquiry Card. 

GUI DESIGN TOOL 

XVT-Design++ 1.0 for PCs 
($1395) and workstations 
($3095) provides a GUI tool for 
creating C++ applications. From 
XVT Software (Boulder, CO), 
this interactive design tool for 




EX Supply Pressue (pa^ 



user interfaces incorporates a 
C++ code fragment editor and a 
C++ application framework that 
includes GUI objects. 
Phone: (303) 443-4223. 

Circle 3.144 on Inquiry Card. 

BASIC PROGRAMMING 
ON THE MAC 

A visual interactive program- 
ming environment for BASIC on 
the Mac, VIP-BASIC ($295) 
provides precoded Procedures, 
integrated Resource Editors, and 
the Dispatcher for building ap- 
plications in BASIC. From 
Mainstay (Agoura Hills, CA), 



Mac and Windows Conferencing 



Eile EdR hjeiBiBc £iinferei>ce Jew fidmln Behug Wn<ion 




Hew Uaer Into 



'ii' CcrtetP¥M 4 Fits 0 VeUtrt: 



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coieSei) a nunfcer ol these (ocatied versions of the FkstClssoOienl ana ore makiig 
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~ SoAArc Oi*ie(»act al (41G] E0S-22S0. 



FirstClass Client for Windows (US$295), a front end for 
SoftArc's FirstClass E-mail conferencing system, lets clients 
use a Mac or Windows to access the same nondedicated 
FirstClass server without need of additional hardware. All 
connections are over the same Ethernet cable via log-ins 
over IPX, AppleTallt, and modems. The software accepts up 
to 250 users simultaneously, allowing Mac and Windows PC 
users to tallt in real time. 

Contact: SoftArc, Inc., Scarborough, Ontario, Canada, (416) 
299-4723. 

circle 1133 on Inquiry Card. 



VIP-BASIC lets you program 
from the bottom up. 
Phone: (818) 991-6540. 

Circle 1145 on Inquiry Card. 

POINT-AND-CLICK BACKUP 

Backup Exec for Windows 
($149) introduces Connor Peri- 
pherals' (Lake Mary, FL) line of 
retail backup products. Con- 
forming to Windows File Man- 
ager, the software lets you back 
up and restore your data by 
pointing and clicking on icons 
for drives, file servers, tapes, and 
logs. The software supports most 
standard SCSI tape devices that 
run under Windows. 
Phone: (800) 541-2220 or 
(407) 262-8000. 

Circle 1284 on Inquiry Card. 

CONTROL ANIMATIONS 

SoftVTR ($999), a software- 
based controller for use on PCs 
and Unix workstations, provides 
control of commercial and broad- 
cast-quality VTRs (videotape 
recorders) and laser discs. From 
Moonlight Computer Products 
(San Diego, CA), the software 
puts the VTR control panel on 
your computer screen and lets 
you control in interactive or 
background modes. Features in- 
clude frame-grabbing and roto- 
scoping. 

Phone: (619) 625-0300. 

Circle 1276 on Inquiry Card. 

PC DIAGNOSTICS 

Checkit Pro: Tests & Tools 
($149.95), a troubleshooting di- 
agnostic utility, tests PC hard- 
ware with explicit interpretation 
of results to identify faulty com- 
ponents. You can use the custom 
test applets to build a variety of 
diagnostic suites and run them 
as part of your own custom batch 
file or menu. An advanced virus- 
scanning module can catch more 
than 2000 viruses, according to 
developer Touchstone Software 
(Huntington Beach, CA). 
Phone: (800) 531-0450 or 
(714) 969-7746. 

Circle 1143 on Inquiry Card. 




Software Update 



chemExhibit for Windows 2.0 

($595), Molecular Arts (Ana- 
heim, CA), enables an un- 
limited number of diagram 
templates; adds Windows 

common 
dialog 
boxes and 
hot keys, 
arrow tool 
palette in 
drawing 
tools, object stacking and 
grouping capabilities in ob- 
ject controls, additional query 
and identification capabilities 
in Select-3D, and additional 
molecule shading options in 
Visage-3D. 

Phone: (714) 634-8100. 
Circle 1288 on Inquiry Card. 

PowerTools 1.1 ($895), Xionics 
(Peabody, MA), adds support 
for TWAIN and Xionics' 
Lightning cards, drivers for 
the Hewlett-Packard LaserJet 
4 printer and Fujitsu M3097 
scanner, document separa- 
tors, new printing features, 
faster image panning, and 
multipage TIFF. 
Phone: (508) 531-6666. 
Circle 1291 on Inquiry Card. 

Mathematica 2.2 (from $595), 
Wolfram Research (Cham- 
paign, IL), adds improved nu- 
meric functions and equation- 
solving capabilities, new 
interval arithmetic capabili- 
ties, more sophisticated sym- 
bolic capabilities, and en- 
hanced solutions of symbolic 
differential equations. 
Phone: (800) 441-6284 or 
(217)398-0700. 
Circle 1292 on Inquiry Card. 

TapeWare 4.1 (from $299), 
Emeritus Technologies (Fres- 
no, CA), adds file system 
agent for OS/2 and Unix; 
NetWare 3.x name space sup- 
port for Mac, OS/2, and Unix 
files; NetWare user-level 
stratification; and enhanced 
file tracking. 
Phone: (209) 292-8888. 
Circle 1294 on Inquiry Card. 



234 BYTE JULY 1993 



HEADS, ITS REAL, 
TALS, ITS NKE. 



It's your choice. A little more than 
50 percent of all business soft- 
ware in use today is pirated. 

You might save a few bucks on 
it — ^but when phony software 
doesn't work, forget calling for 
product support. When it infects 
your computer with a deadly 
virus, it'll be your work that gets 
lost. The documentation is 
nonexistent or inadequate, so 
that won't help. And, of course, 
there will never be any product 
upgrades. 

Selling or copying software 
without authorization is against 
the law, with severe criminal and 
civil penalties including impris- 
onment of up to five years, fines 
of up to $250,000, or both. If 
you suspect the sale or use of 
pirated software, call the BSA 
Anti-Piracy hodine: 

Pl(800) 688-BSA1 (2721) 




Business Software Alliance 





What's New 



Software 



DATA-COMPRESSION HELP 

A data-compression utility for 
DOS 6 DoubleSpace and Win- 
dows, SpaceManager ($89.95) 
from Vertisoft Systems (San 
Francisco, CA) augments Dou- 
bleSpace. Major features are Se- 
lectCompress, which provides 
additional compression; Super- 
Mount, which negates the need 
for mount commands; Super- 
Monitor, which provides a 
graphical report of data com- 
pression; SuperExchange, which 
supports easy exchange of Dou- 
bleSpace-compressed disks; and 
FortuneTeller, which predicts the 
amount of remaining disk space 
available. 

Phone: (800) 466-5875 or 
(803) 269-5311. 

Circle 11.39 on Inquiry Card. 



ADD SERIAL I/O TO 
PC APPLICATIONS 

The Software Wedge 
for Windows Profes- 
sional Edition ($395) 
from T.A.L. Enter- 
prises (Philadelphia, 
PA) lets you create so- 
phisticated serial I/O 
interfaces between a 
device with a serial 
port and a Windows or 
OS/2 application. The 
software supports advanced data 
parsing and filtering capabilities, 
data formatting functions, and 
hexadecimal- or octal-to-deci- 
mal conversions. This edition lets 
you turn a spreadsheet cell into a 
serial input or output buffer and 
log data directly to a disk file in 
the background. 





MoRPH Migrates TO Windows 



Morph ($169) now works on PCs running Windows and lets 
tliem perform morphing, a 2-D special effect that 
transforms one still image into another. Able to use 
graphics generated from Windows-compatible painting or 
drawing programs or scanned images, Morph lets you place 
two images side by side on the computer screen. After 
matching key points on each image, you specify the number 
of intervening frames you want; Morph calculates the 
appearance of each frame and transforms one image into 
the other as an animation. You can save the resulting 
morph as a Video for Windows movie or as an animation on 
video tape or film. Single still images can be saved in file 
formats such as TIFF, GIF, and Targa. 
Contact: Gryphon Software Corp., San Diego, CA, (619) 
536-8815. 

Circle 2.134 on Inquiry Card. 



Phone: (800) 722-6004 or 
(215) 763-2620. 

Circle 1275 on Inquiry Card. 

DESIGN A BBS DATABASE 

ModemBase Pro ($149) from In- 
tegrated Solutions (Riverside, 
CA) lets BBS system operators 
create custom-designed databas- 
es and incorporate them into the 
on-line services available on their 
BBSes. BBS callers can work 
with the database as they would 
with any other BBS conference. 
Phone: (800) 633-6636 or 
(909) 780-8860. 

Circle 1.277 on Inquiry Card. 

MORE THAN A DISK JACKET 
MAKER 

The DirJacket System ($25) 
from The Flight House (Lake 
Forest, CA) lists the volume 
name and all files and directo- 
ries, including hidden files, on a 
floppy disk, CD-ROM, tape, or 
fixed disk. MailJacket lets you 
print a disk mailer once you've 
entered the addressee and the re- 
turn address into your computer. 
Phone: (800) 795-4834 or 
(714) 768-3035. 

Circle 1274 on Inquiry Card- 

FAX FROM A PC IN WINDOWS 

Any document you can print 
from a Windows application, you 
can fax from your PC with 
Open/image Fax for Windows 
($995). From Wang Laborato- 
ries (Lowell, MA), the software 
includes APIs that let you fax an 
image window, screen, file, or 
document. 

Phone: (508) 459-5000. 

Circle 1280 on Inquiry Card- 



Software Update 



Zylndex 4.0 for DOS (single 
user, $395; network, from 
$995), ZyLab (Buffalo 
Grove, IL), adds basic re- 
trieval enhancements, unlim- 
ited index and file sizes, and 
new search capabilities. 
Phone: (800) 544-6339 or 
(708) 459-8000. 
Circle 1295 on Inquiry Card. 

InterLend 2.0 ($495), TKM 
Software (Brandon, Manito- 
ba, Canada), has enhanced 
functionality, especially in re- 
port generation. 
Phone: (800) 565-6272 or 
(204) 727-3873. 
Circle 1296 on Inquiry Card. 

Windows Personal Librarian 3.0 

($995), Personal Library 
Software (Rockville, MD), 
adds native-mode document 
architecture, fuzzy-logic 
searching, PL-Admin in Win- 
dows, concurrent updating 
with transaction integrity, and 
simultaneous multiple data- 
base searches. PC or Mac. 
Phone: (301)990-1155. 
Circle 1297 on inquiry Card. 

The Debt Analyzer 1.20 ($20), 
Insight Software Solutions 
(Bountiful, UT). adds the 
ability to select nine new debt 
priority payoff methods, print 
a summary report, view the 
sum of all debts and pay- 
ments on-screen at all times, 
and use an effective-interest 
rate calculator. 
Phone: (801)295-1890. 
Circle 1298 on Inquiry Card. 

HiQ 2.0 ($995), Bimillennium 
(Los Gatos, CA), adds a bet- 
ter GUI, new features in the 
Function Library, improved 
loop opti- 
mization, as 
well as easi- 
er data 
analysis and 
manipula- 
tion. 

Phone: (800) 488-8662 or 

(408)354-7511. 

Circle 1290 on Inquiry Card. 




236 |{ V 1 i ; 1993 




Everyone 
makes claims. We make sure. 



When the industry wants 
product testing taken to the nth 
degree, they take it to NSTL. 

In every field, one name sets the 
standard. In microcomputer testing, 
the name is NSTL, the leading 
independent testing lab. 

The NSTL compatibility certification 
seal on a product says that it withstood 
the toughest lab in the industry — and 
it's ready for your business. 

The seal saves you a lot of comparison 
and guesswork. It says you'll find the 
product compatible with a wide range 
of business applications and hardware. 
It helps you make the right choice. 

Real-world testing for real- 
world use. 

Beyond compatibility testing, we 
access nearly every conceivable 



problem — from engineering-level 
hardware bugs to the everyday usability 
of business software. 

And we test with the end-user in 
mind, in a real-world environment, just 
the way your staff uses equipment. 
Except our trials are more punishing. 

Our publications, and others 
that publish our work. 

In a separate facility we also do 
comparison testing for our own 
Ratings Reports: Software Digesf^, PC 
Digest® and LAN Reporter®. They're 
read by people who purchase an 
average of more than $500,000 in 
microcomputer hardware and 
software annually. 

And because of the respect we've 
earned, some of the industry's leading 
publications, like Data Communications, 



IAN Times, Unix World and Datapro 
Research Group publish our test results. 

Look for the NSTL seal and 
be sure. 

Experts rely on the NSTL name: 
now you can, too. The final test of a 
product is its compatibility in a 
business environment The NSTL mark 
tells you it's already met that test. Look 
for it when you compare products. 



NSTL 

Plymouth Corporate Center 

Box 1000, Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462 

215-941-9600 

Micro Channel™ and OS/2™ are trademarks of the IBM Corporation. 



Circle 121 on Inquiry Card. 



Quatech, your communication source for 

RS-232, 422 and 485 adapters. 






^^uatech manufactures a com- 
plete line of communication adapt- 
ers for PC/XT/AT®, Micro Channel® 
and compatible buses to meet asyn- 
chronous and synchronous, serial 
and parallel communication require- 
ments with protocols such as RS- 
232, RS-422, RS-485, Current Loop 
and IEEE488. 



Vjoftwaresupportfor SCO Unix®, 
Windows* Xenix*, OS/2* and DOS. 



D, 



ata Acquisition and Indus- 
trial I/O products manufactured by 
Quatech are also available. Call for 
a free Data Acquisition and Com- 
munication Handbook today. 

23« H V I 1 JULY 1993 



' ommunication adapters fea- 
turing: selectable/shareable inter- 
rupts, 1 6550 availability (baud rates 
up to 256K on standard asynchro- 
nous adapters) and address 
configurable as any COM port. 
Multiport adapters feature 2, 4, and 
8 ports with independent serial in- 
terfaces. Most adapters provide AT 
interrupts (IRQ 2-7, 10-12, 14, 15). 



Te 



eclinical support for our prod- 
ucts are available free of charge. 

800-553-1170 

FAX: 216-434-1409 
BBS: 216-434-2481 



G3I QUATECH 



662 Wolf Ledges Parkway, Akron, Ohio 4431 1 
U.S.A. (216)434-3154. International: Austra- 
lia/lnterworid Electronics 03-563-5011, 
Canada (Western)/lntenworld VCR 604-984- 
4171 (Toronto office416-513-7027), England/ 
Diamond Point International 634-722-390, Fin- 
land/Lab HitechOY 358-0-804-2522, France/ 
Elexo 33-1 -69302880, Germany/Jupiter Elec- 
tronic Systems 06181/75041 , Israel/RCM Ltd. 
972-03-5447885, Italy/N.C.S. Computer Italia 
0331/770-016, Netherlands/ACAL Auriema 
040-502602, Korea/Sam Boo Enterprise Co. 
82-2-538-4001 , Spain SANTA Barbara SA 
343-41881 16, Singapore Bliss Services Pte 
Ltd (65) 338-1300, South Africa Eagle Elec- 
tronics 2721 234943, Switzerland Amiro Tech. 
Engin. 37-231 1-18. IBM PC-XT/AT,OS/2and 
Micro Channel are registered 
trademarksoflBMCorp.AII W^^"^^*^® 
othertrademarksareoftheir | in 
respective companies. \ U.S.A. 

Circle 1 36 on Inquiry Card. 




BUY IT THROUGH BVTE 



Mail Order Hardware/Software Showcase 



The latest offerings from 
vendors supplying 
products of all leading 
manufacturers at extremely 
competitive prices. 

240 



This categorized four-color display 
section makes it easy to find 
Hardware and Software products from 
a wide variety of manufacturers 
and suppliers. 

259 



Buyer's Mart 

From Accessories to Laptops 
to Word Processors, you can 
easily find the dealers you are 
looking for in this directory of 
products and services. 

267 



ILLUSTFMTION: SUSAN KINGSBURY 



H6Hm u HEHOKy a Heno^y 



ACER 486SX - 16MB SIMM (4m x 36) 

32MB SIMM(8MX36) 
AMI EZ-FLEX - 64MB KIT (4 simms) 
AMIGA 2000 - 16MB SIMM 
AST BRAVO 486LC - 16MB SIMM 
COMPAQ SysfemPiO - 32MB MODULE 
DELL 486'S - 16MB KIT (2 simms) 
32MB KIT (2 SIMMS) 
MAC llfx - 16MB SIMM 
MAC QUADRA 950 - 16MB SIMM 
MAC llclJlcx,llsi,QUADRA 900 - 16MB SIMM 
MAC QUADRA 700 & SE/30 - 16MB SIMM 
NeXT TURBO - 16MB SIMM 
SUN IPKELC - 16MB SIMM 

$m sPAm smvm - sssmb kit 



$ 599.00 
$ 1,399.00 
$ 2,699.00 



$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 



539.00 
539.00 

1, 199.00 
538.00 

1,088.00 
479.00 
479.00 
479.00 
529.00 
529.00 
549.00 




IBM 




COMPAQ 






HP 




LAPTOPS 






PS/1 - 2MB 


S 68 


DP 386/20,20E,25 - 1MB 


$ 


66 


Vectro QS-16 - 2MB KIT 


$ 129 


AST EXEC. NB - 4MB 


$ 


119 


4MB 


S 149 


4MB 


$ 


159 


4MB KIT 


$ 229 


COMPAQ LTE386 - 4MB 


$ 


209 


M30 - 2MB 


S 79 


DP 386S/16 - 1MB 


$ 


66 


Vectro 486 - 2MB 


$ 79 


SLT386 - 4Me 


$ 


168 


M50Z,55sx.65sx.70 - 1MB 


$ 45 


4MB 


S 


159 


4MB 


S 135 


DELL 316,320 LT - 2MB 


$ 


99 


2MB 


$ 79 


DP 286N,386N.S/20 - 4MB 


$ 


135 


8MB 


5 269 


EVEREX TEMPO - 2MB 


S 


78 


M55sx.65sx.70 - 4MB 


$ I3S 


MSYSTEMS - 2MB 


$ 


79 


X-Statlon 700 Ser. - 2MB 


S 89 


IBM UOsx - 4MB 




135 


M70-A2^A^>^,]2} - 2MB 


S 79 


4MB 


$ 


135 


4MB 


S 149 


MAC POWERBOOK - 2MB 




704 


M40sx,35sx - 8MB 


S 269 


8MB 


$ 


299 


8MB 


S 299 


NEC P.S. 286,386sx - 4MB 


$ 


200 


M57sx,90,95 - 4MB 


$ 135 


DP 386/33486/25 - 2MB 


$ 


96 


9000/400t425t - 8MB KIT 


$ 495 


P.S. 386 - 8MB 


$ 


429 


8MB 


$ 269 


SystemPro - 8MB 


$ 


269 


16MB KIT 


$ 999 


P.S. SX/20 - 4MB 


S 


200 


M8CH)41 - 1MB 


$ 65 


OK Bap Brd 
DP 386S/16 1MB Btp Brd 


S 


335 


32MB KIT 


$1869 


PANASONIC CF170 - 1MB 


S 


55 


M80-1 11.121,311 - 2MB 


$ 99 


$ 


105 


9000/425e - 8MB KIT 


$ 428 


Tl. TRVL-MT 3000 - 2MB 


S 


80 


M80-A21A31 - 4MB 


$ 180 


DP 386/20,20E,25,25E 






16MB KIT 


$ 828 


TOSHIBA 1000 - 2MB 


$ 


108 


16-BIT OK Exp Board 


$ 128 


1MB Exp. Board 


$ 


105 


APPLE 




2000SXE - 8MB 


$ 


388 


32-BIT OK Exp Board 


$ 128 








3200SXC - 4MB 


S 


160 


AST 




DELL 






II5E5E/30 - 1MB 


$ 32 


5200 - 8MB 


$ 


315 




325D,P;333D,P - 1MB 


$ 


41 


Classic - 1MB Exp. Board 


$ 54 


PRINTERS 






PREM. 386/20C - 1MB KIT 


$ 65 


4MB 


S 


135 


SE/30,llcl,llcx,llsl,LC & 








PREM. 386/25 - 1MB 


S 46 


420425/433 - 2MB KIT 


S 


82 


Quad. 700,900 - 4MB 


$ 115 


EPSON 6000 - 4MB 


S 


229 


PREM. 486/25 - 1MB 


$ 45 


4MB KIT 


s 


158 


Quad. 700,900 - 32MB KIT 


$1120 


HP IIP.III.IIID,P - 2MB 


$ 


708 


PREM. II 486 - 1MB 


$ 41 


8MB KIT 


$ 


270 


llfx - 16MB KIT 


$ 499 


lllsl - 4MB 


$ 


735 


4MB 


$ 139 


450DE450SE - 2MB KIT 


s 


82 


llfx - 32MB KIT 


$1156 


IBM 40194029e - 3.5MB 


$ 


129 


8MB KIT 


$ 278 


4MB KIT 


s 


158 


Quadra 256K V-RAM 


$ 27 


4029 - 4MB 


$ 


135 


PREM. II 1MB Exp Board 


S 469 


8MB KIT 


s 


270 


LC 51 2K V-RAM 


$ 44 


OKIDATA 400 - 2MB 


s 


129 




PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 

OTHER MEMORIES FOR: 

ACER, ALTIMA, APPLE, AST, CHAPLET, COMPAQ, DELL, EPSON, EVEREX, HP, 
LEADING EDGE, IBM, NEC, NCR, OKIDATA, PACKARD-BELL, PANASONIC, PHILIP, 
SAMPO, SHARP, SILICON GRAPHICS, SUN MICROSYSTEMS, TANDON, Tl, TOSHIBA, 
TULIP AND ZENITH. 

CAU ©m commm CAmmm 

TERMS: C.O.D. CASH, VISA OR MASTERCARD. 

COMPANY AND UNIVERSITY P.O.'S ACCEPTED UPON CREDIT APPROVAL. 

414 CLOVERLEAF DR., UNIT B, BALDWIN PARK, CA 91706 

TEL (818)855-5688 FAX (818)855-5687 



Circle 201 on Inquiry Card. 



AIL PRODUCT NAMES, TCADEMARKS AND REGISTERED TRADEMARKS ARE THE PROPERTY Of THEIR REPSECTIVE COMPANIES. 



THE SAME 




USED BY NASA. 

AND ITS UNDER 
A MILLION 





$695.00 



When NASA went shopping for a printer 
buffer, they were looking for a flexible, 
high-powered buffer that was reliable. And 
don't think they weren't checking price 
tags, too. 

Our top-of-the-line, Buffalo SL was 
their performance choice. It also just 
happens to be the best value on 
the market. 




And although the SL is loaded 
with state-of-the-art features, ^ 
including full Windows 
compatibility, you don't 
have to be a rocket scientist 
to use or install it. 
Now, does that mean 
it's better because it's easier? 
Or It's easier because it's better? 



"To 



^0-345* 



Fax: 503-585-4505 
Response Code: 73SL3 



uffalo is a registered trademark of MELCO, Inc. Other brands and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respectiv 



Circle 1 87 on Inquiry Card. 



CONTROL UP TO 96 PC 
FILE SERVERS WITH 1 KEYBOARD 
AND MONITOR USING... 



COMMANDER 



TM 




• Select via Keyboard 

• Dual access up to 250 feet 
away (optional) 

• NO external power 

• Mix PC, PC/XT, PC/AT 

and PS/2 

• "AutoBoot™" Feature 
boots attached 
computers without 
operator intervention 

• Able to Broadcast to all 
attached computers 



VTy 777TP77///////////Z7777 




• PS/2 and Serial Mouse 
support available 

• Each unit accommodates 
from 2 to 8 PCs 

• up to 12 units can 
be cascaded 

• Mounting kit available 
for 19" and 24" rack 
installation 



J^CyBEX 

2800-H Bob Wallace Ave. 
Huntsvllle, Alabama 55805 

(205) 530-0011 
- Fax (205) 534-0010 — 



Dealer Program Available 



PC, PC/XT, PC/AT and PS/2 are trademarks of 
international Business Macnines Corp. 




242 BYTE JULY 1993 



Circle 189 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 190). 



The Feather 
Weight 
Champion 




The New 386SL Sub-Notebook 



BICOM SL 

- Weight 2.2 lbs (Bicom & battery) 

- Dimension 9.00" x 6.36" x 1.22" 

- Intel 386SL/25MHZ processor 

- Support 387SX co-processor 

- 2Mb Ram 

- 80 Mb Hard Disk 

- 5AA size NiMH Batteries 

(3 hours operation with PM enabled) 



- High Resolution (640X400) LCD screen 

- 1 parallel (bi-direction), 1 serial port 

- External 1.44 Mb FDD (optional) 

- Multi-function port for external 
keyboard and extra serial port 

- DR DOS 6.0. File Transfer software 
& serial Download cable 

- Universal AC/DC adaptor 




Option: External Floppy Drive, Mini-Track ball Multi function port cable, extra batteries. 

30 day money back guarentee. Life-time technical support 



^lic 1-800-336-2280 



BICOM SL $ 995 

Ask also B280£ $ 795 



U.S. Office: ABC Computer (U.S.A.) Corp. 

2531, 237th Street, Suite 122, 
Torrance, California 90505, U.S.A. 
Tel: 310-3264005 Fax: 310-3256369 



Heailquarters: ABC Computer Co. Ltd. 

28/F Wyler Centre Phase II, 200 Tai Lin Pai Road. 
Kwai Chung, N.I, Hong Kong. Tei: 852-4816118 
Fax: 852-4815836 Telex: 52178 ABGTC HX 





Tfie Intel Inside Logo is a tradeniar1< of Intel Corporation 
All brand names are registered trademarft of ttieir respective owners. 



Circle 1 81 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 1 82). 




W^ile to MultiMetlia atACP Superstore! 



Your complete < 

1 70Mb IDE, drive adaptor, mount hdwe, 
instructs, preloaded Microsoft soflwore,., 

• Windows 3.1 •MS-DOS 5,0 ACP Price 

• Works for Windows 2.0 a n g^ ^^fir 

• Publisher • Money 9^0W'^ 

• Centrol Point Anti-Virus mm WW 
more Connei... limited Offer 
CP3000 42Mb 3.5- 28ms IDE.... Call 
CP30084 84Mb 3.5' 19ms IDE ....Call 
CP30104 120Mb 3.5- 19ms IDE ....Call 
CP30204 212Mb 3.5- 12ms IDE ....Call 
CP30254 250Mb 3.5" 12ms IDE.... Call 
CP30174E 170Mb 3.5' 12ms IDE.... Call 

Western Digital 

High performance "Caviar" series with 1 " 
height. Cache Flow™ and 32K buffer, 
AC2120120Mb V 3,5- 13ms IDE„„Call 
ACl 190 170Mb 1- 3,5" 13ms IDE,,,, Call 
AC2200212Mb 1" 3,6" 13ms IDE,,,, Call 
AC2250250Mb 1" 3,5" 13ms IDE Call 
AC2340340Mb 1" 3.5" 13ms IDE. ...Call 

Hard Drive Specials 

Seagate ST3283 249Mb IDE 499.95 

Samsung 100Mb IDE 249.95 

Call for Quantum, Mlcropolis, Seagate. 
Controllers from Ultrostor, Always, WD etc. 

Backups 

Colorado 

DJ 1 0 1 20Mb Tape Drive internal , . 1 49 
DJ20 250Mb Tape Drive internal ,.229 

Trakker 120/250 Tape Backup 349/419 

PowerTape 2Gb/4Gb 999/1599 

SyqueSt (with cartridge) 

44Mb kit SQ555, SQ400, sSoKlbbif) .419 

44Mb external 499 

88Mb kit SQ5110,SQ800, SQ01(16bit) 529 
88Mb external 629 

GrassRoots Floptical 

Floptical 21 Mb int/ext Call 

Floppy Disk Drives 

Toshiba 

ND04DG 350K 5,25" HH PC/XT 59 

ND08DEG 1,2Mb 5,25" HH PC/AT,,,, 72 

ND3561GR1.44Mb 3,5" HH w/ATKit„72 

ACP 

1,2 Mb 5,25", 66 2,88Mb 3.5- 89 

1.44Mb 3.5" ....67 All in One 3.5/5.25 149 

Input Devices 

Advanced Logitech 

3-button Mouse 15 Mouseman 75 

101 Keyboard ..58 Mouse (OEM) ....35 

Mouse4-Windows88 Cordless Mouse .88 

Microsoft Trackman 78 

Serial Mouse 69 Trackman Port. .. 94 

Ballpoint 98 Scanman 32 ... 128 

Ballpt-i-Windows 1 48 Scanman 256 .. 258 

MIcrospeed CH Products 

PCTrac 78 FlightStick 49 

PCTracbusvers 88 Joystick Mochiii call 

IBU Compatible Canls 



Advanced 

Monochrome ...38 

Color Card 48 

EGA Card 48 

Windows 

1 MbAccelerator 1 49 
Interface 

Parallel Card ....29 

Serial Card 35 

Multi I/O 59 

IDE 16-bit 19 

IDE Multi I/O 69 



VGA 

512K, 800x600 ...53 
51 2K, 1024x768 .68 
1Mb, 1024x768 .88 
Modems 

2400bps internal. 39 
2400bps extemal.69 
Memory 

AT0-8Mb(simm) 99 
XTfr8Mb<IC's) ...99 
Call for your 
special needs... 



Canon 



Authonzed 

BJ10ex/BJ20ex Portables Call 

BJ 200 InkJet Coll 

LBP-4SX/LBP-8SX Laser Printers ... Call 

BJ330 Printer (B/W) Call 

BJC800/BJCB20(Color) Call 

BJ 300 BubbleJet(B/W) Call 




AZTECH 

Sound 
Galaxy 

NX 
PRO 16 

The only 16-br b^erec cord that supports 
the 5 sound srondards, plus interface for 
Mitsumi 8c Ponasonic. Includes software 
bundle, ..HSC interactive, Monologue for 
Windows, WINDATT"OLE, Audio Station, 
Juikebox,For Windows, Soundscript DOS, 
Voice Annototor, CD Player, CD-Player. 
Sound frocks. Utilities, Windows drivers, 

Sound Goidxy NX 16 Pro 189.95 

Sound Goloxy NX II (for 8-blt) ... 99.95 



Chips ana SIMM's 

dRAM Qtvl 25 SIMMs Qtvl 12 
256x1-100 .. 1.49 ., 1,35 lMbx9-80 „ 35 ,.,,34 
256x1-100 .. 1.59 ., 1,46 lMbx9-70 ., 36 ,.,,35 

256x4-80 4.79 ..4.59 lMbx8-80 ,. 32 ....31 

lMbxl-100.. 4.05 . 3,96 4Mbx8-70 129„126 
lMbxl-80„„ 4,49 , 439 4Mbx9-70 139„135 
Call for VIDEO RAMS & CACHE RAMS 
Over 20,000,000 IC's in-stock including 
We Specialize in Memory Modules 

Math Coprocessors 

Intel Cyrix 

387SL Mobile 78 387SXC16-26) 73 

80387DX (all) 85 387DX(20-33) 88 

80387SX (oil) 78 387DX/40 108 

RopidCAD 248 80287(011) 78 

8087 29 Intel Overdrive 

80287-10 89 486DX-33 649 

80287-20 89 486SX-26 489 

Memory upgrades 

Notebooks/Laptops 



Toshiba 

T4400/16Mb 

5799 

Apple 
Powerbook 

140/170-6Mb 

*249 

IBM 
ThinkPod 
2Mb..'158 
8Mb..*449 



ASTPomerExec 4Mb .'178 
AST PowerExec 1 6Mb . 1 326 
Compaq Conlura 4Mb ... 1 69 
Compaq Contura 8Mb. ..369 
Compaq Lite4/25C 4Mb ... 239 
Compaq Lite4/25C 8Mb ... 399 
HP96LX Palmtop 2Mb ..call 

n TravelMate3(K)0 2Mb 87 

TITravelMate4000 4Mb.. 21 8 
Toshiba T4400/6400 4Mb ... 187 
Toshiba T4400/6400 8Mb . .388 
Zenith Z-Note 2Mb... 168 
Call for all Notebook f^emory Upgrades! 
Laser Printers CalllorVK Boards 
Canon LBP-4,4Lile,4Plus 1Mb. 118 2Mb 168 
Canon LBP-8III, 8111 Plus 2Mb . 169 3Mb 199 
Compaq PAGEMARQ15/20 8/16Mb..299/599 
Epson ActionLaser II 2Mb 138 

HPU llisi, 4, 4M, XL300 4Mb. 148 8Mb 298 
HP LaserJet IIP.III.IIIP.IIID 2Mb. .98 4Mb 158 
HP LaserJet II, IID 2Mb. .98 4Mb 158 

Panasonic 4410/4430 2Mb. 118 4Mb 188 
Panasonic 4420/44501 2Mb, 118 4Mb 188 
OkiLaser400 1Mb ...78 2Mb ..98 

Tl MicroLaser Turbo, XL 1Mb ...69 4Mb 269 

Computer IVIemory Upgrades 

AST Bravo 4/33, 486/25 2/8Mb 88/299 

Compaq ProLinea 3/25S, 25zs 2/8Mb 88/288 

ProLinea 4/25s, 4/33, 4/50 2/8Mb 88/308 

IBM ValuePoint except Cxx 4/ 1 6Mb 1 68/578 

IBM PS/2 Model 90, 95 2Mb 88 

Call for all Computer Memory Upgradesl 



MIcronics® 

Motherboards 



486DX/33 ISA ...Call 486DX2/50 VL .. Coil 
486DX2/60 ISA . Call 4000LB Video .. Coil 
486DX2/66 ISA. Call 486DX/33 EISA . Coil 
486DX2/66VL..Call 486DX2/50 EISA Coll 




802B6/12MHZ ..Coil 486DX/33MHZ .Call 
386SX/25MHZ ..Coil 486DX/50MHZ .Call 
386DX/40MHZ . Call 486DX2/50MHZ Call 
486SX/25MHZ ..Call 486DX2/65MHz Coll 



286/12MI1Z Special! 
PC Special *269 



call ACP for 
Notebook Deals! 



comPAa 



J" 



ProLinea 3s/25 w/84Mb Coil 

ProLinea 4/25s w/240Mb Call 

Contura 3/25 w/84Mb Call 

Contura 3/25 w/12DMb Call 

Contura 3/25c w/84Mb Call 

Contura 3/25c w/120Mb Call 

Compaq LTE Lite/25c w/64Mb Call 

Compaq LTE Ute/25c w/120Mb Call 



TOSHIBA' 



T1850 Satellite 80/120Mb Call 

T1850C Satelllte w/120Mb Color Call 

T4400SX LCD/Plasma 120Mb Call 

T4400C Color 120Mb Call 

T4500 80/120Mb Call 

T4500C Color 120Mb Call 

T6400DXC Color 200Mb Call 



486 High Performance CPU's • Plus MultlMedia Upgrades 



486 SuperVGA Systei 



Includes: 

• 486DX/33 
w/266k Cache • 

• 4Mb RAM 

• 1Mb SVGA Cord • 
•120Mb HardDrive 



1.2Mb 5.26" Floppy 
1.44Mb 3.6" Floppy 
IDE Controller 
101 Keyboard 
14" SuperVGA ,28 
Color Monitor and morel 




M399 

jrel M M. 



Local Bus (add $75.), and 486DX27S0, 4160X2/66 and 4S6DX/S0 



MUiti'Mi 



J.j,|||.'i-.i. .iJJJii 



SOUND BLASTER™ 


Discovery CD-IS upgrade Kit 




Creative Labs-New lor '93! Lotest 16-bit 
technology includes: SoundBlaster 16, Stereo 
Speakers, Hi-Performance CR-ROM Drive (Int.) MPC 
and Photo CD compatible, 390 ms, ACP's Sole 
Plus Software Toolworks, IVIultlMedia ^ jm 
Encyclopedia, San Diego Zoo ^^A^v k% 
Animals and Lemmings %m 




HEDIfl {^VISION 


Fusion CD- 16 Upgrade Kits 


■ i W^, " 


FUSION CD 16-E 

ACP's Sale • NEC DRV 25J(ext) 660m5/15DKD 
• Audio Spectrum 16-SCSI 
VS^^J^J • LAB TECH Speakers 

y ^ ' Software-Free CD Titles included 
photo may vary ...where in the World is Carmen 
San Diego, Civilization and Mantis by Microprose, 
Compton's Family Encyc, BattleChess by Interplay 




Call tor 
Local Bus 



FUSION CD 16-1 Sony 3 lA(int) 490ms/ 150KD, 
ProSpectrum 16-bit SLCD-IDE, LAB TECH Speakers, Great Software 
(same as above), see line listings for more MediaVision products... 

TE^EI— "DouHie-Speed" cd-roim Kit 




Call 



For Maximum Performance! ,, experience the 
difference with a Double Speed Drive. Includes: 
DM3024 drive (int), 265ms, Double Data Transfer for 
300KB/sec, MediaVision Spectrum 16, interface kit, 
Microptione, Compton's MPC ACP's Sale 

Encyclopedia, Carmen San Diego, 
Notlonai Parl<s, PC Library, Nautiius 
Mag, GamePal<, Music CD, MPC 
Wizard. Mediociips, King's Quest V,etc. 

CD ROM Drives • CD Bundles 

CD Bundle #1 , Ret. Val. $804. 

Software Toolworks Mavis Beacon 
■v^^^ , . Teaches Typing, World Atlas Multimedia Ed., 

l, US Atlas w/Automap, Reference Lib. Microsoft 

I * Works for Windows-Multimedia Edition 

CDBundle#2, Ret. Vol. $1013. $000 
Reference Library, Family Doctor, 
US History, Animals, Software Du Jour, 
Grolier's Illustrated Encyclopedia 
CD Bundle #3, Ret. Val. $519. $1 "f Q 
Loom, CD Game Pock II, Secret of M M w 
Monkey Island, Sherlock Holmes Cons. 
Detective, Secret Weapons of the Luftwaffe, 
Wing Connmander w/ Ultima VI 



Our Best 
Seller! 



MITSUMI 
CD-ROM Drive 

350ms, MPC Interface Crd, MS Ext, 
SW, BONUS OFFER w/Drive Purchase 

• Compton's Family Encyc, World 
Atlas, Webster's Die, $39.96 

• Family Choice's 16 Ed. $29.95 

• Lucas Gomes "Loom" $19.95 





$399 

ADS 

PC Prime 
Time 

1 22 channel cable^eady TV-Tuner 
with scalable windows and complete 
sofhA'are kit, 4watt stereo 399 

ADS Video Clipper 

Capture motion from hard disk .... 359 

ADS VGA TV Elite 

Converts VGA to Big Screen TV ... 349 



Video Graphics Cams 

ATI 

Graphics Ultra Pro 2Mb 495 

Graphics Plus 2Mb 315 

Graphics Vantage 1Mb 286 

Diamond -A/ew for '93 

SpeedSTAR24X 1Mb 154 

Stedlth 1Mb 210 

Stedlth 24 ISA/VESA 165/169 

Stealth Pro lMb/2Mb 239/349 

Stealth Pro VESA 2Mb 335 

Viper VESA Local Bus 2Mb 389 

Sigma Designs 

Windstorm MM Oisplay Card 336 

Orchid Fahrenheit 1280w/lMb ...1B9 



More MultlMeaia... 

Creative Labs 

New for '93 -Upgrade Kits 

Edutoinment Kit fupgrade kit) Call 

Discovery Kit (upgrade kit) Call 

Sound Blaster Deluxe/Pro 88/149 

Video Blaster 338 

Sound Blaster 16 ASP Call 

Video Spigot/Windows 399 

iVIedicVision 

Pro 16 MultiMedia System 899 

Fusion CD 16 int/ext 499/649 

CDPCXL Subsystem 1169 

Pro Movie Spectrum 289 

NEC -New Multispin! 

CDR84-1 Cint)74-1 CexOT. 635/595 

MultiMedia Gallery w/Multispin 869 

CDR 38 Portable CD 469 

Turtle Beacli 

Multi-Sound Upgrade Kit 1289 

Texcel 

MultiMedia Bundle 16-bif with 

10 Software Titles int/ext 996/1095 

Home Bundle Double Speed 665/765 

DM3024 DoubleSpeed CD int/ext 399/499 
8-bit Kit w/Transfer I/O int/ext 485/675 

Sigma Designs 

Windstorm CD-ROM Kit 24 bit 1039 

Toshiba 

XM43018 Double Speed (int) 486 

Gravis Ultra-Sound-New,' 169 



Advanced Computer Products, ■nc.^. P^ 

1 31 0 E. Edinger, Santa Ana, CA 92705 • FAX 71 4-558-8849 • Toil-Free 1 -800-FOI\iE ACP • Sales 71 4-558-881 3 MMC 



Prices subject to change without notice. No surcharge on credit card. Credit cards not charged until we ship. 1 00% risk free return guaranteel If you are not 1 00% satisfied just return insured within 1 5 days cdmplete with 
II materials in new resaleable condition with original invoice. ACP will immediately exchange product or issue ACP credit less shipping for future purchase. No Returns on software Special Purchase 




Circle 1 83 on Inquiry Card. 



Take Note: 
The World's Best SCSI Adapter 
Just Got Better <^ 



^^/m ^^^^ 




^^^^ 



SCSI Sloraae Manager 



BiR P'tnl Arrays C'>mnia'Tcalions_bolp _ 
^gg^i^^tt^^j^j O^^^sj J Analysis i euenl Log j~ Rerroia 



SmartCache in 

is the total, growable SCSI solution! 




- _ ! ID. 



The world's best SCSI adapter is now the world's greatest bargain— priced lower 
than any major competitor. An unprecedented value, SmartCache III offers top 
performance and universal connectivity with all major SCSI-1, SCSI-2 and Fast 
SCSI devices, including hard drives, tape, CD-ROM and WORM. 

It also comes with built-in support from all major operating systems, including 
DOS, Windows, OS/2, NetWare, Windows NT, NextStep and all versions of Unix. 

And only SmartCache III gives you a growth path. Optional plug-on modules 
let you migrate easily to caching (with up to 64Mb cache), as well as full RAID 
capability Storage Manager, our GUI utility, makes installation quick, easy and 
automatic. Plus, it gives you on-line and remote control over subsystem man- 
agement, diagnostics, performance monitoring, and disk array configuration 
and control. 



Distributed Processing Technology, Inc. 
140 Candace Dr Maitland, FL 32751 USA 



IIDPT 



Call DPT, today! 

800-322-4DPT 
FAX 407-260-5366 



■List price for ISA model PM2021 /90 SCSI Adapter Board 

Circle 191 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 192). 



Notebook 

ThinkPad 700 4/120 2699 

ThinkPad 700 Color 4/1 20 3995 

ThinkPad 720 Color 4/1 60 4395 

IBM ValuePoint (VESA LOCAL BUS) 

486SX/25 4/120 MDLF30 1199 

486SX/33 4/120 MDLK30 1399 

486DX/33 4/120 MDL M30 1699 

486DX/33 4/340 MDL 84M70 2109 

486DX2/66 4/245 MDL W50 2359 

486DX2/66 4/340 MDL W70 2545 

486DX2/66 4/527 MDL W90 2995 

Monitor Extra 



BRAND NAMP'' 

LOW 
PRICt^ 
LEADER 

We export to Europe, Asia 



Modems 




Z00IVI14.4 EXT.S/RFax 


299 


ZOOM 14.4 INT.S/R Fax 


249 


INTEL Satisfaxtion 400 


439 


INTEL Satisfaxtion 400E 


479 



TOSHIBA NOTEBOOKS 

Toshiba 4400c, 120/200 meg 3425/3995 

Toshiba 6400MM, 200 meg CALL 

Toshiba4500C, 120meg 3795 

Call for pricing on other brand name models 



Apple 



Mac PowerBook 

160, 40/80/120 MB $2,230/2,540/2,860 

Duo 210, 4/80 MB $2150 

180, 4/120 MB $4,160 

Mac Centrls 650, 6/230 MB $3080 

Quadra 950, 8/0 MB $4390 

14" Mac Color Monitor $499 

Extended Keyboard $159 

LaserWriter III, 4 MB 1,795 



comPAa 

All ProLinea systems are Local Bus 

Prolinea 4/25s, 4/120 MB Win+ 1225 

ProLinea 4/25S, 4/240 MB Wind+ 1425 

Prolinea 4/33, 4/120 MB Wln+ 1625 

ProLinea 4/25CDS, 4/120 MB Win+ 1665 

Prolinea 4/50, 4/240 MB Win+ 2055 

Prolinea 4/66, 4/240 MB Win+ 2255 

DESKPRO 4/33M, 4/340 MB Win 3125 

DESKPRO 4/50M, 8/240 MB Win 3075 

DESKPRO 4/66M, 8/240 MB Win 3305 

Centura Notebook 3/25, 4/120 Wln+ 1675 

Contura Notebook 4/25 4/120 Win 1995 

Contura Notebook 4/25 color, 4/120 Win 2695 

Contura Notebook 4/25GX 4/120 Win 3325 

LTE Lite 3/250,4/120 MB Win 3725 

LTE Lite 4/25C, 4/209 MB Win 4299 

Portable 486DX2/66C, 4/210 MB Win 6745 

Portable 486DX2/66, 4/525 MB Win 7755 

Win+ MS-DOS 6, MS-Windows 3.1, Compaq Mouse 
Win+, Win plus PES; WorksflVindows, 5.25" FDD, Modem 
"Please call for updated prices* 



CD ROM/Multi Media 

Toshiba TXMSSOl w/controller 520 

NEC CD ROM 74 w/o controller ....605 
Sound Blaster 16 ASP 245 



AST 

Power Exec 386SL/25, 120 meg 2395 

Power Exec 386St725C, 120 meg 3575 

Power Exec 486SL25, 25C, 200 MB 4250 

Call for all AST, Bravo and Premium products 



H N 0 V E L L SPECIALS 

Authorized Dealer 
Netware 386V.3.11 

5 users 625 10 users 1395 

20 users 1895 100 users 3795 

NEW Netware 4.0 

5 users 925 10 users 2125 

25 users 3075 50 users CALL 



Software 
From: 



Adobe 
Aldus 
Borland 



Central Point 
Corel 
IBM 



Intuit 
Lotus 
Mathematica 



MicroProse 
Micosoft 
Quarterdecl( 



Spinnalcor 
Symantec 
WorkPerfect 



Fonts 
From: 



Adobe 
IQ Engineering 
MicroLogic 



Made in USA 



Computers 

486DX2/66, 4MB RAM, 200 meg HD 2195 

486/50, 4MB, 200 meg HD .Y^.?^ 1960 

486/33, 4MB RAM, 120 meg HD 1620 

386/40, 4MB RAM, 120 meg HD 1390 

All Systems Include: 

•2 S/1P/1 Game Ports, 101 AT Enhanced Keyboard, Mouse 
•1 .2 (5.25") & 1 .44 (3.5") meg TEAC Floppy Drives 
•SVGA card w/1 meg & SVGA 0.28mm Monitor 
•MS-DOS 5.0 & MSWIndows 3.1 (complete w/manuals) 
•One year parts and labour limited warranty 



Tape Back-Up Drives 


Colorado 




Jumbo 120 Int 


159 


Jumbo 250 Int 


215 


Trakker120 Ext 


359 


Trakker 250 Ext 


419 


Syquesl 




88 meg kit Int 


425 


88 mfin Ext 


625 





PRINTERS 




Epson DFX 8000 


2255 


Epson LQ870 


459 


Epson LQ1170 


629 


Epson LQ570 


249 


Epson LQ1070 


369 


Epson AP325 


199 


Call for prices on Okidata, 


HP DeskJets 





Video Boards 




ATI Graphics 




Ultra +, 1MB 


295 


Ultra Pro, IMB 


435 


Ultra Pro, 2IV1B 


515 


Ultra Pro, 2MB EISA. 


.575 


Diamond 




Stealth 24,1MB 


175 


Orchid Fahrenheit 




VESA Local Bus $235 



Hard Disks 
Conner 

CP30104H, 120meg 269 

CP3204, 21 2 meg 349 

Quantum (ELS/LPS) 

ProDrive170meg 275 

ProDrive 240 meg 395 

ProDrive 525 meg 995 



IVIaxtor 

LXT 340 meg 619 

LXT535 meg 919 

iVIicropolis (SCSI) 

1624 670 meg 1195 

1598 1GB SCSI2 1475 

Fugica, Micronet, Seagate 
GALL FOR ALL MODELS 



SVGA Monitors 

NEC 3FGE 635 

NEC 4FG 735 

ViewSonic 6E, 14" 340 

ViewSonic 20, 20".. ..1885 
ViewSonic 6FS 525 





LASER PRINTERS 




HP LaserJet 4SI 


2995 


OKI OL840 P.S 


1720 


HP LaserJet IV 


1375 


Panasonic 4450 , 


1295 


HP LaserJet 4M 


1925 


NEC Model 95 


1385 


HP Laser 4L 


810 


NEC Mnrifil 97 


CALL 


OKI OL 400, 800 


CALL 


Compaq Pagemarq 20. ..4295 



WE STOCK: CALCOMP CREATIVE LABS EPSON MOUNTAIN 

ADAPTEC CITIZEN HOUSTON INSTRUMENTS HAYES KINGSTON 

BOCA INTEL TEXAS INSTRUMENTS MAYNARD LOGITECH 



Computerlane 



inc. 



Corporate Accounts 
Volume Discounts 
And 

Consultant Orders 
Welcome 



Outside California: 1-800-526-3482 

Inside California: 818-884-8644 • FAX: 818-884-8253 

7500 Topanga Canyon Boulevard, Canoga Park, CA 91303 

Hours: Monday - Friday 9 -6, Saturday 10-5 



TALLGRASS 
US ROBOTICS 
MEGAHERTZ 



Compaq is a RegistereiJ Trademark of 

Compaq. IBM is a Registrered 
Trademark of International Business 
Machines. 
ALL QUOTED PRICES REFLECT A 
5% CASH DISCOUNT 
Visa, MasterCard and American Express 

also accepted 
Prices subject to change without notice. 



246 BYXE JULY 1993 



Circle 188 on Inquiry Card. 



CAD or Multimedia 



THE TEXAN 



THE ALAMO 





M&M PRO 

Function of Five Boards m 
One PC/AT Slot ' 



mi a 




V!3 

^ »- ' 



Optional SVGA 



iitiitttiKtimtii lyiiiimimmiiiniiiUHSL 

Optional JPEG Compression 
& VGA to TV Output 



we Have The Solution! 



Ultra High Resolution 
Graphics Display Controllers 
from the World's first 
TMS34020 Manufacturer 

Our PC/AT boards provide programmable 
display resolutions up to 1600 x 1280, and 
provide 72Hz or higher refresh rate for 1280 
X 1024 and lower resolutions. 40 MHz 
TMS34020 Graphics Processor, VGA pass- 
through and RGB cable set are included. 
Software drivers are provided for TIGA, MS- 
Windows, and AutoCAD®. Drivers for the X 
Window System for Interactive and SCO 
UNIX are optional. 

THE ALAMO $2,995 
24-BIT TRUE-COLOR at 1600 x 1200 
6 MByte VRAM + 1 MByte DRAM 

THE TEXAN 1600 $1,450 

256 Colors at 1600 x 1280, 60 Hz 
2 MBytes VRAM + 1 MByte DRAM 

THE TEXAN 1280 $1,250 

256 Colors at 1280 x 1024, 72 Hz 
2 MBytes VRAM + 1 MByte DRAM 

THE TEXAN 1024 $995 

256 Colors at 1024 x 768, 72 Hz 
1 MByte VRAM + 1 MByte DRAM 



Multimedia Graphics: 
Everything you need to get 
video into or out of the PC 

M&M PRO $995 + 

24-bit TRUE-COLOR NTSC/PAL/ 
SECAM video window frame grabber. 
Optional 12-bit per channel digital stereo 
audio, hardware JPEG compression, on- 
board 1024 X 768 SVGA, composite and 
S- Video NTSC/PAL output with fUcker filters. 

M&M Basic (composite video) $500 
(composite & S-Video) $600 

NTSC/PAL frame grabber displays live video 
window on VGA screen. 

ViVA HC (NTSC or PAL) $700 

HI-COLOR ET4000 VGA with composite and 
S- Video output with flicker filters. Cor\figur- 
able for multi-channel display. 

ViVA (NTSC) $550 

(PAL) $630 

Video, VGA and Audio mixer outputs VGA 
to video as an overlay on an input video 
signal. 

ViVA Basic (ntsc or pal) $300 

Internal or External VGA to Video converter 
outputs VGA to composite and S- Video with 
flicker filters. No TSR required for 640 x 480 
modes. 



Omnicomp has been providing graphics hardware solutions for Systems Integrators, OEMs, 
and Resellers in domestic and international markets for over 10 years. 

Our products cover a wide range of popular computer platforms and operating systems including PC/AT, 
VME, Micro Channel* DOS, Windows, UNIX and others. 

Omnicomp, THE TEXAN, THE ALAMO, M&M PRO, M&M Basic, ViVA, ViVA Basic and ViVA HC are trademarks of 
Omnicomp Graphics Corporation. All other trademarks or registered trademarks are property of their respective owners. 
Specifications subject to change without notice. 




MICROSOFT 
WINDOWS 



AUTODESK 



Windows drivers provide 1600 x 
1200, 24-bit TRUE COLOR on the 
ALAMO, 1600 x 1280, 256 color 
on THE TEXAN, and HI-COLOR 
on the ViVA HC. 
Video for Windows compatible 
MCI/ AVI Multimedia Windows 
drivers for the M&M PRO and 
M&M Basic. 

DL-Xpress (included) and Soft 
Engine (optional) from Vibrant 
Graphics allow 24-bit TRUE- 
COLOR display on THE 
ALAMO and 256 color display on 
THE TEXAN for AutoCAD®, 3D 
Studio™, etc. 



Monitors . . . IDEK 21" flat screen multiscan 
monitors 30-80 KHz . . . others available. 
MF 5421A 1600 x 1280, .26 Dot Pitch $2,525 
MF 5321A 1280 x 1024, .31 Dot Pitch $2,125 

Phone 713-464-2990 



Fax 



713-827-7540 



For more information, call or fax our Systems 
Engineering Department, M-F, 8:30-5:30 CST. 



We accept VISA, MASTERCARD 
and AMERICAN EXPRESS 




Direct from 
Manufacturer 
12-Month 
Warranty 
F.O.B. Houston 



Omnicomii 

GraphicsCorporatioii 



. . . The Texas Graphics Company 
1734 W. Sam Houston Pkwy N. 
Houston, Texas 77043 



Circle 1 96 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 197). 



WIRELESS NETWORKING BY MOTOROLA 



Users roam the nation and stay in the loop 

Portability doesn't have to mean isolation from 
important, timely information, thanks 
to EMBARC wireless networking. 
In over 200 cities in the U. S. and 
Canada, you're connected— to E-mail 
from the office and news and weather 
briefs from USA TODAY, as well 
as optional services such as sports, 
key market and financial developments, and 
HeadsUp™ targeted industry news briefs from 
INDIVIDUAL, Inc. You can even have your important data- 
bases routinely updated— automatically! 
All you need is EMBARC's compact, powerful NewsStream receiver (it 
plugs directly into most laptop, palmtop and notebook computers) and the 
simple software package that drives it. Pay as little as $395, install it in min- 
utes and you're ready to go— without wires, faxes or phones. 

Equip your whole team to receive memos, documents 
and file updates for pennies per recipient. , 
You'll find EMBARC so cost effective 
you'll communicate more. 

Our corporate trial program lets you 
try it virtually risk-free. Sign up right 
now by phoning 1-800-EMBARC4, 
Ext. 350. Give your team the home- 
field advantage. . . even when they're 

on the road. EMBARC service is available 

for DOS-based laptops and 
notebooks, HP 95LX palmtops 
ar)d Macintosh Powerbooks. 

^^r-^ Motorola and NewsStream are trademarks 
(rK) of Motorola, Inc. EMBARC is a servicemark 
of Motorola. Inc. © Motorola, Inc. 1992 




Circle 206 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 207). 



Rack Mount Computers - Motherboard or Passive Backplane 



r ■ 

Use external monitor 
Up to 6 drives 




Mono or color monitor 
Up to 5 drives 




1 4" color monitor 
Up to 3 drives 








1 






0^3 1;' 




^ : ^^^^^ 1 








8.75" high 




8.75" high 






12.25" high 



Rack Mount Monitors 



1 0" mono or color 
monitor 



8.75" high 



14" mono or color 
monitor 




12.25" high 



Enclosure for most 
desk top monitors 



14.0" high 



Rack Mount Keyboards 



Drawer mounted 
keyboard 



'■miij 



1.75" high 



Drawer for desk top 
keyboards 




Vertical-mount, sealed 
membrane keyboard 



5.25" high 



Rack Mount Printer 



Dot matrix printer with 
industrial rating 














12.25" high 





Call for our other Rack Mount computer 
and "enclosure only" product offerings. 

RECORTEC, INC. 

1290 Lawrence Station Road, Sunnyvale CA 94089 
Tel. [408] 734-1290 Fax: [408] 734-2140 

1-800-729-7654 



Circle 198 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 199). 



JULY 1993 BYTE 249 




PORTABLE 
POWER 




486 DX2-66 MHz 

• 450 MB HLD. 





Some companies try to sell you on price alone. Others rely on name recognition. Only 
Micro-International can sell you POWER, SPEED, CAPACITY and PROVEN 
RELIABILITY in an affordable notebook computer. Have you ever dreamed of 
having a lightweight (6.51b) computer that packs in your briefcase and provides 
lightening-fast speed (66Mhz), enormous storage capacity (450MB) and enough 
system memory (16MB) for virtually any application? 

Give us a call. Micro-International will provide you with a POWERFUL and 
AFFORDABLE solution for both your desktop and mobile computing needs. 

MICRO-INTERNATIONAL, INC. 10850 Seaboard Loop, Houston, Texas 77099 
National Sale: 800-967-5667 Local Sale: 495-9096 Fax: 713-495-7791 



Circle 202 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 203). 



HP Connectivity 

More Affordable, Faster Performance 




Printer Sharing 8 Serial Ports 
$695.00 



Network Print Servers 
For HP LaserJet MIO 

Bay Tech has combined performance 
and affordability in the new Ethernet 
print server card. The LaserShare® PS- 
MIO easily installs into the MIO slot of 
your HP LaserJet Series 4, IllSi and 4Si 
laser printers. 

The three key advantages LaserShare 
PS-MIO has over standard network 
printing are: speed, printer location, and 
congestion reduction. The fast through- 
put speeds allow downloading of large 
text and graphic fdes at the speed of 
your network. It increases file server 
efficiency by assuming the printing 
functions of the file server. You can 
locate your laser printer anywhere on 
the Novell Netware® 3.x compatible 
network by using either 10BASE2 or 
lOBASE-T connections. 

For only $395.00 it is the best low 
cost, high performance print server 
available. 

8 Can Share Your LaserJet 

Bay Tech is pleased to offer a more 
diverse LaserShare product line with the 
inclusion of MIO expansion cards. 

Circle 1 85 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 1 86). 



Printer Sharing 4 Serial Ports 
$549.00 



Printer Sharing 4 Parallel Ports 
$549.00 

$50.°° Rebate on LaserShare® MIO 

Purchase a LaserShare before August 31, 1993 and receive a $50.00 rebate. 



LaserShare allows up to 8 users to 
connect simultaneously to the MIO 
expansion slot of your HP LaserJet laser 
printer. LaserShare models are available 
with 4 parallel ports, and 4 or 8 serial 
ports. Lasers hare's standard 1MB 
buffer is user expandable to 4MB. The 
LaserShare 4A-MI0 is the only 4 
parallel port card available for HP 
LaserJet MIO products. 

Parallel input speeds of 70Kcps are 
the fastest in the industry. Use 
Bay Tech's Tran-x® for parallel printing, 
with serial port models, for distances 
more than 1,000 feet and speeds 
to 46Kcps. 

Experience & Reliability 

For 17 years, Bay Tech has been a 
leader in the design and manufacture of 



data communication products including: 
Network Print Servers, Printer Sharing 
Solutions, Statistical Multiplexers and 
Data Acquisition Controllers. Call toU- 
free today to learn more about Bay Tech 
connectivity products. 

All product or company names are trademarks of their 
respective holders. 

E>ecause Resources Should Be Shared 




Data Communications Products Division 
200 N. 2nd St, PO Box 387, Bay St Louis, MS 39520 
Fax: 601-467-4551 Phone; 601-467-8231 
or toll-free 

800-523-2702 

JULY 1993 IS V 1 I' 251 




, V PERSONAL COMPUTER MEMORY 



IBM ^ 

PS/1 286, 3S6SX 

im 92F9935 S7» 4MB 92F96M S149 

PS/1 Consultant, Essential, Expert models x43, x44, 
PS/Voiuepoint oil models except Cxx series 

4MB 96F9290 S1S9 16MB 96F9291 SS79 

PS/1 Consultant, Essential, Expert models x76 

16MB Kit 96F9291 S579 

PS/2 25/286, 30/286, memory adopter 1497259 

2MBKil 3I1F5360 S79 

PS/2 35SX; IS, 40SX, SOZ, 55SX; IS, 65SX; IS, 70, XSlntion 

1MB 6450603 S49 JMB 6450604 S7S 

PS/2 70-A21; A6I; B21; B61, PS/1 Consaltnnl, Essential, 
Expert models x1 1, x13, x14, PS/Valuepoint Cxx series 

2MB 6450608 S75 

PS/2 35SX; LS, 40SX, 55SX; IS, 65SX; IS, XSIolion, PS/ 
Vatuepoint Cxx series, adapter board 34F301 1 or 34F3077 

4MB 34F2933 or B7F9977 SI 49 

PS/2 35SX; LS, 40SX, PS/Valuepoint Cxx series 

BMB 6450129 S299 

PS/2 90 XP, 95 XP, P7S (pairs), 56, 57 (all), P5/1 Pre l«2123 

2MB 645090! S89 

PS/2 90 XP, 95 XP, P7S (poirs), 56, S7 (oil), 
PS/1 Consultant, Essential, Expert models x11, xl3, x14, 
PS/1 ProM2123 

4MB 645012B S149 BMB 6450130 S299 

Expansion boards far 50, SOZ, S5SX, 60, 6SSX 

2-8MBw/2MB 1497259 $269 

Expansion boards (or all models 70, 80 

4-16MB»/4MB 34F3011 S409 

Dell 

Power Desktop 325D; P, 333D, 333P, 433P, 486P, 486D 

1MB 310-2505 S59 4MB 310-2507 S149 

Powerline Workstation 420; 425; 433; 450; 450DE/2, 466DE 

2MB 310-2466 S99 BMB 310-2468 S319 

r Powerline Workstation 420; 425; 433; 450; 450SE/2, 466SE 

ijj^ 32MB Kit 310-2630 S1199 

Per^ormnnce T, I, & M series 

4MB 310-3325 S159 16MB 310-3327 S579 

PerFormnnce ME series 
4MB 310-3334 SI 59 BMB 310-3335 $329 

Zenith 

Z-300/400 Series Z-420/SX, Z-425/SX, Z-433/DX, Z-433/SX 

4MB ME-100 S159 16MB ME-90 S599 

Z-Server 425SE, 433DE, 450DE 

4MB ME-432 $179 8MB ME-102 S319 

Z-Station325Sh;Sn,420SEh;Sb;Sn,42SSh,433Deh;Dh,4S0XEn 

1MB ME-70 S49 4MB ME-100 $149 

Zenith Z-386/20; 25; 33, 33E 

1MB ZJ3B00MF S49 4MB Zi3B00HK S149 

Zenith Z-386SX/20, 2861P+, Z-LS 

2MBBI Z-605-1 S89 

Zenith 486/33EI; 25E 

4MB Z44200M2 S1B9 i6MB ZJ4200M8 S619 



AST 

Premmia 

, 4MB 501159-001 ...S199 8MB 501159-00! S379 

Manhattan SMP 

16MB 501143-001 S879 

Bravo 3/2Ss 

!MB 500710-004 $99 BMB 500B24-002 S319 

Advantagel 386SX/20; 25, Advanloge! Pro SX/25, Bravo 3/33s 

2MB 500962-001 $75 BMB 500962-002 S339 

Advontaael Pre 486DX/33; SX/25, Brovo LC 4/25s; 33; 33s; 
sod; 4/S6d 

2MB 5009B7-001 $89 4MB 500987-002 $139 

Premium 386/25; 33; 33T, Premium 11 3865X/16; 20; 25 

1MB 500780-003:00! $59 

Advontogel 486/25; 33; 33p; SX20, Bravo 4/33; 486/25; 
Premium 4/25; 33TE, Server SE 4/33 

2MB 50071B-004; 780-005 SIH 

Advontogel 486/25; 33; 33p; 5X20, Power Premium 3/33, 
4/33; 33s; 50d; 66d, Premium 386/33IE, 486/25; E; 25TE; 
33; 33E; 33TE, Premium 11 386/25; 33, 486/33, 4865X/20 
Premium Server SE 4/33 

4MB 500780-004 ...SI 59 BMB 500780-001 S!89 

Compaq 

ProLlnea 3/25s; 3/2Sis 

2MB 14173B-001 S89 BMB 141742-001 S289 

ProLlnea 4/25s, 4/33, 4/50 

1MB 141182-001 $59 2MB 141683-001 $89 

4MB 141684-001 ...S159 BMB 141685-001 $309 

DeskPro 386-20, 20e, 25 

4MB 113132-001 .. .5169 4MB 113645-001 $219 

DeskPro 386s/16 

4MB 112534-001 ...SI 69 4MB 113634-001 $229 

DeskPro 3/251; 331,4/2515; 331; 661, 286N; 386N; 3865X/20; 
20N, SystemPro LT Series, Portable 486c, M Series 

1MB 11868B-001 S49 2MB 118689-001 S79 

4MB 118690-001 ...SI 49 BMB 112B77-001 S309 

ProSignia PC Server 486/33; DX2/66 

16MB 149320-00! ...S999 32MB 149147-001 ...S2439 
DeskPro 386-33, 486-33, SystemPro 

2MB 115144-001 $99 BMB 116561-001 $289 

Hewlett-Paikord 

Vectro QS/1 65; 20PC RS/20; 20C; 25, 25C 

4MBKil DlS42«rl6424 $169 

Vectro 386/I6N, 386/20N, 386/2SN PC 

2MB D2406A S99 BMB D2404J S319 

Vectro 486PC; 25T; 33T; 486s/20; 4/2SN; 33N; SON; i6H 

2MB D2381A SB9 BMB D2152A $309 

Vectro 386/25; 486/25U; 486/33U; 486/50U; 486/66U 

2MB 023B1A $B9 8M8 D21524 S309 

Veitrn 486/25H; 486/33N; 486/50N; 486/66N 

16MB 02676* $579 

Vectro 386/33N; 33NI 

2MB D27I4* $129 BMB 02715* $399 

NEC 

PowerWate 286/12; SX/16, SX/20 

2MB Kit OP-410-B103 S99 

PowerMote SX/20 

2M8 (PU Upgrade OP-410-B101 SI 89 

2M8!xp.8oorJ Of-410-B102+8103 S209 

PowerMate 386/331; Express Te, e series 

4MB OP-410-6205 ..S179 16MB 0P41 0-6206 .... S649 



LAPTOP & NOTEBOOK MEMORY 



ASI 

PowerExec 3/25S1, 3/25SL-C EL 4MB S179 

16H8 SI 299 

Powerixec 4/25SL 4MB S209 

Premium Exec 286, 386SX/20; 25; 25C 4MB $129 

Compaq 

Contura 3/20, 3/25, 3/25c 4MB SI 69 

BMB S319 

Contura 4/25 series 4MB S229 

BMB $399 

ITE 286 2MB S99 

ITE 3865/20 4MB S199 

ITE Lite 20; 25; 2Si, 25e 4MB S229 

16MB S999 

LTE Ute 4/25c 4MB S239 

BMB S429 

SLI 286 4H8 S279 

SLT3S6S/20 4MB SI 99 

NEC 

UltroUte t Cellular Workstation 286F 4M8 $369 

UllroLite 8, Cellular Workstotian SX/20 2MB $1 79 

BMB S599 

UltroUte III, SL/25C 2MB $119 

4MB $199 ■ 

UltroUte SL/20, SI/20P 2118 $119 

6MB $289 

Texas Instruments 

TravelMate 3000 (oil models) 2MB $79 

TravelMate 4000 (all models) 4MB SI 99 

TravelMate V»inSLC/25 2MB $79 



Toshiba 



TIOOOSE/IE/XE; 2000, 2000SX; SXe, 


2MB 


S85 


T2200SX, T1800 Satellite Series 


4MB 


....SI 59 




BMB 


.... S299 


T1200XE, 1600,3I00E 


2MB 


S89 


T3100SX,3200SX,SXC 


2ME 


S89 




4MB 


....SI 49 


T3200 


3ME 


....SI 49 


T3300SL 


4MB 


....SI 79 




16MI 


S835 


T4400, T6400 (all models) 


4MB 


....SI 79 




16MI 


.... $875 


T4500 


BMB 


....$619 




16MI 


.... S999 


T5IO0, T5200, 15200C, T5400, T8500 


2MB 
BMB 


$92 
....$279 


IBM 






ThinkPad 300 


2MB 


....SI 59 




BMB 


.... S429 


PS/2 CL57SX, ThinkPad 700, 700C 


4MB 


.... S219 




BMB 


.... S369 


NS1 Hoteliaak(All) 


2MB 


....SI 79 




4M8 


.... S249 


L40SX N33SX, PS/Note 182 


4MB 


....SI 35 


L40SX, PS/Note 182 


BMB 


.... 5285 


Zenith 






Z-Note 3201, 320Lb, 3251, 3251c 


2MB 
BMB 


....SI 69 
.... S369 


Z-Sport 420S, 425S 


4MB 


....$189 


Z-Sport 32SS 


2-6MB .... 
4M8 


....SI 39 
.... S249 


MostersPort 386SI. SLC, SLe 


2M8 


$9) 


MostersPort 386SX 


2M8 


$109 


PS/Note N45SI 


2M8 


....$136 



LASER MEMORY 



g CPU UPCRADES 



R*lXm.TECHNOLClfeY COflPOflATION 

Upgrade your system to 386 or 486 powerl 

Use Windows in enhanced mode, get true multitasking and bockground 
operation for Window 3.1, OS/2, and other 386 specific software. 
Improve your system's performance by up to 350%. 

Oon'l rsplote your sytlem, upgrade! 

SX/Now! m CPU Upgrod« 

25MHz(SX} SI99 33MHz(SX) S219 

•^SLC/Nowl 486 CPU Upgrwk 

!OMHz(SLC) S129 33MHz(SLC) S219 

50MHz(SLa S399 

486/Nowl 4S6 m Upsrnde 
25MHi(SX) S429 33MHz|DX) S639 

MCMasier m cpu upgrad« 

25MHz(SX) S829 Witb'IMBndd S149 

33MHz[DX) S1299 With BMB odd S289 



FAX MOPEMS 




For Apple, AST, Compaci, IBM, Sharp, Tl, Toshiba, Zenith, 
uud many other Laptop aud Notebook Systems. 
PCMCIA 2.0 Internal FAX/Modems 

14,4fl0bp5FAX/Modeni S495 

24/9600bps F/a/Modem S29S 



Internal FAX/Modems w/MMP-5 & V.42/V.42bls 

14,400bp5FAX/Modeni 

24/9600bps FAX/Hoden 



.S549 
,S229 



External Packet Modems (or any RS-232 SerM Port 

14,400bps FAX/Modem S379 

24/9600bpsF4X/MoJ» SI 89 

( 1omputerI^ripherais.inc: 

ViVo Internal Modems 

1 4,400hps V.32A.42 modem, send & receive FAX SZ] 9 

24/9600bp5 with send/reteive FAX SB9 



ViVa External Modems 

1 4,400bps V.32/V.42 modem, send S receive FAX S279 

24/9600hps with send/receive FAX S95 



PS/1 DATACARD 




PKingvStoii 

^■•iXlTECHNOLdBV CORF=ORATION 

DalaCaril Miao Channel Storage and IMemory Upgrade is 

available with 85, 127 or 209MG of bootoble 16 millisecond access 
slorageplusrourSIMMsDcketsthotoccomodaleupto 64MB of system RAM. 

t 1 6-bit or 32-bit DotaCord 

85MB DoloCordwithOKIAM S42S 

127MB DaloCarJwilh OK RAM S550 

209MB DatoCaiil with OK RAM $709 

Diamond Computer 

Sleollb Pro 1 MB S249 Sleollb Pro 2MB S359 

Sleobh 241MB S169 Viper 9182 S409 

ATI Toihnologies 

Grnpbio Ultra Plus 2HB S339 

Crapbio Ultra fra 2MB S499 



SIMMS 



Industry Standard 30-pln SIMMs 

1MB X 9-70 or 80ns, Fost Page Mode 



4MB X 9 70 or BOns, Fast Page Mode .. 

36-eit, 72-Pin SIMMs 

512Ki35-70ora0ni (2MBI 

IHB X 36-70 or 80»s (4MB) 

2M8 X 36-70 or BOns (BMBl 



S3S 

...SI 29 

S79 

... S149 
...$2B9 




' 100% compatible in form, lit, & function ' 

* All products user Installoble * 

' Instollotion instructions included * 

* Toll-free technical support * 

* Manufacturer's warranties ' 

* Corporate PO's, APO/FPO's welcome ' 
* Government ond Educational pricing * 
* Special volume pricing * 
* 24-hour fox line ' 
* International orders welcome * 
* Same day shipping ' 



* Overnight delivery available * 

* No surcharge on credit cards * 

' We'll meet or beat any advertised price ' 



I 




ESC 



TOLL FREE FROM THE UNITED STATES AKD CANADA 




714/588-983 



Business hours: 
Mondoy - Friday, Som-Spm, P.S.T. 
Saturday, 9am-3pm, Orifers Only 




HP LaserJet lllsi, 4, 4M, 4Si, 4SiMX, XL300, InkJet 600 


Ponnsoair 4410 & 4430 






4MB C20t5A SI 49 BMB 


(:2066A 


5299 


2MB KX-P441 SI 19 4MB 


N/A 


5179 


HP LaserJet IIP, 111, HIP, HID 






Panasonic 44501 & 4420 






2MB 33475B $99 4MB 


334778 


SI 59 


2MB KX-P441 $119 4MB 


N/A 


Si 89 


HP LaserJet lU IID 






OkiLoser 400 






2MB 334448 S99 4MB 


33445B 


$159 


1MB 70014701 $79 2M8 


OKI N/A 


S99 


IBM Loser 4029 all models 






Texas Instruments Microlaser and XL 






2Me 11B3334 S99 4MB 


1183335 


SI 59 


1MB 2555739-0001 . S49 4MB 


2560052-0002 


..S99 


Canon L6P-4, 4Lite, 4Plus 






Epson EPL 6000 






1MB 563-2230 $119 2MB 


N/A 


$169 


2MB IBS401 S99 4MB 


N/A 


SI 69 


Canon LBP-lll i Bill Plus 






Epson AitionLoser 11, EPL-8000 




2MB 563 2350 S249 3M8 


S63-2360 


5299 


2MB N/A 5169 4MB 


N/A 


S259 



SOUND CARPS 



Computer Peripherals Inc. 

ViVa Maestro Pro (includes speakers) 

ViVaHoestrol6(li-bill 

ViVa Maestro 16VR (with voice recognition) .. 



Mail or fax orders to: 
First Source International, Inc. 
7 Journey 
Aliso Viejo, CA 92656 




Circle 1 93 on Inquiry Cord (RESELLERS: 1 94) 



• Toll Free Sales & Technical Service 

• 1 00% Compatability Guarantee 

• 5 Year Warrantee On Ail Memory 



• No Surcharges 

• International Orders Accepted 

• Purchase Orders Accepted 




HARD DRIVE 

SALE 

eUARANnED LOWEST PRICES 

(^Seagate 

MODB SIZE SKED TYPE PUCE 

Sr225 20MB 65MS MFM 5-25" $169 

Sf4096 BOMB 28MB MFM Full HT $389 

Sr251 1 42MB 28MS MFM 5-25" $249 

ST351 A |1 • tiigh) .... 42MB 28M5 IDE 3.5" $1 29 

ST3]20A(l"high) 105MB 18MS IDE 3.5" $209 

ST3l44A(l'high) 130MB 16MS IDE 3.5' $229 

ST32i3 213MB 15M5 IDE3.5" $299 

ST3550A 452MB 1 2MS 1 OE 3-5' $599 

■naUA(l-) 940MB 19MS IM 3.S- t3B9 

Sr4766N 660MB 15MS SCSI/FH $899 

Sr41200N 1037MB 15MS SCSI/FH $1049 

MODEL SIZE SPEED TYPE PUCE 

CP30084E 80MB 17MS IDE $238 

CP301D4|rhflh) 120MB 19MS IDE $259 

CP30174A(rhigh) 17CWB 17MS IDE $258 

CP30254 1 1 ■ high) 209MB 1 2MS IDE $379 

CP3364 36CWB 12MS IDE $798 

CP3544A S25MB 15MS IDE $899 

CP3540 540Mfl 12MS SCSI $999 

Mom. SIZE spra> type prke 

25128(2'A "DM 125MB 17MS IDE $298 

7120A(fhigh| 130MB 15MS IDE $228 

raiu|i-U|h) ai3iiu i9iu im t»9 

72I3S(rhigh} 213AW 15MS SCSI $341 

7245A (1 ■ high) 245MB 1 5MS IDE $328 

7345A 345MB 15MS IDE $499 

LXr535A(HH) 535MB 13MS IDE $999 

PANIHER(FH1 1000MB 13M5 SCSI $1389 

PANIHEH(FH) 1500MB 13MS SCSI $1648 

FUjrrSU' 5 YEAR WAMUUITY 

MOOa SIZE SPm TYPE COST 

2622A/5(3.5-) 330Mfl 12MS SCSI/IDE $799 

2623A/SI3.5") 420M8 12MS SCSI/IDE $768 

2624A/S(3.5") 520MB 12MS SCSI/IDE $788 

2266S(FH1 1080MB 15MS SCSI $1228 

2652S(fHl 1750MB I IMS SCSI $2499 

2654SH 2000MB IIMS SCSI $2489 

AAOOPOLB 

2105I3.5-) 560MB lOMS SCSI/IDE $999 

1624(HH) 660MB 15MS SCSI $1199 

2112(3.5") 1050MB lOMS SCSI/IDE $1298 

1528-15(FH) 135CW6 14MS SCSI $1749 

15481FH) 1748MB 14A.^S SCSI $2049 

1924(FH| 2100MB 1 IMS SCSI $2895 

K WESTERN DIGITAL 

22O0(rhigh) 212MB 12MS 3.5" IDE $279 

2250(1 "high) 256MB 12MS 3-5" IDE $328 

2340(rhigh) 340MB 12MS 3.5" IDE $448 

3 YEAR WARRANTY 



360K 


5.25" 




$29 


720K 


3.5' 


'AHT 


$34 


1.2MB 


5.25" 




$58 


1.44ME 


3.5" 


'AHT 


$58 




5-25" 


MOUNT 


$5 



Floppy Drives 



8 Bit 

8 Bit 

8 Bit 

MBit 

16 Bit 

SCSI 

32BH 

SCSI 

ESDI 

IDE 

IDE 

Cobles 

Cables 



Drive 
Controllers 



4 Floppy High Density 

2 Hard Drives MFM 

2 Hard Drivw RLL 

Hord Drive only 

Fiord and Fkppy 1 .1 InteHeove — 

DTC-3280 (Supporh 7 drive*) 

Adaplecl742A 

Adaptec 1 542 Bus Mastering 

DTC6282-24 

Hard and Floppy 

Hard and Floppy w/KD 

Fiord Drive 

Fiord and Floppy 



,., $24 
$34 

.-$139 
$429 
$219 

..$149 



SOFTWARE LIQUIDATION 

WORDSEVR. "^tUTzT"* 

This is not o misprint! Theseore the exact 
some or>es selling lor over $300.00 
from oor competitors. We hove thou- 
sands in slock ro sole bekw dealer costi 
Retail boxed and Fodory sealed. 

REDUCED PRICE 



».J $59 



(100 FOR $55) EACH 



WE BUY EXCESS 
INVENTORY 

For U.S. and Canadian 
Orders Call Toll Free: 
800-982-2925 

HOIIISt M-r 6UII-6nill / MT ie*M-3PM KT 

TKHNICAL & CUSTOMER SERVICE CALL 
(702) 294-0304 FAX ORDERS, INQUIRIES, PC's & 
INTERNATIONAL ORDERS TO: FAX (702) 294-1 l«S 



NEW MEMORY 

INTRODUaORYPRKXS 

Toihlba 4500 4MB/8MB $198/388 

m Uh 4/2M 4MB/8MB S239/398 

Coll (or 16MB Availability 



FAX MODEM 
LIQUIDATION 

9600 BPS Group til Facsimile, 2400 BPS Hayes Compofible Modem, 
True Background Send ar>d Receive, Menu Driven, Comnrand Line, 
Normal and Fine Modes, Half Card, One Year Womanty 

IBM $49 

Pocket PC or MAC $99 

Laptop Toshiba or Compaq as low as $ 1 48 

9600 Baud Fax only cards $39 



386 & 486 
Processor Upgrades 

h4ow you can use Windows in enhanced nvxie, get true multitasking 
& background openalion fof Windows 3-1 , OS/2, & other 386 
specific software. Processor upgrodes offer dramatically increased 
system performance & eosy installation & improves your systems 
performance by up to 350%. Available for rrrast mochlnes, 

SX Nowl Supports BM AT iMd oliwn into a 386 

25MHZ $309 33MHZ $349 

SIC Nowl Supporb 286 PS/2 Into o 486 20MHZ $1S9 

25MHZ $235 50MHZ $43S 

486 Nowl Supports PS/2 70, 80 & Compaq into 486 

DX33MHZ $699 SX25MHZ $449 

MicroMojter supports oil MCA PS/2 into a 486 (0- 1 6MB memo^) 

486DX33 91399 486SX25 $349 

AT Master Supports 386SX systems from IBM & Compaq (0-1 6MB) 
486DX33 $ 1 399 486SX25 $939 



COPROCESSORS 

sonuaiMUKic nmumiuawB: 

80e7-3SMHr -,W 80387- 1 Mb U9 

8087-2 a»t $68 B0387-2(WHi iS) 

8087-1 lOMHz U8 B0387-25MHi J69 

tmimutate^ m7-mb jt? 

80287 ■4MH7 J29 M«7-OU(5l 

80287 -8Mfc (39 80387-3(20 J89 

80287-lOMHi U9 8038751 J99 

802B7-XI Vi f 

K!2B7-xii jw v^rnx. 

COftOOUOU ft CN'l5yKTM]tninly. 

Flug conipatibie wilti Hd, and bsMfl 

B3087-33Mhi 

B3D87-40Mh2 

83S87-SX25MKi/SX33 ... 
CPU UPGRADE FOR 3M'S 
8a<86DLC-25 
8(Me6DlC-33 
80486DIC-40 



., SI04 



,C-25 



... Si 18 
... $179 
... J239 
... SI28 



Intel 

CPU's 

386DX 

80386 DX/20 $39 

80386 DX/25 574 

80386 D)(/33 S89 

AMD DX40 J99 

484DX/SX 

80486 D)(/25 S299 

80486 DX/33 $369 

80486 DX/50 $498 

80486 DX-2/50 ..,,$478 
80486 DX-2/66 $599 

80486 SX/25 $179 

80486 SX/20 $149 

80486 SX/33 $249 



We try to beat prices. Call for current pricing 



IBM PS/2 Memory 

MOOEL# MEMORY PART* PftKE 

PS/1 and 386/SX (2121) 2MB 92F9935 $88 

4MB 92F9694 S!59 

PS/2 30/286;25/286;AdplBrd 1497259 

PS/235SX,IS,40SX,70-E61;061;121 512K 30F5348 $35 

2MB 30F5360 S84 

Adpt Brd 6450609; 34F301 1 ; 34f 3077 

XStoHon 120&130 1MB 6450603 $49 

2MB 6450604 $79 

P52 50, 50Z, 55SX, 60, 65SX 2-8MB 1497259 $259 

2-1 6MB 6450609 $308 
PS/250&60, 2MB$99, 4MB$1S9, 8MB $289 
PS/1 Consultant, Essentials & Expert 
models x43, x44 & PS/Voluepoinl all models 

except Cxx series 4MB N/A $159 

16MB N/A $699 

PS?2 70-A2 1 ; A6 1 ; B2 1 ; 861 ; PS/ 1 
Consultant, Essential & Expert models x1 1 , 

xl3&xU,PS/VduepointCxxserie5 2MB 6450608 $79 

PS/2 35SX,- LS, 40SX, 55SX; LS, 65SX; 
LS, XStafion, PS/Voluapoint Cxx series & 

odopter boonJ 34F3001 or34F3007 4MB 34F2933 $168 

87F9977 

PS/2 90 XP, 95 XP. P75 (Pairs), 56 57 (all) 

PS/lPn32123 2MB 6450902 $88 

PS2 90, 95 XP, P75 (Pairs) 56, 57, {all) 
P5/1 Cooiuhoni, Esientiol. Expertxll,xl3 

&xl4,PS/l Pro2123,RS/6000 4MB 6450128 $158 

8MB 6450130 $318 

PS2/2 35SX; 15; 40SX 8MB 6450129 5298 

P52 70's and 80's 2-8^^ 6450605 $249 

32 BIT BOARDS 2-14Mfl 34F3077 $288 

32BITBOARDS 4-16MB 34F3011 $348 

PS/280-A21;A31;A61 im 6451060 $198 

PS/2 80-041 1MB 6450373 $88 

PS/280-1I1;311;121;321;081;161 2MB 6450379 $98 

BOCARAM/a PLUS 

For PS/2 1 6 Bit Memory lor all IBM MCA Systems, DOS and OS2 UM 
EMS 4.0 Support. 2-8MB (Uses 1 MB Simms) 
2MB-$179 4MB-$245 8MB-$372 



PS/2 MD CL57SX Color, Notebook, 
Tliinlcpad 700, 700C 



PS/Note N45S1. 

PS/2 Model N5 1 , Notebook SLC, SX 



Laptop N335X,L40SX&N82.., 
L40SX 



,, 2MB 07G1419 $168 

4MB 07G1420 $239 

8MB 07G142t $389 

2MB 92F8857 $98 

2MB 92P8804 $98 

2MB 07G1826 $88 

4MB 07G1827 $158 

8MB 07G1828 $308 

,, 2MB 79F0999 $88 

4MB 79fl000 $168 

,, 8MB 79F1001 $388 



S199 



TOSHIBA laptop & Notebook Memory 

PART* PRICE 

PA8311U $84 

PA8312U $84 

PA8314U $168 

PA8315U $308 

PA8306U $92 

PA8302U $85 

PA2000U $89 

PA2001U $168 

PA2002U S328 
PA71 35E 
PA8341U 
PA8308U 

PA83t0U $158 
PA8307U 
PA8309U 
PA8318U 

PA8319U $158 

PA7137U $158 

PA2006U $128 

PA2007U $188 

PA2008U $288 

PA2009U $795 

PA2003U $125 

PA2004U $198 

PA2005U $348 

PA2010U $799 
PA8301U 
PA8304U 



MODEL 

T2000SX 

TIOOOSE/LE/XE 

T2OOO5X/T100OLE 

T1200XE 

T1600 

T2000SXEA22O0SXA1 800 ,, 



T3100 

T3100E 

T3100SX 

T3200 5X 

T3200SXC .. 



T4400 SX, SXC, T6400 SXC, DXC 



T5200A5200CA8500.., 



MEMORY 

„ 2MB CARD 
.,2MB CARD 
,4MB CARD 
8MB CARD 
, 2MB BOARD 
2M6 BOARD 
2MB CARD 
4MB CARD 
8MB CARD 
2MB MOD 
2MB MOD 
2MB BOARD 
4MB BOARD 
2MB MOD 
4MB MOD 
2MB MOD 
4MB MOD 
3r^ BOARD 
2MB CARD 
4MB CARD 
6MB CARD 
16MfiCARD 
„, 2MB CARD 
4MB CARD 
8MB CARD 
16MB CARD 
„2Mfl BOARD 
... 2MB MOD 
8MB MOD 



PA8313U $348 



PCMCIA SRAM MEMORY 

AST POWEREXEC, DEC PAIMTOP, DEli320SU, GRID GRIDPAD. HP 
95LX, IBM PC RADIO, MOMENTA PESfTOP, NCR 31 25 NOTEPAD. 
POQET, SHARP PC3000/3100, SHARP PC-6700/674 1/6781/ 
6785, SHARP PC-6800/6841 /6881 /6891 , ZEOS POCKET PC. 
SI3K $119.00 IMI $169.00 $399.00 



comma 



MODEL ^^-^^ 

Deskpro 386/16 1-2MB 

2MB 
4-8Mfi 

Deskpro 286E; 386-20; 20£; 25; 25E 1 MB 

4MB 

Deskpro 3865 4MB Board 

4MB Module 

Deskpro 386-20E;25E 4MB 

Deskpro 386/33; 386/331; 486/25; 

33L;50L;5yslempro 2MB 

8MB 
32MB 

Con^wq "M" 2-64MB 

Deskpro 286N; 386N; 386SX/20; 20N, 
Portable 486c, Deskpro M , Systempro LT 
Series 1 29 160-00 1, Compaq Pro Signia,,, 1M6 
2MB 
4MB 
8MB 

Prolina 3/25 &25Z 2MB 

8MB 

Prolina 4/25si, 4/33, 4/50 2MB Module 

4MB Module 
8MB Module 

Compoq Pro Signia 16M8 

32MB 

Systempro; Deskpro 6 SKT EXP BRD W/2MB 



Memory 

MEMORY PART# PRKE 



108069- 001 $248 
108069W71 $348 

108070- 001 $398 

113131- 001 $59 

113132- 001 $178 
113634-001 $229 
112534-001 $179 
113645-001 $239 

115144-001 $102 
116561-001 $369 
11 6568-001 $1478 
129160-001 $348 



Compaq Laptop A 

Centura 320, 325 2MB 

4MB 
8MB 

5LT/286 1 MEG MOD 



SLT386 IMEGMOD 

2MEGMOD 
4MEGMOD 

Ue286 IMEGBRD 

2MEGBRD 
4MEGBRD 

Ue386S/20 I MEG BRD 

4MEG BRD 

He Ute/20, 25, 25C 2MEG BRD 

4MEG BRD 
8MEG BRD 
16MEGBRD 

LTE Ute/20 & 

Ule/25;25C 16MflCard 

Compoq Ute 486/25C 4MB Card 

BMflCard 
16MB Card 



118688- 001 $49 

118689- 001 $85 

118690- 001 $158 
128877-001 $318 
141738-001 $89 
141742-001 $299 

141683- 001 $98 

141684- 001 $168 

141685- 001 $318 
149320-001 $995 
149147-00152395 
116569-001 $299 

Memory 

139497- 001 

139498- 001 

139499- 001 
1 10235-001 
1 10237-001 

118303- 001 

1 1 8304- 001 

1 1 8305- 001 
117081-001 
117081-002 
117081-003 
121125-00! 
121125-002 
129769-001 
129769-002 
129769-003 



$318 
$79 

$218 
$79 

$108 

$199 



$218 



$179 
$138 
$238 
$398 
$1395 



N/A $1045 

142337-002 $229 

142337-003 S378 

142337-004 $1198 



Simm Modules 

Prices change up and down call. Sipp 
modules, odd $3.00 each 

DESOtlPnON 



I 256X9 

■ IMEGX3 

■ 1MEGX9 
I 4MEGX9 

■ 16MEGX9 

■ 256X361 MEG (72 Pin) 
I 512X36 2MEG (72 Pin) 
I lX36 4MEG(72Pln) 
Z 2X36 8MEG (72 Pin) 

■ 4X3616MEG(72Pin) 



OONS 


SONS 


70NS 


60NS 


S3NS 


$9 


$11 


513 


$18 






$36 


$37 


$42 




$31 


$39 


540 


$44 


549 




$144 


$154 
$699 


$179 






$50 










$85 


$95 








$149 


$159 


$189 






$299 


5318 


$379 






$649 


$699 


$749 





$88 
$158 
$88 



D-Ram Chips 



DESOUPnON 


150NS 


120NS 


lOONS 


SONS 


70NS 


AONS 


64X4 


$1,95 


52,25 


$2.45 


$2,95 






256X1 STATIC 








$1,95 


52,25 




256X1 


51,05 


51,45 


$1.90 


$2,00 


$2,05 


$2-20 


256 X4 






$4.45 


$4,95 


$5,45 


$5.95 


IMEGX 1 






$3.95 


$4,75 


55,45 


$5.75 


IMEGXl STATIC 








$4,95 


55,25 




1MEGX4 








$17,00 


$20.00 


524.00 




Laser Printer Memory 

IMEG 2MEG 3MEG4MEG SMEGSMEG 

6rottierHL-8,8E,8D,8V $99. $149 $249 

Canon LBP4, 4 Lite &-(- $118. $164 

Compoq Pogemork 15 8,20 $319 $638 

Epson Adion Loser II, 8000 .. $95 $163 $229 

Epson -f 6000 ond mony more $98 $168 

Fujitso 71 00 & 7200 $ 1 99 . $279 

HP Dedqet 500, 500C and 550C $59 (256K) 

HP2,2D, $89 $146 

3,3D,3P,2P, 2P-h $103 $159 

HPIII SI $50 $148 

HPLiiserJet4, lllSi,XL300 $148 $289 

IBM Loser 401 9, 401 9E (3.5MB) $169 

IBM Loser 4029 $139 

NEC90,290 $118 \ 

NEC95 $128 I 

OKI400 $99 I 

Pockord Bell PB9500 $125 5178 i 

Ponasonic4410/4430 $119 $188 

Panasonic 4420/44501 589 . $1 08 51 78 I 

Ponosonic 4450 $105 | 

Ponosonic 4455 $139 i 

QMS4iO $129. $179 $249 

StarLS04 $129. $179 $269 I 

StarScript4 $128. $178 $258 I 

Tosibo Page Laser 6 $119 $178 , 

T1XI/PS17/PS35 548 

Moior Laptop & Notebook Memory | 

MOOa MEMORY PARTf PRKIE i 

AT8.T Safari 2MB 37650 $128 

4MB 3765) $238 I 

&ondwellB-310 1MB 23O5OW100 5128 [ 

Dec pc 320 Notebook 2MB Mod FR-POM BA $149 i 

4MflMod FR-POM-BB $298 

SMflMod FR-PCIM-BD $345 i 

DellLc^top212,320N;320NT IMflMod 310-3203 3 

2MflMod 310-3204 $109 j 

Dell 325N;NC; Notebook P.C- 2MB Mod 310-3210 $148 ' 

Ddl NL20 & N125 NTBK 2MBMod 310-3213 $148 I 

^son NB-3 Notebook 4MB A808501 $198 | 

Epson NB-SL/20;25 2MBMod A808771 $138 i 

25C hWxjok 4MB Mod Ae0878 1 $228 ' 

EvBfBx Tanpo IX, LX20 2MB 00160 J 

Everex Carrier 2MB 00263-00 J 

Grid 1500 4MB 52587 $198 | 

Grid 1450SX 2MB 6200203 $148 

Goldstar GS520, 3865X16 1MB N/A $98 

4MB N/A $298 I 

f^^CR 3 120 Notebook 4MBMod 3120-K104 $299 

NCR 3170 Notebook 4MBMod 3123-KI04 $399 I 

Packard Bell, Mognavox, Milsuba .... 1MB N/A 3 

4Mfi N/A $198 I 

Ponosonic CFl 70/270/370 1MB CF-BA165 3 

Samsung Notemaster 386S 2M8 SNM002 $195 I 

4M& SNM004 5395 | 

Sanyo 1 7NB; 1 8NB & ZEOS 2MB MBC-NBMEM2 3 

Sharp 6220 IMfl CE-621B 3 

Sharp 6640 2Mfl N/A 5198 I 

Sharp 4700MZ-200 IMfl CE-471 5198 | 

Sharp 8501 Colsfstar 2Mfl N/A 5398 | 

Tl Trovelmate 2000 IMfl 2568034-001 1 $88 

TlTfnvelmate3000SX;WlNSX 2Mfl 2566996-0001 $98 

Tl Trovelmate 4000, 

WINDX/25SX/16,SX25 4MB 2581265-001 $218 

ZENITH MEMORYt CALL FOR ALL MODELS 

fl(^ Memory 

MODQ# CBHFUiEii MEMORY PART* PUCE i 

h«TEBOOK28i/l2;386SX/20 4MBMOD 500814-003 $168 

NOIEBOCX EXEC SX/25; SX/25C 4MBMOD 500814-004 $168 I 

POWER EXEC 3/25SL, 3/25SL< m& MOD 500984-001 $1 68 | 

16MBMOD $1298 | 

AST POWER EXECL EL 2MB MOD 500984-004 

4MB MOO 500984-001 $169 I 

8MB MOO 500984-002 $399 I 

16MBMOD 500984-003 51245 , 

POWER PREMIUM 486/50D 8MBEXPKrT 500780-001 $348 I 

4/33; 3/33,4/660, PREMIUM H i6MeEXPiaT $598 I 

386/25,33. 486/33; 5X20 ...,4-32 MB EXP BRD 500818-001 $348 I 

ASTPREMIUM386C/386-16 4MB KIT 500510^»e $179 , 

AST PREMIUM 386 4MB KIT 500510-004 $198' 

AST PREMIUM II, 386SX/ 1 6; 

386SX/20,486 37&33T 4MB MOD 500780-004 $191 

BRAVO LC 4255, 4/33S, 

4/50D, 4/66D 2MB KIT 500987-001 $98 I 

4MB MOD 500987-002 $168 | 

8MB KIT 500987-003 $348 I 

16MB $649 

■ JL I 32MB $1200 j 

"'^G' MEMORY BOARD 

For 286 and 386 sytems, ASO design ghies EMS suppori in hardwifB 
Wupto 90X peihrmance cn«r solhvare EMS. UptoSMBusingIMB 
SWMS. Wodts in bolh 8 if 1 6 bit expansion skrts 
0KMEG$88 2MEG$148 4MEG$208 8MEG $338 



TfWWSl SHIPPING: UPS |Min. $8.25) Shipping charges eaNDmONS:20%RestocklngFeeonrehjndswil(iln30 

orenon refundable. NET 10 on approval. Purchase orders days. No retundsor exchanges after 30 days -WARRANTY 

from Universities, Fortune 2000 & Government Agencies, REPLACEMENT ONLY. AliPRlCESFINAL. PRICESSUBJEa 

COD add $5.00 (Cashiers check) rfg~\ ''O CHANGE. Mfg. port #'s for convenience only. 

^^aHB ^^^r" IiiumI Trademarks are registered witfi their respective Co.'s. 386, 

" " DHL 387, 287, SX, are trademarks of Intel Corp. 




Circle 1 95 on Inquiry Card. 



S»l SUPER SOURC 

CALL FOR LATEST SIMM PRK 



HARD 
DRIVES 



SIMM-SIPP MODULES 



Quantum 



FUJITSU 




TOSHIBA 



MICROPOLIS 



^Seagate 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 



WESTERN DIGITAL 



S087 5MHZ IMEL 
BOB7-2 8MHZ INTEL 
3087-1 10MHZ INTEL 
B0?87-6 SMHZ INTEL 
B02e7-8 SMHZ INTEL 
803B7-10 10MHZ INTEL 
B0287XL lOMHZ INTEL 
802e7XLT 12MHZ INTEL 
80387S)t-16 16MHZ INTEL 
80387SX-20 M HZ INTEL 
B03e7OX-1B16MHZ INTEL 
80387DX-20 20MHZ INTEL 
e0387OX-25 Z5MHZ INTEL 
e0387OX-33 33MHZ INTEL 
e(M87SX-35 IMTEL 
OVERDRIVE SXCX33 
OVERDRIVE SXDX25 
OVERDRIVE SX/DX20 
RAPID CAD 



75.00 
75.00 
85.00 
BS.OD 
89.00 
89.00 
89.00 
89.00 
479,00 
749.00 
599.00 
499.00 
239.00 



830a7DX-16l6MHZ CYRIX 
(-20 20MHZ CYRIX 
(-25 25MHZ CYRIX 
3DB7QX-33 33MHZ CYRIX 
(-40 40MHZ CYRIX 
a3S8?SX15 16MHZ CYRIX 
B3Sa7SX20 20MHZ CYRIX 
83SB7SX25 25MHZ CYRIX 
82S87XL CYRIX 

WEITEK 

3167-20MHZ WEITEK 
3167-25MHZ WEITEK 
3167-33MHZ WEITEK 

mnmi weitek 

4167-33MHZ WEITEK 



H-00 
84.00 
94.00 
74.00 
74.00 
74-00 
74.00 



295-00 
395.00 
495.00 
445.00 
695.00 



2CB7-B SMHZ III 
2CB7-10 10MHZ IIT 
2C87-I2 12MHZ IIT 
2CB7-20 20MHZ IIT 
3C87-1fi 16MHZ IIT 
3C87-20 20MHZ IIT 
3Ce7-25 25MHZ IIT 
3C87-33 33MHZ IIT 
3C87-40 40MHZ IIT 
3Se7SX-1616MHZ IIT 
3SB7SX-2D 20MHZ IIT 
3SB7SX-25 25MHZ IIT 
3SB7SX-33 33MHZ in 



Am X 9- 
"IMB X 9- 
"IMB X 9- 
1MB X 9- 
1MB X 9- 
1M6 X 9- 
1MB X 9- 
1MB X 9- 
1MBX 9- 
1M8 X 9- 
1M8 X 9- 



80NS SIMM-PC 
70NS SIMM 
GONS SIMM 
100NS 9 CHIP SIMM 
■SONS 3 CHIP SIMM 
80NS 9 CHIP SIMM 
70NS 3 CHIP SIMM 
70NS 9 CHIP SIMM 
60NS 3 CHIP SIMM 
60NS 9 CHIP SIMM 
■53NS 3 CHIP SIMM 
■53NS 9 CHIP SIMM 
)-70NS SIMM 



135 256K 
256K 

165 

33 ^56K 
32 256K 
35 1MB 



X 9-100NS SIMM 
X 9-80NS SIMM 
X 9-70fJS SIMM 
X 9-60NS SIMM 
X 8-aONS SIMM 
X e-70NS SIMM 
X 8-80NS SIMM 
X 8-70NS SIMM 
X 9-100NS SIPP 
X 9-80NS SIPP 



10 1MB X 9-70fJS StPP 
12 1MB X 9-60fJS SIPP 

12 256K X S-100NS SIPP 

13 256K X 9-80NS SiPP 
256K X 9-70NS SIPP 
256K X 9-60NS SIPP 
256 X 36 - 1MB 
512X36- 2M6 
1 X 36 - 4MB 

CALL 3 X 36 - 8MB 
CALL 4 X 36 - 16MB 



CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 



CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 





AIR USINESS VEISA 


9W0 433S 




POP TABLE 4HC 




32 SIT EXPAXSIDN CARD FOR 




TRAVELMATE 2000 

256803400 1 S 99 
TRAVELMATE 3000 
THAVEIMATI 300SWINSI 

2MB KIT 2566776001 99 
IHAVELMATl 4«(nVI>ISI 

4Ma MOO 25813550001 225 
MKROIAIER PLUS, n 
HICflOlASER PLUS TURID 
'MB MOD 355739001 61 
3MeKITNA in 
IMB KIT N A 240 
5M6 KIT U I 490 




•Apple 


ALU WUNESS VEIU ARHAr 

1MB KII MWim 156 
16UB KIT l!91H)00 (2S 

0-37UB E C i;ia74B0 ii; 

ALR BUSINESS STATION 


9000 4256 

4MB KIT W2'J)A 275 
BMB -n 12201A 4S0 
16Mfl MT i2f02A BSO 


SEC 


:MB MOS iiS69C«' 149 
3Ma MOO i2iE7iOCi 299 

2M8 <I1 14 79 




TWO CARDS PER MACHINE 

Q-32Mfl E-C 1(9 
1MB MDD 64^803 42 
2MB MOD 6450604 75 


1 PRINTER 
1 MEMORY 


1 LAPTOP & 1 
1 NOTEBOOK 1 


POwEReaotiDs ih i<j i7o 

7HJ MOO W103311-* S 99 
JMB Wao M1C3JLL-* 199 

POWERBaOI 1U. 190 

ZMB MDO N A 130 
im MOD H A ZX 
SMB MOD H A ;9S 
BMNUDDNA 310 
10MB MOD N A m 

powtRMKiK m. no 

Mm-. IWHt *RE THREE rtPtS 
OFMODULElFOAMDaSJId 
a» -UPGRUULE- -US£- 
MH -EonEimoML- BE 
SURE TO PUnCtUSE THE 
CORRECT ONE FRR >DUH 

CONVEIITIDIUL 1 STANDARD) 


AIRPOWDIPRD 

UR POWei PRB ARRAY 

UR POWER PflOiHC 

UR powfH Fia afER. mt 

m IT 12904000 15t 

UR POWER CACHE VS-itSl 
ALR HICROFLn UOO 

IMS KIT I29O4000 15i 
J2M6 KIT NA liM 
ALU RTER mCI 37m SOU 

UIB I29018W lis 
16MB 129M81E MS 

RANSR Kmss 
lUB MOO 1292M10 HO 
BMB MOO 1792801E HI 
16MB MOON A 1H9 

ranUM NOIBDOK 11 (20 


1BMB KII A19;9A BJ5 
32MBN KII J2512A 1B25 

13MB KIT Ai9B7fl 1595 

9000705, m 

BMB KIT A271BA 395 

32hlB KIT A2315A 1195 
X-STATION TOOHI 

2NBN MOO C232I6 90 
4MB MOO C3323A 163 

DESKJErsODC. 500 PLUS. 5S0C 
256 KB MOO H32707fl 64 

LASERJET 11. Ua 
2-4 E-C K334 44B 102 
4MB E-c K33115B lU 

LASER AT np. Ul. 


ULTRALITE 2B6F 

1MB 00 PC2321 I 96 

ULTRUITE SI ID 
2M6 MOD PC1J31 157 
BMB MOD PC1432 430 

ULTRAUn SL20. SL20P 
6MB MOO PC492I 299 

uiTAun in. SU5C 

4MB MOD PC4722 299 
BMB MOD PC47,'3 52S 

PRaSPE{D2K 
1MB MOD PC2i3i 91 
3MB MOD 'C2136 ISO 
4MB MOO PC3I33 32S 

PROSPEED SU 
2MB MDO PC3131 150 
BMB MOD PC3132 429 


OESIPRO 3HE 

2MB Kl. NA 79 
j-16MBECNJ 129 
OESIPRO 396-16 

1MB KII IQSO^IOJI 120 
IMB t'l :jS.JOai'jr 209 
2MN E-C i0S0S9-;i-00i 341 

BMB E-c i0B073.r3-D0i 69B 
OESUflD 30U 

IMB E-.: '13634OT1 250 
iME MOD ii364S!>li 75 
;UE M 2 
DESIIPR036620E 25E ^ 

^HB MOD 11^31001 ^ 
OESIPRQ 3U 33 


32aN. 21211. 3200 PLUS 

1MB MDD 3T33203 I 90 
2MH Mllil 3103201 130 

;'MII MUD 3103313 149 
325P. 325D. 333D, 3S3P, 
320SX. 433P. 4160. 486P 

1MH MUll 310350b 60 

1MB MDO 3103507 175 
4UII. 4BIP 

lliMB MOD J1D2625 610 
420. 425. 433. 466 
45inE 450SE. 45IITE 

M " 1103466 115 

4MB KIT 3103467 ITS 
M K 1102168 345 

lEME KIT 3103169 690 
.t2Mfl KIT 3103630 1»0 


iMB MOD 8160129 299 
4D19 1 40I9E 

3 5MB E-C 1038675 159 
4429 

4MB MOD 11B335 1 57 

THINIPAD 300 
2Ma CRD33G92BE 165 
BMG CRD33G29B9 410 

IHINKP-tO TOOT 
BMB nCD6451187 4M 

THINKPAD 700 S 70DC 
2MB MOD0714ig 138 
4MB M0D07GI43O 230 
BMB MOD07G143I 399 

N4S8L 

CL57SI LAPTOP 

2MB CRD07GI119 139 
4MB CRDD7DI130 230 
BMG CRD07GH21 339 


FUJITSU R) 710D TmON 
2UB i 295 

tONICA L?311D. 3115 
IMS 149 

3Ue 290 

F330DA 

1 -2-3-;M8 CUL 
KYOCERA fm. FtMO 
FiaODA. F3000A. FJOOO 

1MB 31 
□TOH-4 PLUS^aE 

1UB 120 
CITOH CI-6 

2UB 165 


UTIMA LAPTOP SI 

IMB MOD I ao 

3ME MDD 150 

18MB MCO 2000 
BONDWTLL 0311} SUPERSLIH 

1MB MDO 90 
aONDWELL BaiOV GllOSI 

IMS MOO 90 

IMS MDO 295 
CI9C0NY 3S6SX 

IMS MOD 245 
CHICONY 5620 

1MB MOO 245 
CHAPLET NOTEBOOK 

'"s "oD 240 


;UB woo NA 175 
lUBUDDNA »D 
MB MOD N9 m 
SUB UOD M 30D 

i;UBMEIDNA 795 
USf . MIL ACCEPT 1 UPGRADE 

^UB U3D 1 A 3H1 
BMB HOD N A UK 

UPGRADE HODULiS INSTALL 
DH THE BUE HOOULES 


1MB MOD 12407980 1M 
1MB UOO 12107970 9)0 

/isr 

AST PREHIUM EXEC 2B6 12 


MID. II1P 

2- JMB E-C M33475B 99 

3- 4MB f-C H3347SB 12S 
IHB E-C H33477B 159 

LASERJET III3I 
1MB MOD D2065A 140 
BMB MOD N A 239 

4MB MOD N ^ 149 
BMB MOD N : 299 
HP UI5ER.ST FAX 

PA^KIJITX^OO 


PROSPEED 3USI 

1MB MOO PC3T3I 91 
2MB MOD PC3136 150 
4MB MOD PC3122 225 

PRDSPEED lam^o 

1MB MOD PC4321 10 
4MB MOD PC4322 m 

1MB MDD OP4ioB2D4 4) 
4MB MOD 0P4105305 115 

PQWERHATE PORIABIE SX 
2MB E C APai75IK 199 
BMB E C liPCM7S3-;w B5 

PQWERMATE PORTABLE PLUS 


3MB MOO 115114001 120 
DESIPRO 315 31L. 416 33L 
3M0 MOO 115114001 130 
BMB MOD 116541D0I 349 
33MB MOD 116568001 1395 
6 SOCK . EC 116569001 199 
DESU>Ra4IGIS S« 
3MB MOD IT5I1100: 120 

i/ME MOD ■16551001 1395 
OESIPRD 3H2MI. 
416 J3U. 4US l6M ISM 

IMS MOO ■■'Sb&tiyi' 49 
3M6 MOO "SBBWJI 71 


KOTEBOOIl 325NC. 32511 

:'MII 130 
433E 1 425E 

2MU KIT 1102389 115 
4MB KII M033EQ 175 
Sm KII NA 345 
31 MX ^^^^^ 

EVEREX- 


PS1 CONSULTAHT 2133. 611. 

ai3. Bll. ESSENTIAL WT1. 

W13.V<14.V«LUEP0INT32ST1 

EXPERT S11. 513, S14 
1MB MOD6450603 42 
2MB MOO615D60B 75 
4MB MOD645012B 149 
BMB M00615013O 299 

VALUEPOINT 42S3X2S. D(f33 1 

DU«6 INSTALL IN FOURS 
IMS [jOg56E9260 ^45 

2MB MDD615MD; 77 


CIIOK CI B 

CDMPM SCUL 
PAGEMARO 15 i 20 tCAU 
DATAPRDDUCTS LZR65D SCALL 
EPSOM EPl40m 41M. 
HOD. 1100 tCAU. 

PAiNTjn xuoo ICAU 

PACKARD BELL PB9600 ECUL 
ATST S93 JCALl 


m@m 

"'mb'mod'a^?;- s ia 

MID N A 1200 

iMB MOD AE1K511 190 
EQUITY LT-2a6 

IMS MDD Ag08i9i 138 
EOUITY 11-39631 


''"ms"™"^"'^'""^ 150 
COHODORE C396 

2MB MOO 150 
GOLDSTAR GS520 3HSIL15 

IMS MOD 265 
MEWLtn PACMflO 95LI 

IHB MOD 205 

3MB UDD 142 
MYUKDAI 3»SI- NB386SC 

1MB MDD 245 
LIBREI 216 1 V388SI 

2M8 MOD 225 
LEADING EDGE OLTSHSI 


4HBM0DNA m 
:Me''MOo'fJi J39 


306SX 20 

IMO MOO 500B1WDI S 09 

AST PREMIUM EXEC 3B6St25. 
25C. 25SL. Z5SLC 

4WB MOD 500B14004 140 
BtUVO 216 


TOSHIBA 


1-3MB E-c APCH7S0J 176 
3.3MB !-CN A 245 

PPOWERTMAIE 306 IE. 30 

4.1BMBE-CNA 495 
B-IBMfltCNA 625 


1MB MOD 11B59O00I 149 
5 SOCK-EC 139160001 291 

BESU'RO 2t6N. 

316*. MIS m 
1MB MOD "868800 - 49 
;MB MOD TI9689001 71 
4MB MOD 1IB6W001 149 


TFMI'OII. 1X20 
2M8 MOD 1A 5 90 

:!MII MOO NA 115 

2MB KIT NS 95 
1 EMPO 3I6aX 


1MB M006150i2e 14! 
BUB MDD8I50I30 299 
PS '2 BO-041 
1MB MD06450375 69 

161. 3111 321 

2MB MDD61503J9 105 
MODEL 35-50 OMF. OPiT ECC 


HMRIs'sM 


SCALL 
ICAU 

ICAU 
04PCV ICUL 
ICALL 


2M6 MDD A80e3Bi 235 
EQUITY 216 PLUS 

EQUITY 3BSSX16 PLUS 

E(Wrr(3M25PlUS ^ 


1MB MOD 15 
MITSUGA NINJA 206. 3B65I 

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4MB MOD 195 
PACURD BELL Pt3S6>BI 

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■UC PORTABLE BACKLIT 

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"lufl^;-: PCPABjiii s 7s 


2MG E-C APCMB^ 275 
J-8MB E C APCH853 350 
1MB EC N A 495 
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pRouNEA J2SS, jjas 

?MB KIT 141?3S-00t N 
JME KIT 111743. 30^ 295 


nP^B'fl\''2''l6l2 16 20° 


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1MB M0D615II5B 305 

ISTATION 130 t 130 


905-9M *** ICUL 
PHI HIPS NHS 1460 SCUL 
IBM 4079 ICAU. 
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E«IITY 3BSSWo''pLUS 
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EOUITY 4HSI25 FlUS 
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1MB MDD 205 
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1 1MB E C N A 149 
"jUB*'*!! M0J13 it 
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BRAVO 1255 

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BMB HIT iKKmi Z30 
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BMB KII ^mSlBW 260 


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MS Z I PCPAMIJU 1M 
4UB D C PDPA20D11J 16t 
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1MB UDD 111^2-iHll 45 
JMB MDO H1583 00' 15 
1MB MDD UI6B1 001 149 
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315 25 33. SERVER 316 


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2ME MO DEI 50601 n 
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NEC SIlflffWRITER 2 560. 
560P. 582P 195 ICUL 
SEIKOSHA DPI 04. OP108 

OLIVETTI PB106. PG2a8 ICUL 
SHABP JX370O. -E -H ICALL 


416^. EISA 1 TOMRI 

SMS KII AB087U 140 
16MB KIT AeOB673 620 

3- IMS E-C laSlOi 104 


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3MB *ii "mo!i9 eg 

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?MB KIT M0!I9 EB 

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BRAVO 366SX 

2MB KII 500511100! 05 
4M8 KII 500510003 170 
6RAV0 366SX20 


• MB G-C PCPAB3111J 75 
2MB C'C PCPA9312U ICj 
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1MB C-C PCiaPAB3T6U 95 
7MB Z-Z PC18P4E3I7II 108 


2MB CPU MODUti 

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3-BMB E C OP110BT02 213 
PDWERMATI SI16I. Sim. 


jSmb'moO '■55MOC' 1396 
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4MB MOD6150126 143 
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RISC SYSTEM 8000 

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18MB KIT 1010 975 


OMS PS960 PS1700 . 925Hfl 
OKIOAIA OLeiO I 410 ICUL 


4MB E-C N A 115 
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SMB 463 
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BMB KIT 500824001 270 
BRAVO 12SS. »3LC. tSOO. 
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4MB MOD 5009B7002 m 


4MB C-C PCIXPAS3I4U I6t 
BMB Z-Z PCIIPAB]'5U 306 
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4MB C-C PCI4PAS31H) 17! 
3MB C-C PCI4PAB)i5IJ 306 


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SMB Kfl OP4I0310I 120 
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2MB «o: ■i56i!'3;- 79 

S^Oc" k ■'9 0 291 




32MB KII 1033 15O0 
64MB KII 1038 290D 
PS NOTE 
IMS NA 169 
BUB N A 335 


AT&T 


2-4MB £-C CS22B51 225 
1MB E-C CS32031 J49 

41B0Meitl00 

1MB E C N 


4MB MOD 245 

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2MB MDD 145 
4UB MDD 245 

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MAC 1' 

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MAC III 

■1MN KiT MO2707 13B 
1EMB KIT Hi S75 


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1EMB MOD 5009EID04 E25 
33MB KIT 5009B7005 1250 
PREMIUMII SOBiZS. 33, 
JOESIt^O. 4BE^3 . 49651(120. 


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4MB C.C PCPA3001U 16B 
BMB -:-Z PCPA20O2U 306 

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3MB E C N A 295 

PD¥fEIIIIATE 39670 
2MB MOD APCH5i5E 290 
SMB MOD APCHB56E 690 

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CWTURA32I) 25 

?MB MDD 139497001 as 
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BMB MDD 13949900' 318 
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SMB E C 165 
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TANDY 1S1D. 201s. 3110 


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!MB HIT US. I4D 
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PREMIUM UOSH'IE. 4B6.^3E 
PREMIUM 3I6.'33T{. 496I33TE 
1MB MOO 500790003 13 
2Me KIT 5O07B0O05 OS 
JMB UDD 5007900004 119 
BMB KIT 5007S0001 312 

OFRCE AOVAKTAGE 


2MB C.C PCPA2006U 130 
1MB C.C PCPA2O07U 174 
6Me C.C PCPA200BU 24S 
8MB C C PCPA20091I 375 
16MB C-C PCPA201DU 7S0 
I4400SX. T4400SXC. THDS-C 
3MB C-C PCPa?003U 120 


2MB MOD APCHB55I 265 
BMB MOD APCH656II 723 

POVfERWrE 3lfr25S 

3MB "IT OP4i0530 i 92 
4MB KII OP4I05303 174 
BMB KII DP4I053D2 330 


SYSTEHPRO LT 4IISI ISH 
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3.61MB BD 129160 689 
849 

i.MMB 6D 129160 690 

449 

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2MB MOD 07G1S79 t 129 
1MB MOD 07G138O 139 

LIOSI. N33SX LAPIOP 

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IMS MOD 79FIOOO 149 
BMG MOD 79(1001 315 




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0-16HBE-CNA 129 
63t6'2S. 33WBS 


HASTE HSPO XT 216 


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IWe K!I Ni ^57S 

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SMB C-C PCPA20O5U 375 
16ME :-C PCP«30ii)l) 725 
12MB C-t NA 3950 

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2MB MDO PC3PA7135E 2B1 


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2Ma MOD OPI105TO! 195 
POWEMATE JK331 

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16MB MOO 0P41 06206 UO 

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POWEHMATI EXPRESS 


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33MB KIT 136817001 I2n 
i2BMB KIT 139918001 CALL 
a SOCK-EC 13993S0OI SCALl 
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3M8 MOO 64W903 77 
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PS1 2a6 
512K MOO 1057035 34 
2MG MDO 92F993S IS 

PS I 386SX 
5I2K MOO 1057035 34 
2MB MOD 92F9935 8 5 
1MB MOD 92F969J 149 


4D100 A 120. 4D SERIES 200. 
300 . 400 

33MB KII H4D32* 1425 
40 30 PERSONU IRIS. 


3MB KIT 37361 71 
STAR SERVER 116 33E 

1MB KIT 31361 265 
16MB KIT 37263 MS 
STAR SERVER 416338 

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18MB KIT 37315 185 


■Ma MOO ;a3i:- s ho 

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3MS MOO ZA18061 133 
IMS MOD mw 365 

TURBOSPORT 3M 


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JIUOtPS USER 


JME KIT VOim? 136 
WBKirhi 1050 


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PREMIUM 316.1 6. C 
4MB KII 5005100DB 170 


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5I2K Kiy 3015349 30 


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4MB KIT mCObB 170 
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1MB WOO 343C34ME 60 


1MB E C JX95MJ 69 

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1 5MB C-C N A 151 


MAC QUADRA WMO 95B^^^ 

3;wB Ki: NA 1050 

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QUASHA VIDEO 70i;.9W 


PREMIUM SI 4iSS 

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BMS KIT 50O7SD0D1 312 
PREMIUM SE list 
16Me KIT 500929001 600 


13200 

3MB MOD PC6PA7i3;i; 171 
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3MB KIT PC12PAS30;U 95 


WSIWSIE 

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4MB MOD 0Pt1IK205 225 
1BMB MOO 0P4IB6306 625 
SLENTWRITUI HOOa 90 S 290 


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1MB CRD T42337M3 199 
BMS CBD '12337004 3U 


3M6 KIT 30' 5360 IS 
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■6MB KIT HLi r-6B 535 

IRIS CRIMSON 
'6MB KII iliC^6< 970 
6IHB KITH Hi 2700 

4DRI. INGIGORPC PERSONAL 

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NOTEBOOK MRAUS 396 
3BISX 

4MB MOD 266 


4MB MOD ZA303jME 255 
SUPEBSPORT 216 

1MB HOD 1B066 95 
SUPEHIPORT 2S6E 

'MB MOD ZA1B066 95 

2MB MOD ZA1B064 10B 


2 SMB C-C NA 242 
IMS C-C N A 3H 


5>2K KIT M59511LA SB 
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4Mfl KIT P:i2PAB309U 170 
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3MB MOD 0P4B92 130 
SIIENTWHITIR HODU 95 

3MB MOD E503 1 35 

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BMB MDD 6150129 333 
PS2 5SSIS55L8 
IMB MOD B450603 42 
2MB MOO 6150601 75 


SMB KII HUC08: 535 
32UB KIT HOC32H 1150 


WTEBOW HETAUS S96SI1I S 

2MB MDD N A 130 
IMB MOD N A 266 


SMB MOD ZA1B0;i 399 
SUPER SPORT SX 

3MB MOD 3Aie06i IM 


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5I2K KII 13J01I! 3S 
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?MB Kir UG7I9 ti 


15100. TSTOOC 

2MB MOD PC7PAB30HJ 99 
T5200. T5200C. T8500 


caama 

LIE 9069 PROCESSOR 


SPARCSIAHON ELC 

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4MB MOD 87F9977 149 
0-16MB E C 169 
PS257SX. MS7SLC. »SX. 




HSSDD, 


laisx. 285 

85 

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ZA1B0B6 ALPHA 108 
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QMS. PS 410 

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2-4Ma E-c N A 157 


LASERWRITER IINTI 1INTXJ 

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2MB KII PCPAB30JD 99 
BMB KPT PCPAB1I3U 310 
T4500. T4500C 
4MB : Z PCPA16U 250 


'6UBMODK"6a 650 
SPARCSIATIOtt IPC 

■6MB KIT l-'6' 950 


SULC. 76 S 77 
2MB MOD 645090 2 77 
4ME MOD S450128 149 
SMB MOD 6150130 299 


ACER 


HS. PR. MX 1200. 286. 
HS, PH. lU 1600. MGP160 
PR64CD. 3t6SX.16. 
HS. PRII20. HSaOCD 


3MB KIT 36051 u 
O-16MBE-CNA 129 
2.316SI.Z-3HSX20 


4HB E-c N A 22s 
QMS 115. 115HR. 115 

1-6MSt.CN A 179 
3.6MS E C H A 219 


LASERWRITER! IF 1IG 

;WB KIT MO?7J7 136 


HP VECIRA 396 13. ESI2PC 


BMB : : PCPA?oi;u 445 

16MBCEKA TIA 


512K MOD 1I70"->J1 J 107 


SPARCSTATIOII IPX 


PS370-SB1. 70161. 121 




3a6-20SI. 
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S33D0. 316-13 


3Ma KII Z60ji 95 


EMS E C H A 359 


l6MSKi;Ni S7S 
LASER WHITER IINTR 

MAcnw '"^ 

16ME KIT n'a^'^'"'* 575 


2MB KIT DUSiA 76 
0-15MBEC 129 

396 1 6*1, 20N 
3MB >(ll O2406A 7S 
BMB KIT 02401A 295 

OS 1GJ. RS26PC. 2DPC. 2DC 
2MB KIT 013544 U 


PAGELASER 6 

3.4MB E.C NS0090 114 
4Me E C NB0100 174 


LTE3I6 

1MB KII 117DB1DD' 65 
2HB KIT 1l70BtM2 M 
4MB KII ii;09iM3 175 
LTE1I6S20 

4MB C-C '2n?iO03 192 


4MB MDD 1*04U 173 
'6MeM00K'i6IJ 65t 
SPARCSTATION 2 

SPARCSTATION 330 

BMfl KIT X'OeE 405 


0I1.E61 

1MB HOD 615050 3 42 
2MS MOD 645060 1 75 
0-33Me E C 113 

PS2 70-A91. AIO. .A21. -»61. 

061, B21 


ANrwHERFHIONX 

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ANVWRERE UB5S. KaiESl 

2mb:rdna 195 


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1MB MOD Z3BaoME 55 

IMB MOD 23BO0MK 149 
Z-tl613F 

IMB KIT 3A1200M2 166 


Panasonic 


12ME KIT NA inSO 
B4M6 KIT NA 1995 
HMIMA MEMORY MGR SO 

83 93 


3IB 2SPC. IIBUPC 

2MB MOO I)?3Blft M 

iiBS^DPC 4aepc 4I62SI 

495331 

2M6 MOn n23HIA 14 


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Kl-4. 4V, 4PS 


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2MB C-C 129769001 120 
4MB C C 139769002 199 
BMB C-C 139769003 3H 
1SMB C C N A 1295 
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iMB MOO ii.i23i09' 19 


SPARC 1. 1«0. 00. 4.41). 60.65 
4MB KIT >I04C C H' 164 

SPARC SLC ii-ni 
U46MODI'053 173 

'6HB KIT l"60 650 
SPARC n. 4 40. 60. 65. 75 


3M6 MOD 6150608 T5 
a-32M8 E C 169 

PS24aA16. A21.A31 
4MG MOO 6151OSO 199 
0-32MB E-C 169 

MODEL 90XP i 3SX 

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llDDNl'llDOLS 

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11m 1ESX 
2MB KIT t4 A 110 
;MB kit NA 150 


Canon 

IPW, -4PLltS. 41ITE 


'SMB K:T 2A1300M6 535 

OigDATA 


CF-171. CF.27II, CF-310 
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4MB KlI M A 210 

a.P4410. (II-PI420. I(X-P4I» 

■ .4MB E C KIP143 K 


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9MB MOO n2l52A 299 

9000375, 36EI. 345. 4I»DL. 

400S. 4007. 42I>S 
BMB KII II9E230U 450 
16MB KIT H9H22<jri 052 
32M3 KII ll9IS2?9r I4MI 


'MB EC MB4-0 I I2S 
2MG E-C MO430 165 

Hl-6. .6E. -ID. -BV 
1MG E-C UBB>D IS 
2MB E C MBBSO 115 

BHDLMID. BRaL!.42D 
'MB KIT N A 49 


1MB MOO 210 

SLi nts 20 

IMB MOC -m-iKV 169 

PORTABLE III 
^MB KIT ir332-Ki 90 
INIEHACE '1780800' I1D 
tip BOARD lO'B' 100 1250 

PORTABLE 3M 


■6MB KIT t"6l'YlvD 654 
BMB HI COBf 406 

SPAflCIO 

■BMS MDD 750 


2MB MOD 645090? 77 
IMB MOO 645012B 149 
6HB MOD 6450130 299 

16 SIT EXPANSIDK CARD FDR 

MODELS 50. «. S5SX. 

65SX. SLS WUMUH IVM 

CARDS PER MACHINE 
0-iSMB E C 169 


2MB Kil 9IOOII2300B 90 

1100 25. 33 
1MB KII 91O0033001 150 

1170. 1172. 1173. P0WEH5DD 
2UB UDD 9118623002 90 
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BMB MDD 9118623001 265 

1200 


IMB MOD Se3224D I 145 
1-2MB E C 5633330 145 
3MB E C HA 261 

1- lMB E-C S6J1300 79 

2- lMB E-c S631BB0 111 
3MB E C 5831300 191 


0L400 

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1MB 'e-c 70015201 *5 


3-4MBE.:>IA 1(9 
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2 4 MS E-C KXP141 112 


ALR POWCRFLEt 

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9D00i42ET 

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16MB KIT mm!> m 


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2MB E-C N A 1(5 
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61MB KIT <'6i( 3600 
SPARCSFBVfR 630MP 670MP 
690 

flME Ki- I-6EA 2100 


IMS MDD 6450603 42 
3MB MDD 6450S04 75 
1M8 MOD B7E9977 149 
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1MB KII 9H8623002 175 
BMB .1 9148633003 295 
■.6MB kit 9148623B04 700 


LBP-8llj. -IPLUS 
I-3MB E C 3632310 145 
3- 3MB E C S63235D 261 
3MB f-C S633360 377 


3MB E-C N A in 
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;mb e : 7001^1 iis 


3.4Ma EC NA lU 
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ORDER TOLL-FREE FROM ANYWHERE IN THE USA OR CANADA. CALL FOR CURRENT PRICES AND VOLUME DISCOUNTS. PRICES AND AVAILABILITY SUBJECT TO CHANGE ORDER LINES OPEN 6 DAYS 

MINIMUM ORDER 50 00«USA SHIPPING & HANDLING: AIR S12 00-AIR OVERNIGHT $18 00-COD ADO S4,00»PA RESIDENTS ADD 7% SALES TAX»PREPAIO ORDERS CALL FOR CONFIRMATtON*ALL RETURNS REQUIRE RMA# AND ORIGINAL INVOICE 
CANCELLED ORDERS AND RETURNS FOR CREDIT SUBJECT TO 257= RESTOCKING CHARGE«RETURNED MERCHANDISE MUST BE IN NEW CONDITION AND RECEIVED WITHIN 14 DAYS FROM INVOICE DATE SORRY NO REFUNDS AFTER 14 DAYS 
SHIPPING AND HANDLING CHARGES NOT REFUNDABLE-INTERNATIONAL ORDERS WELCOME~APO-FPO ORDERS WELCOME PO S ACCEPTED FROM GOVERMENT AGENCIES/UNIVERSITIES/FORTUNE 2000 COMPANIES-SUBJECT TO APPROVAL' 
ALL MEMORY PRODUCTS ARE THIRD PARTY ALL TRADEMARKS ARE THE PROPERTY OF THE RESPECTIVE OWNERS * ALL WORLDWIDE TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS ARE 1007a GUARANTEED AND COME WITH LIFETIME WARRANTY EXCEPT 

30 DAY WARRANTY ON CPU CHIPS AND 1 YEAR WARRANTY ON MOTHER BOARDS i 



WORLDWIDE TECHNOLOGIES 



437 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19106 
Customer Service 215-922-4640 



254 BYTE JULY 1993 



Circle 200 on Inquiry Card. 



CUSTOM COMPUT^^OLESALERS 



INTERNATIONAL 



r ^ — 



Free Shipping 



1-800-203-2612 



2 Year Warranty 



Free MS-DOS 6.0 and Windows 

WITH EACH COMPUTER ORDER 





386 DX-40 M HZ 

Computer 

" Medium Tower Case 
■128K Cache 

• 4 MEG RAM Memory 

• 1 .2 Floppy Drive 

• 1 .44 Floppy Drive 

• 80 MEG IDE Hard Drive 

• 1 MEG Graphics Card 

• 101 Keyboard 
•14" SVGA Monitor 

• Mouse 

■ 200 W Power Supply 





386 SX-33 M HZ 
Computer 

• Desktop Case 

• 1 MEG RAM Memeiy 

• 1.2 Floppy Drive or 
1 .44 Floppy Drive 

• 80 MEG IDE Hard Drive 

■ Graphics Card 

■ 101 Keyboard 
■14" SVGA Monitor 
' Mouse 

■ 200 W Power Supply 



486 DX-33 Mhz 

Computer 

• Medium Tower Case 
•128K Cache 

• 4 MEG RAM Memory 

• 1 .2 Floppy Drive 

• 1 .44 Floppy Drive 

• 80 MEG IDE Hard Drive 

• 1 MEG Graphics Card 

• 101 Keyboard 
•14" SVGA Monitor 

• Mouse 

• 200 W Power Supply 



486 DX2-50 m hz 

Computer 

• Full Tower Case 
■128K Cache 

• 4 MEG RAM Memory 

■ 1 .2 Floppy Drive 

• 1 .44 Floppy Drive 

■ 80 MEG IDE Hard Drive 

• 1 MEG Graphics Card 

• 101 Keyboard 
•14" SVGA Monitor 

• Mouse 

• 230 W Power Supply 



Callforcustom 
conHgumtons 

'✓ i Call for hardware and 
soflwareprices 

Free shipping in the 
continental United States 

Open 7 days a week from 
7:30 AM. - 11:30 P.M. EST 



Fax # (813)255-1637 
18440 Paulson Drive, Building 0 
Murdock, FL 33954 




486 DX2-66 m hz 

Vesa Computer 

Medium Tower Case 
256K Cache 
4 MEG RAM Memory 
1 .2 Floppy Drive 
1 .44 Floppy Drive 
80 MEG IDE Hard Drive 
32 Bit VGA Graphics Card 
101 Keyboard 
14" SVGA Monitor 
Mouse 

230 W Power Supply 



IF IT HAS TO DO WITH COMPUTERS - WE HAVE IT FOR LESS 

Circle 257 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 258). 



The Perfect Computer Defined 

1^ No matter how you define the perfect computer, 
ESP is the only name you need to know. 



ready for whatever tomorrow 
may bring. 

The perfect computer. 
We designed it; we defined it; 
your ESP retailer has it. 

STARTING AT 

486sx25-$999°-° 



rerrect qu£ 

Ki, 



your machir 
million con 
is ready to 
keep run 
Perf« 
No prol 
We off 
site se 



a24h 



supp 



For more informantion 
call 1-800-933-4282 



© CTC 1993 



The Intel Inside Logo is a 

registered trademark of Intel Corporation. 



Circle 530 on Inquiry Card. 



JDR Microdevices 

2233 Samaritan Drive, San Jose, CA 95124 



BUY WITH CONFIDENCE FROM JDR! 

• 30-DAY MONEY BACK GUARANTEE 

• 1 YEAR WARRANTY K^^^l 

• TOLL-FREE TECH SUPPORT ih^^l 




MOTHERBOARDS 

I VESA LOCAL 
BUS 486DX 
$599 

' 33MHz 80486DX HBIBBBBuite 

128Kb cache expandable to 256Kb 
■ Uses 256K, IM or 4M x 9 80ns SIMMs (0K installed) 
• Two VL Bus/l6-bit slots and six l6-bit slots 
' Advanced AMI BIOS with shadow RAM 

I MCT-486VI-33 33MHz VESA Local Bus $599.00 

MCT-486Vl-6i 66MHz VESA Local Bus $899.00 

MCT-M486-50E 50MHz EISA w/coche $999.00 

MCT-M486-50 50MHz cache 486 $799.00 

MCT-M486-33 33MHz cache 486 $549.00 

MCT-M486SX-25 25MHz cache 486SX $399.95 

MCT-C386-40 40MHz cache 386 $299.95 

MCT-C386-33 33MHz cache 386 $249.95 

LmCT-M386SX-33 33MHz 386SX $129.95 



486 COOLING FAN 

Make your CPU run cooler! 
Easy snap-in installation. 

486-FAN $29.95 

^ 486-FAN-R Above fan w/ electronic refrigeration ..$49.95 




POST CODE DISPLAY CARD 

8-bit 286/386/486 PC compatible card ^^^^K 
Displays power on self-test code ^^^^^^H 
Wotks when softwate won't even boot ^^Ml^^^" 
Supports AMI, Award, Phoenix and IBM AT BIOS 
PCODE $49.95 

I LOGICLAB EXPLORER 

Transforms your PC into a 
complete environment for testing I 
& simulating digital logic circuits I 
Library includes most common 
74LS and CMOS ICs 
Logic analyzer includes 1 6 logic probes 
I LOGICUB $49.95 

I WIRE-WRAP PROTOTYPE CARDS 

JDH-PH2 8-bit with I/O decode layout $29.95 

JDR-PR10 16-bit witli I/O decode layout $34.95 

SOLDERLESS PROTOTYPE CARDS 

PDS-60I 8-bit breadboord-on-a-card w/IO decade . $79.95 I 
I PDS-611 16-bit breadboard-on-a-card w/IO decode$89.95 I 



EPROM PROGRAMMER 

Programs devices up to 5 12K bits, 
plus 27C100, 27C101, 27C301, 
27C1000, 27C1001, 27C2001, 
27C4001 and more 
Includes dedicated 8-bit 8088 
and 286/386/486 PC compatible card 

MOD-MEP-IA 

M0D-MEP-4A As above with 4 ZIP sockets 




$199.95 
$269.95 



UNIVERSAL PROGRAMMING SYSTEM 

Programs EPROMS and CMOS 
• Tests TTL & CMOS devices. Static & Dynamic RAM 
MOD-EMUP $699.00 

EPROM ERASER $39'^ 

Quickly and simultaneously erases 
up ro 4 standard EPROMs 
k DATARASE II $39.95 




I 




FAX/MODEM/PHONE SWITCH 

• Save phone line charges! - 

• Supports fax, modem, phone and . / 
answering machine from 1 phone line ■"•"-^-.^ r.:^/ 

FAXM-SWITCH $89.95 

FAX-SWITCH Without modem connection $59.95 

2400 BAUD MODEM $49^^ 

• Internal data modem 

• Hayes AT command-set compatible 

• Configure as COM 1 -COM2 
MCT-241 $49.95 

14,400 BPS INTERNAL FAX/MODEM 

• 14,400/9600/4800/2400/300 

• Hayes AT command set, V.42bis/ 
V.42/V.32, Group III fax compatible j 

• Uses high-speed 16550 UART 

MCM44IF+ $199.95 

VIVA-144EF 14,400 baud external version $299.95 



' LOW-COST WINDOWS ACCELERATOR 

286/386/486 PC compatible $149^^ 
1280 X 1024 in 16 colors f^^' f 

1024x768 in 256 colors 
1Mb DRAM installed 
Automatic video mode 
switching 
16-bit bus 

MCT-VGA-5000 Windows Accelerator $ 1 49.95 

MCT-VGA-1000 800x600, 256Kb DRAM $49.95 

MCT-VGA-3000 1 024x768, 51 2Kb DRAM $89.95 

I MCT-VGA-4000 1 024x768, 1 Mb DRAM $ 1 29.95 




3-BUnON MOUSE 



95 



^$14 



Accuracy 290-1450 DPI 

Opto-mechanical design 

Windows 3.1 compatible 

JDR-MOUSE-3 $14.95 

MOUSE-PAD $4.95 

MCT-GAME Dual port game port $29.95 

JSTK-300 Joystick $9.95 

JSTK-500 Pilot-style joystick $19.95 



250MB TAPE DRIVE 

250Mb with DC2120 tape 
(using data compression) 
Transfers up to 6.7Mb/minute 
8088 and 286/386/486 compat 
5-1/4" internal half-height 'jjgigfgjgg, 
DJ-20 ™" 

DJ-10 1 20Mb capacity tape drive 

DC2120 Extra tape cartridge 




$199.95 
$179.95 
..$19.95 



SOUNDMACHINE 

8088 and 286/386/486 

compatible card 

2 shielded speakers & joystick 
• 3.5mm microphone 

Built-in 4W amplifier 
SOUNDMACHINE $119.95 




INTERNAL CD-ROM DRIVE $ 1 99'^ 

350ms access time 

MPC and PhotoCD compatible 

150Kb-175Kb/second transfer 

With 286/386/486 compatible card 

CDROM-I $199.95 

ACCESS Kodak Photo CD driver for CDROM-I $29.95 

OVER 70 CD TITLES IN STOCK FROM $19.95! 



CALL FOR YOUR FREE 
JDR CATALOG TODAY! 
CALL 800-538-5000 



DYNAMIC RAM 



PART* 


SIZE 


SPEED 


TYPE 


PRICE 


412S6-80 


256K X I 


80ns 


DIP 


1.95 


4142S6-S0 


2S6K X 4 


80ns 


DIP 


5.49 


1MB-80 


IMx 1 


80ns 


DIP 


4.99 


1MB-60 


IMx 1 


60ns 


DIP 


5.49 


41256A9B-80 


256K X 9 


80ns 


SIMM 


14.95 


4l256A9t-60 


256Kx9 


60ns 


SIMM 


16.95 


421000A9B-80 


1Mx9 


80ns 


SIMM 


39.95 


421000A9B-60 


lMx9 


60ns 


SIMM 


45.95 


424000A9B-8a 


4Mx9 


80ns 


SIMM 


149.95 


424000A9B-60 


4Mx9 


60ns 


SIMM 


159.95 



MATH CO-PROCESSORS 



PART f SPEED PRICE 


PART # SPEED PRICE 


8087-2 8MHi 129.95 
8087 SMHi 89.95 
80287-XL 12MHz 74.95 


80387-SXP ^SMHz 74.95 
80387-DXP ^3MHz 79.95 
80487-SX ^SMHz 369.95 




OVERDRIVE CO-PROCESSORS 'ri^ 

0DP486-SX20 $329.95 

For 20MHz 486SX OverDrive socket 
0DP486-SX25 $459.95 
For 25MHz 486SX OverDrive socket 
0DP486R-DX25 $459.95 
Replace 25MHz 486DX with 50MHz DX2 

0DP486R.DX33 $589.00 

Replace 33MHz 486DX with 66MHz DX2 

0DP486-DX33 $589.00 

66MHz 486DX for OverDrive socket 




MULTI I/O CARD WITH IDE 
FLOPPY/HARD CONTROL 

• 16-bit 286/386/486 compatible 

• Supports 2 IDE hard drives & 
2 floppy drives (360Kb-1.44Mb) 

• 448bps max baud rate 
MCT-iDE10+ With 1 6550-com. serial I/O ports .... $99.95 

MCT-IDEIO With 1 6450-com. serial I/O ports $69.95 

MCT-CIDEIO Cache IDE and I/O controller $199.95 

MCT-IDEFH IDE Floppv/Hard Controller $29.95 

MCT-AIG Serial/ parallel/gome port card $49.95 

MCT-AIO+ Two NSl 6550 serial/par/game port . $89.95 
SOUNDBLAST-PD SoundBlaster Pro Deluxe $139.95 

I MCI-SOUHD 8-bit sound cord $49.95 




TEAC COMBO DRIVE 

5-1/4" and 3-1/2" half height 

supports 360Kb-1.44Mb diskettes. 

FD-505 Beige .TT.... $149.95 

FDD-1.44A 1 .44Mb, 3.5", Beige $79.95 

FDD-1.44X 1 .44Mb, 3.5", Black $79.95 

FDD-1.2 1 .2Mb, 5.25", Beige $89.95 

FDD-360 360Kb, 5.25", Block $89.95 

FDD-2.88A 2.88Mb 3.5" drive. Beige $99.95 

131MB DRIVE KIT 

• ST-3144A 131Mb, 16ms IDE hard 

drive w/32Kb cache, l6-bit f/h 

controller, cables and insrrucrions 
HDKiM30 $249.95 

IDE HARD DRIVES 



^Seagate 



M 



PART f BRAND CAP. SPEED 



TYPE 



PRICE 



CP-30084 Conner 84Mb 

ST-3096A Sengote 88Mb 

CP-30174 Conner 170Mb 

ST-3I44A Seogote l3IMb 

CP-30254 Conner 250Mb 



19ms 3-1/2" IDE $199.95 

16ms 3-1/2" IDE $199.95 

17ms 3-1/2" IDE $249.95 

16ms 3-1/2" IDE $229.95 

14ms 3-1/2" IDE $339.95 



— S 800-538-5000 ''"totl-B-Uir' 'i 

TERMS: For shipping & handling indude S5.00 for ground & S7,50 for air. Orders over 1 lb. and foreign orders moy require additional shipping charges — contact our Sales Dept. for the 

amount. CA residents must include applicable sales fax. Prices subject to chonge wifliout notice. We ore not responsible for typographical errors. We reserve the right to limit quonfities 

and to substitute manufacturer. All merchandise subject to prior sales, A full copy of our terms is avoilable upon request. Hems pictured may only be representative, JDR, the JDR logo, 

JDR Microdevices, ond the MCT logo are registered trademarks of JDR Microdevices, Inc, Modular Circuit Technology is a trademark of JDR Microdevices, inc. Copyright 1 993 JDR MICRODEVICES, 



Toll-Free Fax Ordering 
800-S38-S00S 



Lotal 408 559 1200 
BBS 408-5590253 



JULY 1993 BYXE 2ST 



Circle 204 on Inquiry Card. 



You Can Rdy on Ralin For all Your PC System Up g rades! 



]^ODEM UPGRADES 



Zoom Telephonies 

All Zoom modems are backed 
by a 7-year warranty and 
are made in the USA. 




2400 bps w/ v.42bis and MNP 2-5 


(AMC) 
(AMX) 


internal 
external 


$ 45.00 
$ 63.00 


2400 bps modem with 9600/4800 fax 
Includes v.42 bis and MNP 2-5 


(AFC) 
(AFX) 


internal 
external 


$ 49.95 
$ 69.95 


9600 bps modem w/ v.32, v.42bis, MNP2-5 


(VP-V32) 
(VX-V32) 


internal 
external 


$ 185.00 
$ 199.00 


14.41< bps Fax/Modem w/ v.32bis, v.32, 
v.42bis and MNP 2-5 


(VFP-V32bis*) 
(VFX-V32bls*) 


internal 
external 


$ 189.95 
$213.00 


2400 bps modem w/.42 bis and MNP 2-5, 
9600 bps send and 4800 bps receive Fax 


PKT Pocket/Fax Modem 


$ 89.95 



'WlNrAX Lite software option available for S12 if purchased Willi Vl-l'-V:i2bis or Vl-X-V:t2bis iiiodeni- 

Call a corporate sales expert today and find out how Ralin can 
maximize your purchasing dollars by upgrading your existing computer 
equipment. Ralin stocks: • Motherboards • SIMM Memory • Controllers 

• Printers • Monitors Hard Drives • MFC Products • Computer Cases 

• Keyboards and much more 



CALL 1-800-752-9512 



EPSON' 

Equity 4 

Personal Computers 

486 series of 
price/performing 
desktop computers 

SPECinCATlONS: 

• 4 Meg RAM 

• 1.44M 3.5" floppy drive 

• IDE interface 

• Mouse 

• DOS 6.0 

• Windows 3.1 

486SX-25 MHz $799 
486DX-33MHZ $1199 
486DX-2/50 MHz $1445 



Ralin Policies 

• Prices and availability subject 
to change. 

• Purchase orders are accepted, 
subject to approval. 

• We do not charge your card 
until order is processed. 



incomplete returns are 
subject to a service charge. 
All returns other than 
exchanged items incur a lO'Mi 
re-stocking fee. 



To insure your shipment arrives when you need 
it, Ralin uses only the most reputable modes of 
transportation available: 



M 



PC UPGRADES 



Philips CM205 

■ 680 Meg MPC CD-ROM 

■ Kodak "Photo Cl^" compatible. 
CD-ROM XA upgradable. 

■ Made in the USA 

CD Bundle 

Compton's Family Choice • Toolworks F^ncyclopedia • Mammals 
Internal External 



CD-ROM w/controUer card 
With CD Bundle 



~265 
'325 



>375 
'449 



Philips 
CDD-462 RS 

$445.00 




External MPC CD-ROM and CD Audio player 
Kodak Photo CD compatible 
680 Meg 

H 



mmm 



WHOLESALERS, INC. 

P.O. Box 450, Orchard Park, NY 14127 
Hours: 8:00 am to 6:00 pm Mon-Fri 
Customer Service: 716-674-6267 
Fax: 716-674-2108 



Printer Sharing & Memory 



I/O = input /output 
Q = serial 
□ = parallel 



LCX-IOOO(IMb) $495 

8 ports; 4 serial I/O; 57,600 bps 
2 parallel in, 2 parallel out 

LC-256 (256Kb) S375 
LC-512(512Kb) $425 

8 ports; 4 serial I/O; 19,200 bps 
2 parallel in, 2 parallel out 

UFR-ETC $49 

Windows & OS/2 File Transfer 
4 user license, for LC or LCX 



PB-42PP-256Kb $199 
PB-42PP-1Mb $249 

6 parallel ports; 4 in / 2 out 
Upgradable to 4Mb; 25,000 cps 

LC-41PAS $69 

5 parallel ports; 4 in / 1 out 
Smart-switch; 25,000 cps 

LC Jr.-256 (256Kb) $199 
LCJr.-512 (512Kb) $249 

5 ports; 4 serial in, 1 parallel out 

Up to 11 5,200 bps 

SPPS $49 

9600 bps to 115,200 bps 
Serial / Parallel Converter 

PB-IIPP-IMb 

2 parallel ports; 1 in / 1 out 
Upgradable to KMb; 75,000 cps 



800-238-9415 




PCMCIA 2.0 SRAM Cards: 

512Kb-$120, 1Mb-$175, 2Mb-$295 

Toshiba: 

WOOXBSE/LE, 1800, 1850, 

2000,2000SX/SXE, 2200SX 
2Mb -$90, 4(i*b-$150, 8Mb -$275 

3300SL 
4Mb- $150, 6Mb -$225 

4400SX 
4Mb- $150, 8Mb -$275 

Powerbook & MAC: 

100/140/145/170/160/165/180 
6Mb-$250,8Mt)-$310, 10Mb -$390 

DUO 210/230: 
6Mb - $260, 8Mb - $320, 10Mb - $410 

Cent.610/650, QuadSOO, LCIII 
4MB -$145. 8Mb -$260 

MAC SIMMs (70ns.): 

x8-$32, 4x8 -$124, 16Mb -$495 



Logical Connection^ 4m Portland Road NE #108 Salem, or 97305-I658 Tech.: (503) 390-9375 FAX: (503) 390-9372 



2S8 H V r I ; JULY 1993 



Circle 205 on Inquiry Card. 



WINDOWS™ ACCELERATOR 
HIGH SPEED, BATTERY BACKED RAM DISK 



Ideal for disk intensive application 
such as Windows, CAD and Imaging 

• Replaces a hard disk in PC/AT^" 



• Expandable Memory 
2MB-96MB DRAM SIMMs 

Memory mapped to I/O space, 
not memory space 




RAM Disk access time 
<2 microseconds (170 ns) 

Autoboot option available 



TURBODISC 
Computer Modules, Inc. 
2350A Walsh Ave. 
Santa Clara, OA 95051 
Tel: (408) 496-1881 
Fax: (408) 496-1886 



Circle 212 on Inquiry Card. 



SCSI IDE FLOPPY 

HOST BUS ADAPTER/CONTROLLER 



STANDARD FEATURES 

• Drivers for Fixed, Optical 
and Removable Drives 

• Internal and External 
SCSI Connectors 

• SCSI and IDE Cables 

• On-Board Diagnostics 

• Complete Documentation 
. Lifetime Warranty 

. 30 Day Return Policy 

• Made in tlie USA 

$150.00 

il6-Bit HBA/CntI) 



SUPPORTS 

. Up to 7 SCSI Devices 

• Up to 2 IDE Drives 

• Up to 4 Floppy Drives 
. 7 ROM Addresses 

• 2 I/O Addresses 

OPTIONS 

• CD ROM & UNIX Drivers 

• ASPI Manager 

. 3rd & 4tli Floppy Driver 

$175.00 

(16-81t HBA/CntI w/Option Pkg.) 



CONTROL CONCEPTS INC. 
(703) 876-6444 • (703) 876-6416 Fax 




Government, Educational and Corporate Discounts Available 
Dealer Inquiries Welcome 



Circle 243 on Inquiry Card. 



mmmm 

It's Voice 
It's Fax-on-(deman 
It's an Applications 

Generator. 
It's $495 for board 

and software. 
It's PhoneOffice. 



teOffice application window running 
|idow.s 3.1. Configure for Auto- Attendant, 
ssa^e Center. Fax -on-demand. Message 
vvarding/Pagtng/Scheduiing, 1-ax-scdni 




gDENS 



Call our demo line 309-862-1804 
to get more information by fax-on-demand. 

Tel: (309)862-1704 Fax: (309)862-1804 
309 W. Beaufort, Suite 8, Normal, IL 61761 



Dealers, call us about our specially discounted promotional units. 



Circle 241 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 242). 



Communications/Networking 



PC 



aprocessor 



GMM Sync4/CCPT''' 

• High Performance 1 6 MHZ 1 6 bit CPU. 

• 80X86 code compafibie. 

• 4 Sync/ Async Ports 
(2 Serial Ports with Full Duplex DMA). 

• Uses Zilog 85C30, 85230 SCC chip. 

• 512K Dual Porfed Ram (STD) 
(1,2, or 4 MEG Duol Port Rom - optional). 

• 8k, 1 6k, 32k, 64k Window Size (Programmable), gmm Products Are All Mode in USA. 

• 8 Software Selectable and Shareable ^ 

Interrupts PC/AT Dual Pon Com. Coprocessor 

• RS232/RS422/RS485 

• Source Code Debugger Kit Available. 




also (waihble 
GMM Sync2/CCP" 



Gllll^ 

GMM Research Corporation 



Other PC/AT & PS/2 8530 based products avoiiabb 
Extremely competitive pricing. 

(714)752-9447 Fax (714)752-7335 

1 8092 Sky Park South - Unit E, Irvine CA 9271 4 



Circle 217 on Inquiry Cord. 



REAL r/ME INFORMATION! 

24 Trucks L OflOED iHllIji 

QCIflLlTM 



J 



RECORD TIME 
INCREASES PRODUCTIVITY AHD DECREA 
COSTS 

• INDOOR AND OUTDOOR LE.D. DISPLAYS 
FOR MORE INFORMATION CALL (800) 723-9402 
^j-J W WE DESIGN TO SUIT YOUR NEEDS! 

n I jl I I 5028 113th Avenue North Clearwater, FL 34620 
iffl.'l&HM.'ili.nil/.ffJ fax 81 3/572-01 44 



Circle 256 on Inquiry Card. 



V 



oiceResponse/CallerlD forWindows 

Would you like to deveiope multi-tasking multi-line non-blocking 
Interactive Voice ffesponseappiications lor Windows? 
PIKA oilers tlie developer tlie high quality, leature rich AVA-B 
Series 1, 2 & 4 line voice cards with hardware voice 
compression. 

Also, the new PiKA IdFi 1, 2 & 4 line Ca/ter Wcards are the 
'^i; answer to many new and exciting Windows server applications. 
All PIKA cards are available (at ailordahle prices) with Windows 
DLL & DDE developer toolkits, 
inquire about developer toolkits for NT, DOS, UNIX & QNX. 



156 Terence Matthews Cres. Kanota, Ontoiio K2M 2A8, Conada . 
Tel: 1-613-691-1565 Rix: 1-613-591-1488 



Circle 246 on Inquiry Card. 



LET YOUR COMPUTER DO THE TALKING! 



Integrated 
Voice/Fax Mail 

integrates major voice/fax applications plus 
program control into one full-featured high 
performance software. PC-AT/386/486 based. 
Menu driven. Easy to use. Full support for 
Rhetorex, New Voice, Dialogic, TTI and Intel 
voice and fax hardware. Supports up to 24 
voice lines and up to 8 fax lines. 
Hardware + Software Kits ^ ^ ^ O 
2 voice lines kit starts at V " 17 " 
24 hours free info: 818-368-4566 or 818-368-8848 

SigmaTech Software 

Tel: (818) 368-6132 Fax: (818) 368-7859 

10801 Bismarck Ave., Northridge, CA 91326 USA 
(Resellers/Dealers/OEMs/Private labels are welcome) 



I Auto-Attendant 
B Unlimited Audlotex 
I Voice Mail 
I Call Processing 

■ Telemarketing 
I Fax Mail 

I Fax-on-Demand 
I Fax Broadcasting 

■ Party/Chat lines 

I Talking Yellow pages 



Circle 238 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 239). 

JULY 1993 BYXE 259 



Communications/Networking • Computer Systems • Data Acquisition 



Multi-Line Voice Mail Plus. 




VAX ON 
DEMAND/ 



FAX ON DEMAND • VOICE MAIL 
CALL PROCESSING • TELEMARKETING 

V/S PLUS gives you professional VOICE MAIL & AUTO TRANSFER while it 

pounds out Fax'd Hard Copy non-stop 24-hours a day. Give it to ttiem - NOW! 

Complete Pacl(age witti Hardware and FAX Software. 2 year warranty. 

Requires PC/AT/386/486. ^ „ , ^ , , ,. ^ „ 

^ For Sales and Information Call: 

V/S PLUS only $699 -f -800-685-4884 

MULTI-LINE HARDWARE from $299 510-S22-3e00-FAX:510-522-5556 



TALKING TECHNOLOGY, INC."^; 

1125AtlanlicAve.,Alameda,CA94501 ///, | 



Circle 229 on Inquiry Card. 



(Develper/OEM package specials} 
(VISA-MC-AMEX-COD) 



AT Syste 



□ Single Board Computers \ 

□ Run DOS code from ROM 

□ PC Code compatible 

□ Large Memory space 

□ Backplane systems 

□ Develop code on a PC. Run on our 

CPU cards with DOS and code in ROM, Use 
off-the-sfielf expansion cards. 

□ KS6: NEC V53 CPU (286eq), 5 serial, 2 Par, Clock, AT bus. 
Max 4M Ram, 2M Rom, 512K NV Sram. $299 (ql-oem ver). 

□ KS3: V40 CPU, 3 Serial, 2 Par, Clock, Flop, Kbd. $224 (q1). 

303-444-7737 Fax 303-786-9983 

655 Hav4hiorn Ave., Boulder CO 80304 U.S.A. 




KILA 



PC-based Solutions for 
Industrial Automation 

• Industrial PCs & Workstations 

• Enclosures and Card Cages 

• 486/386/286 CPU Cards 

• RAM/ROM Disks 

• Industrial I/O Cards 

• RS-232/422/485 

1-800-800-6889 

1-408-245-6678 in CA 
Fax: 408-245-8268 



Circle 221 on Inquiry Card. 



- • '"'■"riON GUIDE 




Circle 208 on Inquiry Card. 



Data Acquisition • Disk & Optical Drives 



FREE, 288 PAGE 



1993 DATA ACQUISITION CATALOG 
AND REFERENCE GUIDE 



IBM PC/XT/AT, PS2, MICROCHANNEL 
COMPUTERS AND COMPATIBLES 



'A/D Boards 

•Signal Conditioning 
•Communication 
•PC Instruments 
•Scientific Software 




KEITH LEY 



METRABYTE 



I T I O N 



SEND TODAY FOR YOUR FREE 
CATALOG OR CALL 1-800-348-0033, 
FAX: 508-880-0179 



Circle 224 on Inquiry Card. 



The Intelligent Solution For Data Acquisition 

"a 



.-".i«'lfr*i hill 



DAP 2400e™ Data Acquisition Processor^ 
ANALOG I/O 
DIGITAL I/O 

•Inputs to 312K samples per second 
• Outputs to 312K samples per second 
•Simultaneous fast input/output 
CPU: il86 or i486 



FFTandFIR-fflteringatieMIPS " 
20 MHz CPU with DRAM to 1024K 
32 MHz DSP with SRAM to 96K 
DAPL™ Operating System 
•100+ standard commands MiCROSTAR 
• Custom commands in C ^^^\^^^^^^^^^^r 

Laboratories X 

, ^ 2265 116th Avenue NE 

Send for FREE catalog and demo diskette. Bellevue, WA 98004 

Or call us at (206) 453-2345. FAX (206) 453-3199 




Higher reKability for lower price 



Finally discover the difference total dedication to 
reliability and cost can make. Unlike most hard 
disk manufacturers, we manufacture higher 
reliabiUty but lower cost drive to sell. 
DX-3120A and 3060A are new version of hard disk 
drive that was developed, tested and proven by a 
team of engineers with sophisticated experience in 
the hard disk drive industries. 
If you are ready to take these new products for your 
system, please call us. 



Key Features 

■ 35" Winchester disl( drive 

■ 120MB/60MB Capacity 

■ 1 inch Height 

■ AT/IDE Interface 

■ 64KB/32KB Buffer 

■ 1,7 RLL Code 

■ 19 msec Avg, access time 

■ 100,000 hours MTBF 



/g)* DAEYOUNG 

ELECTRONICS IND. CO., LTD. 



Korea H.Q. 352, Dangjeong-dong, Gunpo-si, Kyoungki-do 43S030, Korea Tel: (02) 864-1661 Fax: (02) 8644479 
Sales Di». 185-4 Seobinggo-dong, Yongsan-ku, Seoul 140-240 Korea Tel: (02) 790-6873 Fax: (02) 790-6878 
In the U.S.A. and Canada, address your inquiries to Mark Westec Corp. 
780 Montague Expressway #104 San Jose, CA 95131, U.S.A. Tel: (408) 456-2660 Fax: (408) 466-0828 




DaqBook/100 



Data Acquisition 

for Notebook PCs 

High-speed, PC parallel-port connection 

2-chD/A&16-ch,100-kHzA/D 

32 digital I/O 

16 high-speed digital inputs 

5 counter/timer channels 

AC or battery operable 

MS Windows graphical software s 



Dtech .,„.„„., 



iipproodi lo imiiumentatfon - 



lOtech, Inc. 25971Cannon Rd Cleveland, OH 44146 

(216)439-4091 Fax (216) 439-4093 



Circle 220 on Inquiry Card. 

260 BYTE JULY 1993 



Circle 248 on Inquiry Cord. 



Disk & Optical Drives 



Disl( & Optical Drives • Diskettes/Duplicators 




PS/2 50 50z 55sx 60 70 80 P70 



IMTBHNAL DRIVES - May be used as a high performance replacement or to co-exist with original 
IBM drive. Compatible with DOS 3.3, 4.01, 5.0, OS/2 2.0 and Novell . Includes IDE or SCSI-2 
microchannel controller, hard drive, mounting kit, ribbon & power cable, manual, and hardware. 
85mb, 15ms, Internal Seagate IDE Drive Kit S415 
125mb, 15ms, Internal Maxtor IDE / SCSI Drive Kit $460/$472 
200mb, 15ms, Internal Seagate IDE/Maxtor SCSI Drive Kit $560/$585 
340mb, 13ms, Internal WD IDE/Maxtor SCSI Drive Kit $723/$899 
512mb, 12ms, Internal Fujitsu IDE / SCSI Drive Kit $1,239/51249 
l.ggb, 12ms, Internal Toshiba SCSI Drive Kit $1,794 



PS/2 Model 25, 30, 30-286 

42mb/85mb Hard Drive Kit $243/$Z89 
125mb/200mb Hand Drive Kit 5334/S434 



Extems! SCSI drives available Iroin 125 mb to 1. 75 gb- Includes 
SCSI-2 controller, external case with drive installed and conligured. 
6' SCSI cable. Free drivers for CD-Rom drives or Novell 286 S 386 



38 S'"T™ K Man-fri 



1 800-487-2538 



Tel: 1516) 981 9473 3| «wnor a.. Opni 
Fax: (516) 98N5038 S'"Tl,7, B 




MiniSCSI;p^»*-^ 

High-Performance Parallel-to-SCSI Adapter 



Circle 240 on Inquiry Card. 



THE TOTAL BACKUP SOLUTION. 

PSS portable tape backup system, plugs Into any standard 
parallel port. Combined backup S verify at true 11MB/min. 



I 1 00% Printer Passthrough 
I Weighs Just 7.2 Ounces 
I Fully Compatible With 
Bidirectional and 
Unidirectional Parallel 
Ports 

I Powered By The SCSI Bus 
I Only $229.00 



^ Transform Your 
J Parallel Port 

Connect up to 7 SCSI 
devices to your parallel port 
and still use your printer! 

Up to twice as fast as our original 
MiniSCSI, the MiniSCSf Plus 

lets you run a CD-ROM, tape backup, 
SyQuest, Bernoulli or other SCSI device 
from almost any parallel port. For most 
notebook users, it's the only way to use 
SCSI devices. Plus, an integrated cable 
makes it a snap to share SCSI devices 
with desktops and other notebooks. 

Call Today For Details! 

800-872-6867 • 800-TRANTOR 




Trantor Systems, Ltd. 

5415 Randall Place • Fremont, CA 94538-3151 

TEL: (510) 770-1400 • FAX: (510) 770-9910 

© 1993 Trantor Systems Ud. MiniSCSI and MiniSCSI Plus are 
trademarks anil Trantor is a registered Irademari of Trantor Systems Ud 
All other product names are trademarks of their respectirv companies. 



EPP Version Available! 



"This product. . . is domed near perfect. " 
-Jeny Poumelle, Byte Magazine March 1993 

"This year, the company outdid itself. . . 
The MiniSCSI Plus is even more elegant than 
its predecessor and almost twice as fast. " 
-Jim Seymour. PC Magazine December 1992 



S50MB-2GB capacities in native mode. QIC Industry standard 
format. Supports MS DOS, Windows, OS/2, Novell, SCO UNIX and 
SCO XENIX. Complete with powerful solution-minded software series: 

BUSS (Back Up Supervisor Software) — The ultimate in 
backup prompting and or enforcement. 

SM (Script Manager) — Creates files (scripts) specifying 
m I data and files to backup, verify and compare. 

SOB (SCSI Disc Backup) — Selective backup and restoration 
of files (hidden and security included) from all desktop, 
portable and network computers, including fileservers. 

INFO AND ORDERS: 1-800-998-7839 

WSS PA FIA L LEL- 
^BB S TOR A GE 

mmm solutions 

The Pacesetter in Parellel to SCSI Technology 

116 South Central Avenue • Elmsford, NY 10523 • FAX [914] 347^646 

S 1 993. Parallel Storage Solutions. Inc. All Flights Reserved. All other n-ademarks are property of their respective companies. 



Circle 235 on Inquiry Card. 



Circle 250 on Inquiry Cord (RESELLERS: 251). 



Let your "true colors shine 
through" when you advertise your 
computer products in BYTE's 



E4RDWARE/S0FTWARE SHOWCASE 

our newest, affordable, 4 color 
advertising section! 





Call for more details: 
603) 924-2695 or (603) 924-2598 



STAND ALONE 

DISKETTE 
DUPLICATOR 

OVER 300 DISKS PER HOUR 

5.25" and 3.50" Models 



/MNTC 
















SIMPLE AND FAST FROM $1799 US 

iXiOA1»7IC 



TEL: (416) 602-9270 
FAX: (416) 602-9279 



Circle 209 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 210). 

JULY 1993 BYXE 261 



Diskettes/Duplicators • Keyboards • Memory/Chips/Upgrades 



Laptops & Notebooks • Monitors & Terminals 



IT DUPLICATES 
EVERYTHING 

E)CCEPT 
YOUREFFDI 





Announcing the most effortless way 
to copy diskettes. Tlie Tracer/ST— tfie 
affordable desktop system ttiat formats, 
duplicates, and verifies fiundreds of 
diskettes per hour. Automatically. 
Better yet, the Tracer/ST family grows with you. 
Expansion options can double output, support a network, 
or simplify storage with an internal hard disk. 

So call 800-872-2318 for the duplication 
system that can't be duplicated anywhere. 



©1993 Trace. A]] trademarks are property of their respective 
itolders. Fax us at C8^1-3399or writeto Trace. Dept. B.. 
lOtO E. Bnrkaw Road, San Jose, CA, 95131 , 




Trace 



Circle 230 on Inquiry Card. 



Money Back Guarantee & 1 Yr. Warranty 



Popular 
Space-Saver 
Keyboard 
$98.00 

Saves 60% desk space. Foot- 
print 27.3 x 15.2 cm. 100 full- 
travel tactilly responsive keys. Standard left-right spacing for easy touch 
typing. IBM XT/AT PS 2 compatible. Many language versions available. 

Call Toll Free To Order: 1 -800-DATALUX 

155 Aviation Dr. 'Winchester, VA 22602 
Tel l-703-662-1500«FAX 1-703-662-1682 
Auto-FAXed Specs FAX 1-703-662-1675 




- VISA, MC, AmX - 



Circle 215 on Inquiry Card. 



Portable 

Serial to Parallel Interface 

For Printers, Palmtops, 
Notebooks. Easy to use, self- 
powered, no batteries, no 
hassles. Only 2" x 2" x 1/2" 
and less than loz! Works great 
with HP, Canon, all portable 
primers. Also for HP 95/100 
and all palmtops and notebooks. 

The BSE Company 602-527-8843 FAX 602-527-1540 





TO COMPUTER 



Boost data entry speed, accuracy and convenience 
with Genovation's Micropad,™ the innovative 
numeric keypad for portable computers. 

Is the unhandy numeric section of your 
portable computer's keyboard dragging you 
down?.. ..Give your productivity a boost by 
using our Micropad. The ergonomically 
designed Micropad is ideal for spreadsheet 
and accounting applications that require fast 
and accurate entry of numeric data. 

The Micropad attaches to the parallel port 
of any MS-DOS computer while providing a 
clean pass through connection to the printer. 
Power usage is negligible. Lightweight and 
compact, the Micropad is fully programmable 
and is also available with connectors to fit 
keyboard and serial ports. 




T 

TO PRINTER 

(800) 822-4333 

17741 Mitchell, Nortli 
Irvine, CA 92714 USA 
TEL (714) 833-3355 
FAX (714) 833-0322 



GENOVATION 



Circle 216 on Inquiry Card. 



STAND-ALONE LCD MONITOR 
New Touch Screen Option Available 




I This 10" black on white monitor is easy-to-read, yet 
# 9 w I compact. Resolution is 640x480 for sharp, flicker-free 
image. Fast response, high refresh rate twisted nematic technology 
with backlighting provides a bright low radiation screen with a wide 
viewing angle. The adjustable monitor base is only 29x14 cm. It lets 
you mount the LCD monitor on verdcal surfaces or fold for trans- 
port. Comes with 1.5 m cable and controller card. No external 
power required. IBM AT compatible. 

K I |m\ A/ I Touch Screen Version. Capacitive technology 
I 'I ■ " I from MicroTouch™ . Provides high resolution, 
fast response, all glass scratch proof optically clear touch sensor. 
Complete with controller and software. DOS, Windows compatible. 

To Order CaU ToU-Free: l^DATALUX 



155 Aviation Drive • Winchester, VA 22602 



Tel: 1-703-662-1500 
FAX: 1-703-662-1682 
AutoFAXed Specs: 
1-703-662-1675 



Circle 236 on Inquiry Card. 



262 BYXE JULY 1993 



Circle 214 on Inquiry Card. 



With VGA^TV Elite 
any color TV can be your 
computer monitor! 



Supporting 640 x 480 resolution in 32,768 colors, the VGA^TV 
Elite provides Flicker free high quality video conversion. Rock solid 
and easy to use, the port able V GA^TV Elite is a true savior to the 

Presentation professional. Con- 
vert your computer presentation 
or Animation to show on TV or 
record to your VCR. Even play 
computer games on big screen 
TV! Supports RCA and 
S-Video In- 
puts toT.V.s 
and VCRs. 



VGA-»TV»^lil 



comer